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CYCLOPEDIA    OF 

Music  and  Musicians 


Volume  III 
NAAMAN— ZWILLINGSBRUDER 


CYCLOPEDIA    OF 


MUSIC    AND    MUSICIANS^ 


EDITED   BY 

JOHN    DENISON    CHAMPLIN,    JR. 


CRITICAL   EDITOR 

WILLIAM    FOSTER    APTHORP 


IVITH  MORE   THAN  ONE   THOUSAND   ILLUSTRATIONS 


VOLUME 


NEW   YORK 
CHARLES    SCRIBNER'S    SONS 

M  DCCC  XC 


THE  NEW  YORK 
PUBLIC  LIBRARY 

A«TM,  LENOX  AND 

TIU)EN  FOUNDATIONS 

"  1816  L 


Copyright,  i8go,  by 
Charles  Scrib tier's  Sons. 


^^        <^   ^    /     f  (^    K. 


-  7^-^,  3  —  C 


LIST   OF   ILLUSTRATIONS 


FULL-PAGE    PORTRAITS 


I.                                 JEAN    PHILIPPE    RAMEAU 
From  the  engraving  by  Benoist, 


To  Face  -' 

Page 


?2 


GIOACCHINO    ANTONIO    ROSSINI 


From  the  lithograph  by  August  Lemoiiie, 


80 


3- 


ANTON    GREGOR    RUBINSTEIN 


From  a  photograph,  Briissets, 


128 


4-  CAMILLE    SAINT-SAENS 

From  a  photograph,  Paris, '/ 

5-  ALESSANDRO    SCARLATTI 

From  a  tithograph,  after  the  painting  by  Solimena, 


J  76 


J5>    ,)   > 


6.  FRANZ    SCHUBERT  '^"J-" 

Page 

From  the  engraving  by  Passini,  after  the  painting  by  Rieder,  .        ,  272 


7-  ROBERT    SCHUMANN 

From  the  lithograph  by  Giistav  Feckert,  ^20 

8.  LOUIS    SPOHR 

From  the  lithograph  by  C.  Koch,        .        . ^(55 

9-  GASPARO    SPONTINI 

From  the  efigraviiig  by  Friedrich  iVilhelm  Bollinger,  .        .        .        .  416 

10.  GIUSEPPE    VERDI 

From  a  photograph,  Milan, ^64 

II-  RICHARD    WAGNER 

From  a  photograph,  Munich,        ....        x.        ...        .  ^12 

I?:..;.....  KARL    MARIA   VON    WEBER 

From  the  ehgra6ivgbp\,iVoolnoth,  after  the  painting  by  Carl  P^ogel,  .  560 


PORTRAITS   OF  MUSICIANS. 

DRAWN  BY  VALl^BIEN  GKIBAViDOFP. 


1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14 
15. 


IG. 
17. 

18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 

1-1 


23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 

31. 


PAGE 

Nanini,  Giovanni  Maria 5 

Niipravnik,  Eduard 6 

Nardini,  Pietro 6 

Nares,  James 7 

Naumann,  Emil 8 

Naumann,  Johann  Gottlieb 9 

Naylor,  John 10 

Nessler,  Victor  Ernst 12 

Neuendorff,  Adolpli 13 

Neukomm,  Sigismund  von 14 

Neusiedler,  Melchior 15 

Nicode,  Jean  Louis IG 

Nicolai,  Otto IG 

Notker,  Balbulus,  facsimile 25 

Novello,  Vincent 2G 

Oakeley,  Herbert  Stanley 30 

Oakey,  George 31 

Obertbiir,  Karl 33 

Offenbach,  Jacques 37 

Osborne,  George  Alexander 52 

Otto,  Julius 56 

Ouseley,  Frederick  Arthur  Gore . .  57 

Paer,  Ferdinando 62 

Paganini,  Niceoli") 64 

Paine,  John  Knowles 66 

Paisiello,  Giovanni 68 

Paix,  Jakob 70 

Paladilhe,  tlmWe 70 

Palestrina,  Giovanni  Pierluigi  da.  71 
Palestrina,  Giovanni  Pierluigi  da, 

facsimile 72 

Paminger,  Leonbardt 76 


32.  Parker,  Henry 83 

33.  Parker,  Horatio  William 83 

34.  Parker,  James  Cutler  Dunn 84 

35.  Parker,  Louis  Najjoleon 84 

36.  Parry,  Joseph 86 

37.  Pattison,  John  Nelson 96 

38.  Pauer,  Ernst 96 

39.  Peace,  Albert  Lister 100 

40.  Pearce,  Stephen  Austen 100 

41.  Pease,  Alfred  Humphreys 101 

42.  Penfiekl,  Smith  Newell 103 

43.  Pejjusch,  Johann  Christoph 104 

44.  Perabo,  Ernst 105 

45.  Pergolesi,  Giovanni  Battista 106 

46.  Pessard,  iSmile  Louis  Fortune...  113 

47.  Petrella,  Errico 115 

48.  Philidor,  Francois  Andre  Danican-.  118 

49.  Philp,  Elizabeth 121 

50.  Piatti,  Alfredo 122 

51.  Picciuni,  Nicola 123 

52.  Pierson,  Henry  Hugo 127 

53.  Piusuti,  Giro 129 

54.  Plautade,  Charles  Henri 134 

55.  Pleyel,  Ignaz  Josef 135 

56.  Ponchielli,  Amilcare 140 

57.  Popper,  David 141 

58.  Porpora,  Niccolo  Antonio 142 

59.  Porta,  Giovanni 145 

60.  Potter,  Cipriani 147 

61.  Prati,  Alessio 149 

62.  Priltorius,  Michael 150 

63.  Pratt,  Silas  Gamaliel 150 

64.  Proch,  Heiurich 155 

65.  Prout,  Ebenezer 159 

66.  Prudent,  Emile 159 


FOETEAITS   OF  MUSICIANS 


PAGE 

67.  Pugnaui,  Gaetano 1G3 

68.  Purcell,  Heuiy IGi 

69.  Quantz,  Johanu  Joachim 170 

70.  Raff,  Joachim 17-4 

71.  Rameau,  Jean  Philippe 178 

72.  RanJegger,  Alberto 181 

73.  Rajjj^oldi,  Eduaixl 183 

71.  Rauzziui,  Veiianzio 185 

75.  Reber,  Napoleou  Hemi 188 

76.  Rebliug,  Gustav 188 

77.  Reeve,  "William ISO 

78.  Reichardt,  Johauu  Friedricli  ....    192 

79.  Reiuecke,  Karl 191 

80.  Reinkeu,  Johauu  Adam 197 

81.  Reiuthaler,  Karl 197 

82.  Reissiger,  Karl  Gottlieb 198 

83.  Remenyi,  Eduard 200 

84.  Re3-er,  Louis  fitienne  Ernest.  .  .  .    208 

85.  Rheiuberger,  Joseph 209 

86.  Ricci,  Federigo  214 

87.  Ricci,  Luigi 211 

88.  Richards,  Briuley 216 

89.  Richardsou,  Joseph 217 

90.  Richter,  Ernst  Friedricli  Eduard.   217 

91.  Riedel,  Karl 218 

92.  Ries,  Ferdinand 221 

93.  Ries,  Franz 222 

94.  Rietz,  Julius 223 

95.  Rimski  -  Korsakoff,    Nicolai     An- 

dreyevitch 226 

96.  Ritter,  Frederic  Louis 232 

97.  Roberts,  John  Varley 236 

98.  Rochlitz,  Johanu  Friedricli 238 

99.  Rode,  Pierre 238 

100.  RoUa,  Alessaudro 246 

101.  Romberg,  Audreas 247 

102.  Romberg,  Beruhard 248 

103.  Root,  George  Frederick 251 

104.  Rore,  Cipriauo  de 251 

105.  Rossi,  Lauro 257 

106.  Rossini,    Gioacchiuo  Antonio,   in 

1820 259 

107.  Rossini,    Gioacchino  Antonio,   in 

1865 260 

108.  Rouget  de  Lisle,  Claude  Joseph. .   265 


PAGE 

109.  Rubinstein,  Anton  Gregor 268 

110.  Rubinstein,  Nicolai 271 

111.  Rudorff,  Ernst 271 

112.  Rungeuhagen,  Carl  Fricdrich 275 

113.  Russell,  Henry 276 

114.  Sacchini,  Antonio  Maria  Gasparo.   280 

115.  Sainton,  Prosjier 285 

116.  Sainton-Dolby,  Charlotte  Helen.   286 

117.  Saiut-Saeiis,  Camille 286 

118.  Sala,  Niccolo 289 

119.  Salamau,  Charles  Kensington  .  . .   289 

120.  Salieri,  Antonio 291 

121.  Salomon,  Johaun  Peter 294 

122.  Salvayre,  Gervais  Bernard 295 

123.  Sarasate,  Pablo  de 300 

124.  Sauret,  Emile 305 

125.  Scarlatti,  Alessandro 307 

126.  Scarlatti,  Domenico 310 

127.  Scharwcnka,  Philipp 313 

128.  Scharwenka,  Xaver 314 

129.  Scheldt,  Samuel 315 

130.  Schein,  Johann  Herrmann 315 

131.  Sehicht,  Johann  Gottfried 317 

132.  SchlOsscr,  Adolf 321 

133.  Schmidt,  Gustav 322 

134.  Schneider,  Friedricli 326 

135.  Schoeuefeld,  Henry 328 

136.  Scholtz,  HeiTmanu 328 

137.  Scholz,  Bernhard 329 

138.  Schroder,  Karl 331 

139.  Schubert,  Franz 333 

140.  Schulhofif,  Julius 342 

141.  Schulz,  Johaun  Abraham  Peter..    343 

142.  Schumann,  Clara 344 

143.  Schumann,  Robert 345 

144.  Schuster,  Joseph 350 

145.  Schiitz,  Heinrich 351 

146.  Schweitzei',  Antou 354 

147.  Senfl,  Ludwig 363 

148.  Serpette,  Gaston 365 

149.  Servais,  Adrien  Franyois 366 

150.  Sherwood,  Edgar  Harmon 370 

151.  Sherwood,  William  Hall 370 

152.  Shield,  WiUiam 371 

153.  Silas,  Eduard -. 378 

154.  Simouelli,  Matteo 380 


PORTRAITS  OF  MUSICIAN'S 


PAGE 

155.  Singer,  Edmund 383 

156.  Sivori,  Ernesto  CamiUo 386 

157.  Smart,  George 389 

158.  Smart,  Henry 389 

159.  Smith,  AUce  Mary 390 

160.  Smitb,  John  Stafford 391 

161.  Smith,  Sydney 392 

162.  Smith,  Wilson  George 392 

163.  Solomon,  Edward 397 

164.  Sijenser,  Willard 409 

165.  Spindler,  Fritz 410 

166.  SiJoln-,  Louis 411 

167.  Spontini,  Gasparo 414 

168.  Staden,  Johann 420 

169.  Stainer,  John 422 

170.  Stanford,  Charles  Villiers 423 

171.  Stanley,  John 424 

172.  Steibelt,  Daniel 429 

173.  Stephens,  Charles  Edward 430 

174.  Sternberg,    Constantin    Ivano- 

vitch 431 

175.  Stevenson,  John  Andrew 432 

176.  Stobaus,  Johann 434 

177.  StOr,  Karl 434 

178.  Strauss,  Eduard 438 

179.  Strauss,  Johann,  the  elder 438 

180.  Strauss,  Johann,  the  younger  .  .  .  439 

181.  Strauss,  Joseph 440 

182.  Sullivan,  Arthur  Seymour 445 

183.  Suppe,  Franz  von 447 

184.  Svendsen,  Johan 448 

185.  Sweelinck,  Jan  Pieter 449 

186.  Sj-eroff,    Alexander    Nikolaye- 

vitch 450 

187.  Sympson,  Christopher 452 

188.  Tartini,  Giuseppe 461 

189.  Taubert,  Wilhelm 462 

190.  Tausig,  Karl 464 

191.  Telemann,  Georg  Philipp 466 

192.  Thalberg,  Sigismund 473 

193.  Thomas,  Ambroise 479 

194.  Tosti,  Francesco  Paolo 490 

195.  Tozzi,  Antonio 490 

196.  Traetta,  Tommaso 491 

197.  Tschaikowsky,  Peter 504 


PAGE 

198.  Tuma,  Franz 506 

199.  Turpin,  Edmund  Hart 508 

200.  Van  der  Stucken,  Frank  Valentin .  520 

201.  Verdi,  Giuseppe,  in  1859 527 

202.  Verdi,  Giusei^pe,  in  1880 527 

203.  Vierling,  Georg 537 

204.  Vieuxtemps,  Henri 538 

205.  Vinci,  Leonardo 540 

206.  Viotti,  Giovanni  Battista 541 

207.  Vivaldi,  Antonio 544 

208.  Vogler,  Georg  Joseph 546 

209.  Vogrich,  Max 546 

210.  Volkmann,  Eobert 548 

211.  Wagner,  Kicbard,  in  1853 542 

212.  Wagner,  Richard,  in  1880 542 

213.  Wallace,  Vincent 560 

214.  Walliser,  Chi-istoph  Thomas  ....  561 

215.  WallnOfer,  Adolf 561 

216.  Webbe,  Samuel 567 

217.  Weber,  Carl  Maria  von,  in  1809. .  568 

218.  Weber,  Carl  Maria  von,  in  1825 .  569 

219.  Weber,  Gottfried 573 

220.  Weigl,  Joseph 575 

221.  Wels,  Charles 580 

222.  Wesley,  Samuel  Sebastian 583 

22.3.  Westbrooke,  William  Joseph 584 

224.  Westrop,  Henry  John 585 

225.  Widmann,  Erasmus 588 

226.  Wieniawski,  Henri 589 

227.  Wieniawski,  Joseph 590 

228.  Wilhelm,  Karl 591 

229.  Wilhelmj,  August 591 

230.  Willaei-t,  Adrian 591 

231.  Willmers,  Heinrich  Eudolf 593 

232.  Wilson,  John 594 

233.  Winter,  Peter  von 596 

234.  WOlfl,  Joseph 600 

235.  Wollenhaupt,  Hermann  Adolph..  601 

236.  Wiierst,  Richard 603 

237.  Wiillner,  Franz 603 

238.  Zelter,  Karl  Friedrich 610 

239.  Zoeller,  Carli 616 

240.  Zollner,  Karl  Friedrich 617 

241.  Zumsteeg,  Johann  Eudolf 618 


PORTRAITS   OF  SINGERS,   AUTOGRAPHS,   FACSIMILES, 

ETC. 


1. 

Autograph      of    Pictro      Nardini, 

27 

1790 

6 

•:^s 

2. 

Autograph  of  Johann  GottHeb  Nau- 

29 

mann,  1761 

9 

30 

3. 

Autograph  of  Otto  Nicolai,  1841 . . 

17 

31 

4. 

Portrait  of  Giulia  Grisi 

24 

5. 

Portrait  of  Angehca  Catalani 

28 

32 

G. 

Portrait  of  Eugenia  Papj)eiiheim . . 

31 

33 

7. 

Autograph  of   Jacques  Offeuhach, 

1858 

38 

34 

8. 

Portrait  of  Pauline  I\Iilder-Haui)t- 

35 

maun 

42 

9. 

Autograph     of     George     Onslow, 

30 

1830 

44 
45 

37 

10. 

Portrait  of  Giuseppa  Grassini 

11. 

Heleue  Hastreiter,  as  Orpheus .... 

50 

38. 

12. 

Manuel  Garcia,  as  Otello 

54 

39. 

IS 

54 
55 

'10 

U 

Portrait  of  Tamagno 

15. 

Autograph    of    FerJinando   Paor, 

41. 

1803 

63 
65 

16. 

Paganini,  in  1831 

42 

17. 

Autograph  of  Paganini 

66 

18. 

Autograph  of  Paisiello,  1811 

70 

43 

19. 

Autogi-aph  of  Palestrina,  1589 

74 

20. 

Portrait  of  Dcsirce  Artut 

80 

44 

21. 

Winckelmanu,  as  Parsifal 

87 

45 

22. 

Portrait  of  Emma  Nevada 

110 

40 

23. 

Autograph   of    Louis   de   Persuis, 

47 

1817 

112 

48 

24. 

Autograph     of     Jacopo     Antonio 

Perti 

113 
139 

49 

25. 

Portrait  of  Marie  Gabrielle  Krauss. 

50. 

26. 

Autograph   of  Michael  Priitorius, 

51 

1616 

150 

PAGE 

Portrait  of  Pauline  Viardot-Garcia .    157 

Koger,  as  John  of  Leydeu 157 

Birthplace  of  Henrj'  Purcell 105 

Autograjih  of  Henry  Purcell   108 

Portrait  of  Giovanni  Battista  Ru- 

bini 108 

Portrait  of  Antonio  Tamburini. .. .  168 
Autograjih     of    Johann     Joachim 

Quautz,  1733 171 

Autograph  of  Joachim  Raff,  1875  .  170 
Autograph   of  Jean   Philippe  Ra- 

meau,  1749 181 

Autograph  of  Anton  Reicha,  1800 .  192 
Autograph    of    Johann    Friedrich 

Reichardt,  1812 193 

Autograph  of  Karl  Reineclcc,  1883 .   195 

Portrait  of  Mme  Gueymard 190 

Portrait    of    Euphi'osync   ParejDa- 

Rosa 197 

Portrait  of  Antoinette  Ceeile  Saint- 

Huberty 201 

Autogi-aph     of    George     Reutter, 

1761 207 

Autograph  of  Jose]3h  Rhcinberger, 

1872 210 

Carl  Hill,  as  Alberich 211 

Portrait  of  Fanny  Moran-Olden  . .    212 

Portrait  of  Faustina  Bordoni 213 

Tichatschek,  as  Rienzi 220 

Autograph     of    Ferdinand     Ries, 

1816 221 

Autograph  of  Julius  Rietz,  1855  . .    224 

Portrait  of  Padilla-y-Ramos 225 

Portrait   of     Julie   Aimee   Dorus- 

Gras 235 


xU 


PORTRAITS  OF  SINGERS,  AUTOGRAPHS,  ETC. 


52. 

Autograph  of  Pierre  Rode,  1827 . . 

PAGE 

239 

81 

53. 

Portrait  of  Francesca  Cuzzoni .... 

239 

54. 

Portrait  of  Josephine  De  Eeszke . . 

243 

82 

55. 

Autograph   of  Andreas   Romberg, 

1816 

247 

S3 

5G. 

Autograph  of  Bernhard  Romberg, 

1828 

248 

84 

57. 

Autograph   of   Cipriano    de  Rore, 

1558 

252 

85 

58. 

Autograph  of  Gioacchino  Rossini, 

86 

1853 

262 

87 

59. 

Autograph  of  Claude  Joseph  Rou- 

88 

get  de  Lisle 

265 

89 

GO. 

Autograph    of   Anton   Rubinstein, 

1872 

270 
27G 

90 

Gl. 

Autograph  of  Henry  Russell 

62. 

Autograph  of  Antonio  Maria  Gas- 

91 

paro  Sacchini,  1784 

282 

G3. 

Autograph  of  Camille  Saint-Sacns. 

288 

92 

Gl. 

Autograph     of      Antonio     Salieri, 

1816          

293 

93 

G5. 

Autograph   of   Antonio    Scandelli, 

94 

1574    

307 

GG. 

Autograph  of  Alessandro  Scarlatti, 

95 

1706 

309 

G7. 

Autograph     of     Samuel     Scheldt, 

96 

1624 

315 

G8. 

Autograph      of    Johann     Schenk, 

97. 

1830 

316 

G9. 

Autograph    of    Johann    Gottfried 

98. 

Schicht,  1807 

317 

70. 

Autograph  of  Friedrich  Schneider, 

99 

1830       

32G 

71. 

Facsimile  of  Schubert's  MS.  :  Dor 

100 

Erlkonig 

335 

72. 

Schubert's  Tomb 

336 

101. 

73. 

Autographs  of  Franz  Schubert  . .  . 

340 

102. 

74. 

Autograph  of  Julius  Schulhoff. . . . 

342 

103 

75. 

Autograph     of    Johaun    Abraham 

104 

Peter  Schulz,  1797 

343 

105 

7G. 

Autograph  of  Clara  Schumann .... 

344 

106 

77. 

Birthplace  of  Robert  Schumann  . . 

345 

78. 

Grave  of  Robert  Schumann 

346 

107. 

79. 

Facsimile  of  Schumann's  MS.:  Al- 

108 

bum  f iir  die  Jugend 

347 

80. 

Autograph  of    Robert    Schumann, 

109 

1841 

349 

Autograph   of    Joseph   Schuster, 

1780 350 

Autograph   of   Heinrich    Schiitz, 

1624 352 

Autograph     of     Simon     Sechter, 

1837 357 

Portrait  of  Josephine  Mainvielle- 

Fodor 361 

Sofia  Scalchi,  as  Ai-sace 362 

Autograph  of  Ludwig  Senfl,  1537 .  363 

Georg  Unger,  as  Siegfried 374 

Lilli  Lehmann,  as  Brunnhilde . . .  375 
Portrait     of    Gustave    Hippolite 

Roger 384 

Delphine  Ugalde,  as  Queen  Eliza- 
beth    401 

Portrait  of  Maria  Catarina  Cara- 

dori- Allan 402 

Facsimile  of  Spohr's  MS. :  Dojj- 

j)el-Quartet  in  G  minor 412 

Autographs  of  Louis  Sjjohr,  1845 .  414 
Autograph  of  Gasjiaro   Spoutini, 

1816 

Autograph  of  Agostino   Steflfani, 

1709 

Autograjjli  of  Johann  Strauss?,  the 

elder,  1834 439 

Autograph  of  Joliann  Strauss,  the 

younger 440 

Autograph     of     Nikolaus    Adam 

Strungk,  1697 442 

Autograph    of   Ai-thur     Seymour 

Sullivan 445 

Autogi-aph  of  Alexander  Syeroff, 

1862 450 

Autograph  of  Giovanni  Tadolini  .  453 
Autograph  of  Thomas  Tallys  ....  456 
Portrait  of  Sabina  Heinefetter.  . .  457 
Anton  Schott,  as  Tannhiiuser. . . .   458 

Portrait  of  Johanna  Wagner 459 

Autograph   of  Giuseppe  Tartini, 

1731 462 

Autograph  of  Karl  Tausig,  1866 . .  464 
Autograph  of  Georg  Philipp  Tele- 

mann,  1729 467 

Autograph   of    Sigismund    Thal- 

berg,  1838 474 


416 


428 


PORTRAITS  OF  SINGERS,  AUTOGRAPHS,  ETC. 


110.  Autograph  of  Ambroise  Thomas. 

111.  Portrait  of  Maria  Piccolomini  . .  . 

112.  Indienne     in     Le     triomphe    de 

I'amour 

113.  Portrait  of  Ludwig  Schnorr  von 

Carolsfeld 

114.  Portrait  of  Marie  Sasse 

115.  Portrait  of  Francois  Villaret 

116.  Portrait  of  Ronzi  de  Begnis 

117.  Portrait  of  Giglio  Nordica 

118.  Statue  of  Verdi,  at  Milan 

119.  Autograph  of  Verdi 

120.  Portrait  of  Judic 

121.  Portrait  of  Furscb-Madi 

122.  Autograph  of  Henri  Vieuxtemps. 

123.  Autograph  of   Giovanni   Battista 

Viotti 

124.  Autograph  of  Georg  Joseph  Vog- 

ler 


PAGE 

480 

125 

493 

126 

127 

496 

128 

129 

498 

130 

502 

131 

502 

132 

507 

525 

133 

528 

134 

529 

135. 

532 

136. 

533 

137. 

538 

138. 

139. 

542 

140. 

546 

141. 

PAGE 

Autogi-aph  of  Robert  Volkmann  .  549 

Facsimile  of  Wagner's  MS 553 

Wagner's  Birthplace 554 

Autograph  of  Richard  Wagner. . .  557 

Niemann,  as  Siegmund 558 

Betz,  as  Wotan 559 

Birthplace  of  von  Weber 570 

Autographs   of   Cai-1    Maria    von 

Weber 572 

Autograph  of  Joseph  Weigl 576 

Autograph  of  Adrian  Willaert .  . .  592 

Autograph  of  Peter  von  Winter. .  596 

Vanzini  as  Zaire 605 

Portrait  of  Sylva 006 

Autograph  of  Gioseffo  Zarlino . . .  606 

Portrait  of  Etelka  Gerster 608 

Autograph  of  Karl  Friedrich  Zel- 

ter 610 

Autograph  of  Niccola  Zingarelli. .  615 


BIBLIOGRAPHY. 


Siippleiih'ntary  to  Bibliography  in  l^oliiine  I,  ami  including  additional  works  referred 

to  in  Volumes  I!  and  III. 


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Bayreuther  Blatter.  Monatschrift  des  Bay- 
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Beule,  Charles  Ernest.  Notice  sur  la  vie  et  les 
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Burney,  Charles.  An  Account  of  the  Musical 
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Burney,  Charles.  The  Present  State  of  Music 
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rtAFFI,  FRANCESCO.     Delia  vita  e  del  com- 

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1878. 
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Conestabile,  Giancarlo.  Vita  di  Niccolti  Paga- 
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gart, 1848. 

Waltber,  Johann  Gottfried,  Musikaliscbes 
Lexikon  oder  musikaliscbe  Bibliothek,  etc. 
Leipsic,  1732. 

Westermann's  Illustrirte  Monatsbefte,  ed- 
ited by  Adolf  Glaser.  Brunswick,  18G9 
and  seq. 

Winterfeld,  Carl  von.  Lutber's  deutscbe  geist- 
licbe Lieder.     Leipsic,  1840. 

Wolzogen,  Hans  von.  Nolte,  E.  and  Hagen, 
E.  Eicbard  Wagner's  Tannbauser  und 
Lohengrin  nach  Sage,  Dicbtung,  und 
Musik.     Berlin,  1873. 

Wolzogen,  Hans  von.  Dor  Nibelungen-Mythos 
in  Sage  und  Litteratur.     Berlin,  1876. 

Wolzogen,  Hans  von.  Die  Spracbe  in  Eicbard 
Wagner's  Dicbtungen.     Leipsic,  1878. 

Wolzogen,  Hans  von.  TbematiscberLeitfaden 
durcb  Parsifal.     Leipsic,  1882. 

Wolzogen,  Hans  von.  Der  Eing  des  Nibelun- 
gen.  Leipsic,  1882.  English  translation 
by  Ernst  von  Wolzogen.  London  and 
Leipsic. 

Wolzogen,  Hans  von.  Eriunerungen  an  Eicb- 
ard Wagner.     Vienna,  1883. 


7ANOLmi,  ANTONIO.     Biografia  di  Gioac- 


Lk 


cbino  Eossini.     Bologna,  1875. 


TABLE   OF   ABBREVIATIONS. 


A.,  Alto. 

M.,  Monsieur. 

B.,  Bass,  Basso,  etc. 

Mile,  Mademoiselle. 

Bar.,  Baritone. 

IMnie,  Madame. 

B.  M.  v.,  Beata  Maria 

Virgo. 

JIS.,  MSS.,  Manuscript,  Manuscripts 

Biog.,  Bioj^rapby,  Bio 

gratia,  etc. 

M.  S.,  Mezzo-soprano. 

Catb.,  Cathedral. 

Mus.  Bac,  Bachelor  of  Music. 

Ch.,  Chun'h. 

Mus.  Doc,  Doctor  of  Music. 

Col.,  Collection. 

n.  d.,  no  date. 

do.,  ditto. 

op.,  opus,  opera. 

etc.,  et  cetera. 

R  A.  M.,  Royal  Academy  of  jMusic. 

ct  seq.,  et  sequeiitia. 

S.,  Soprano. 

Fr.,  Freucli. 

S.,  Sta.,  San,  Santa. 

Ger.,  German. 

S.  M.,  Santa  Maria. 

ib.,  ibidem. 

Sp.,  Spanish. 

id.,  idem. 

St.,  Saint. 

It.,  Italian. 

T.,  Tenor. 

L.  of  Honour,  Legion 

of  Honour. 

Voc,  Voces. 

Lib.,  Liber. 

Vol.,  Volume. 

*^*      Words  in  italics  indicate  the 

alphabetii 

:al  place  of  articles  on  the  suhjccis  specifiec 

CYCLOPEDIA 


OF 


Music  and  Musicians 


NAAMAN,  oratorio  in  two  parts,  text 
by  W.  Bartholomew,  music  by  Sir 
Michael  Costa,  first  performed  at  the 
Birmiugbam  (England)  Festival,  Sept.  7, 
18C4.  Characters  represented :  Naaman 
(T.),  Mr.  Sims  Reeves ;  Elisha  (Bar.),  Mr. 
Santley  ;  Gehazi  (B.),  Mr.  Cummings  ;  Adah 
(S.),  Mile  Adelina  Patti ;  The  Shunamite 
Widow  (A.),  Mme  Rudersdorff.  It  was 
again  sung  at  the  same  place,  Sept.  1,  1870, 
and  was  given  by  the  Handel  and  Haydu 
Society,  Boston,  March  27,  18G9.  Pub- 
lished by  Addison  &  Co.  (London,  18G-4). 
— Athenfcum  (18G4),  ii.  345,  378  ;  (1870),  ii. 
346  ;  (1878),  i.  19G. 

NABUCCO,  Italian  oj^era  in  four  acts, 
text  by  Solera,  music  by  Verdi,  first  repre- 
sented at  La  Seala,  Milan,  March  9,  1842, 
with  the  following  cast : 

Nabucco  (Bar.)   Signor  Ronconi. 

Zaccaria  (B.) Signor  Derivis. 

Ismaele  (T.) Signor  Miraglia. 

Abigailo  (S.) Mme  Strepponi. 

Fenena  (A.) Mme  Bollinzagi. 

The  original  title,  Nabucodonosor,  was 
shortened  to  Nabucco.  It  was  the  first 
opera  that  established  Verdi's  reputation  in 
France.  The  subject  treats  of  Nebuchad- 
nezzar's madness,  of  which  a  captive,  Abi- 
gaile,  who  pretends   to  be  of  noble  birth, 


takes  advantage  for  self-aggrandizement; 
her  downfall,  and  the  expiation  of  the  king. 
This  opera  was  first  given  in  Vienna  in 
1843  ;  in  Berlin  in  1844  ;  and  in  Loudon 
as  Nino,  March  4,  1846.  It  was  first  repre- 
sented in  New  York,  April  4,  1848.  Pub- 
lished by  Diabelli  (Vienna,  1844).  Same 
subject,  Nebukadnezar,  German  opera,  text 
by  Menautes,  music  by  Reinhardt  Keiser, 
Hamburg,  1704 ;  Nabuchodonosor,  Italian 
opera  seria,  or  oratorio,  text  by  Rocco 
Maria  Rossi,  music  by  Attilio  Ariosti,  Vi- 
enna, 1706  ;  Nabuco,  Portuguese  ballet  in 
one  act,  by  Pinto,  Lisbon,  about  1850 ;  and 
an  operetta  in  one  act,  by  J.  J.  Debillemont, 
Paris,  1871. — Clement  et  Larousse,  471 ; 
Grove,  iv.  246  ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xlvi. 
265  ;  Athenanim  (1846),  250. 

NACCIARONE,  GUGLIELMO,  born  in 
Naples,  Feb.  18,  1837,  still  li\ing,  1890. 
Pianist,  son  of  the  following,  pupil  of  Mi- 
chele  Marrano,  and  in  composition  of  his 
father  ;  he  appeared  successfully  in  public 
at  the  age  of  ten,  and  two  years  after  played 
in  Paris,  ajjplauded  by  Thalberg.  Return- 
ing to  Naples  in  1851,  he  was  heard  in 
Florence,  and  in  1858  made  a  concert  tour 
through  Germany.  Works :  Pier  de'  Me- 
dici, opera  ;  Cantata  ;  2  symphonies  for  or- 
chestra ;  Miserere  ;  Pianoforte  pieces  ;  Ro- 
mances, etc. — Futis,  Supplement,  ii.  259. 


NACCIARONE 


NACCIARONE,  NICOLA,  born  in  Na- 
ples, April  2,  1802,  died  there,  December, 
1876.  Pianist,  pupil  at  the  Couservatorio 
of  Eaffaelle  Cioifi  and  of  Giuseppe  Elia  ;  and 
in  singing  of  Liiigi  Mosca,  in  harmony  and 
counterpoint  of  Fenaroli  and  Zingarelli, 
and  private  puf)il  on  the  pianoforte  of  John 
Field.  Works  :  Requiem,  1859  ;  Sanctus 
for  eight  voices,  and  other  church  music ; 
4  sj-mphonies  for  orchestra ;  Funeral  sym- 
phony ;  Quartets  for  pianoforte  and  strings  ; 
Pianoforte  music,  and  songs.  Sofonisba, 
opera  (unpublished). — Fctis,  Supplement, 
ii.  259. 

NACHKLANTGE  AN  OSSIAN  (Echoes 
from  Ossian),  concert  overture  for  orches- 
tra, in  A  minor,  by  Niels  W.  Gade,  first 
performed  in  Copenhagen  in  1841.  Gade 
received  in  1841  for  this  work  a  prize  from 
the  Musical  Union  of  Copenhagen.  It  was 
given  in  Leijjsic,  Jan.  27,  1842,  and  by  the 
Philharmonic  Society,  New  York,  in  the 
season  of  1852-53.  Published  by  Breitkopf 
&  Hiirtel  (Leipsic,  1841).  Arranged  for 
pianoforte  for  four  hands. — Allgem.  mus. 
Zeitg.,  xliii.  975  ;  Neuc  Zeits.,  xvi.  41 ;  Sig- 
nale  (1882),  8G5. 

NACHT  DIE  (The  Night),  cantata  for 
soli,  chorus,  and  orchestra,  text  by  M. 
Hartmann,  music  by  Ferdinand  Hiller. 
Published  by  Leuckart  (Breslau,  18G3). 
—Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.  (18G3),  267. 

NACHTLAGEK  IN  GRANADA,  DAS 
(A  Night  in  Granada),  romantic  opera  in 
two  acts,  test  from  Johann  Friedrich  Iviud's 
drama,  music  by  Konradin  Kreutzer,  first 
represented  in  Vienna  in  1834.  The  Prince 
of  Spain,  hunting  incognito,  cornea  to  a 
mountain  near  a  Moorish  castle,  where 
he  finds  a  young  girl,  Gabrielle,  bewailing 
the  loss  of  a  dove,  which  has  been  cai-ried 
away  by  an  eagle.  She  tells  him  also  that 
her  guai-dian  intends  to  mai-ry  her  to  Vasco, 
but  that  she  wiU  not  forsake  her  lover,  Go- 
mez. The  huntsman  promises  the  protec- 
tion of  the  Prince,  and  at  this  moment  the 
other  huntsmen,  including  Vasco,  arrive. 
In  the  meanwhile  Gomez,  who  has  been  to 


court  to  ask  aid  from  the  Prince  in  securing 
Gabrielle's  hand,  follows  him  to  the  Moor- 
ish castle  and  ai'rives  in  time  to  defend 
him  from  the  huntsmen,  who  have  conspired 
to  kill  him.  Afterwards  he  is  rewarded  with 
the  hand  of  Gabrielle.  The  opera  was  given 
in  Paris  in  1843  ;  and  ui  New  York  in  1864. 
Published  by  Diabelli  (Vienna). 

NACHTLIED  (Night  Song),  song  by 
Hebbel,  set  for  solo,  chorus,  and  orchestra, 
by  Robert  Schumann,  op.  108,  first  given  ui 
Diisseldorf,  March  13,  1851.  It  was  com- 
posed in  1849,  dedicated  to  Hebbel,  and  was 
published  by  Simrock  (pianoforte  score, 
Bonn,  1852  ;  full  score,  1853).  Breitkopf  & 
Hiirtel,  Schumann  Werke,  Serie  ix..  No.  7. 

NACHTSTUCIvE  (Night  Pieces),  four 
pieces  for  pianoforte,  by  Schumann,  op.  23, 
composed  in  Vienna  in  1839,  and  dedicated 
to  F.  A.  Becker,  of  Freiburg.  The  name  is 
taken  from  a  series  of  tales  by  Hoflinann. 
I.  Mehr  langsam,  oft  zuruckhaltend  (in  C) ; 
H.  Markirt  und  lebhaft  (in  F)  ;  HI.  Slit 
grosser  Lebhaflikeit  (in  D-flat)  ;  IV.  Eiu- 
fach  (in  F).  Published  by  P.  Mechetti 
(Vienna,  1840)  ;  also  by  Spina  (Vienna). 
Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Schumann  Werke, 
Serie  vii..  No.  23. — Grove. 

NADAUD,  GUSTA\^,  born  at  Roubaix 
(Nord),  France,  Feb.  20,  1820,  still  Uving, 
1890.  Vocal  composer,  at  first  intended  for 
a  mercantile  cai'cer,  but  was  so  encouraged 
by  the  success  of  some  chansons,  of  which 
he  had  written  both  words  and  music,  that 
he  devoted  himself  to  this  species  of  com- 
position. He  has  published  fifteen  volumes, 
each  containing  twenty  chansons,  and  a  vol- 
ume of  Chansons  legeres.  He  has  written 
also  three  parlor  operettas :  Le  docteur 
Vieuxtemps  ;  La  voUere  ;  Porte  et  fenetre. 
Legion  of  Honour,  1861. — Fetis,  Suj^jjlc- 
ment,  ii.  260. 

NADERJLiN  (Nadermann),  FRANgOIS 
JOSEPH,  born  in  Paris,  1773,  died  there, 
Aijril  2, 1835.  Virtuoso  on  the  harp,  pupil  of 
Krumpholz,  and  in  composition  of  Des- 
vignes  ;  in  181G  royal  chamber  harpist,  and 
in  1825  professor  at  the  Conservatoii-e.    He 


NAGELI 


bad  made  a  concert  tour  in  Germany  in 
1798,  and  liad  played  with  success  in  Mu- 
nich and  Vienna.  After  his  father's  death 
he  became  associated  with  his  brother  Henri 
in  the  management  of  the  harj)  factory  which 
they  inherited.  Works :  2  concertos  for 
tlie  harp,  op.  13,  40  ;  2  quartets  for  2  harps, 
vioUn  and  violoncello,  op.  42  ;  Quartets  for 
harp,  pianoforte,  violin  and  violoncello,  op. 
43,  54  ;  Trios  for  harp  and  various  instru- 
ments ;  Trio  for  harps,  op.  .57  ;  Duos  for 
harj)  and  violin  or  flute  ;  Do.  for  harp  and 
pianoforte  ;  Sonatas,  au-3  varies,  fantaisies, 
etc.,  for  harp. — Fctis. 

NAGELI,  HANS  GEOKG,  born  at  Wet- 
zicon,  Canton  Zurich,  Switzerland,  May  10, 
1773,  died  at  Zurich,  Dec.  26, 1836.  Didac- 
tic and  critical  writer ;  deserves  much  cred- 
it for  good  and  clear  editions  of  classical 
works — Handel's,  Bach's  and  Frescobaldi's, 
and  the  Repertoire  des  claveciuistes  (1803), 
containing  works  of  Beethoven,  Clementi, 
Dussek,  and  Steibelt.  In  1824  he  travelled 
in  Germany,  and  gave  lectures  on  music  ; 
was  a  believer  in  the  Pestalozzian  method 
and  used  it  more  than  twenty  j'ears  in  a 
school  ho  had  established.  He  was  founder 
and  president  of  a  society  for  the  cultiva- 
tion of  music.  He  is  best  known  for  his 
audacity  in  inserting  four  bars  into  one  of 
Beethoven's  sonatas.  Works  :  Choruses  for 
church  and  school ;  Toccatas  for  pianoforte  ; 
Many  collections  of  songs,  including  Freut 
Euch  des  Lebens.  He  jJubhshed  also  Go- 
sangbildungslehre  nach  Pestalozzisehen 
Gruudsiltzen  (ib.,  1810),  Vorlesungen  fiber 
Musik  mit  Beriicksichtigung  der  Dilettanten 
(Stuttgai-t  and  Tubingen,  1826),  and  sev- 
eral other  books  and  pamphlets. — AUgem. 
d.  Biog.,  xxiii.  221  ;  Bierer,  Hans  Nageli, 
Erinnerungen,  etc.  (Zurich,  1844)  ;  Biog. 
von  H.  G.  Nilgeli  (ib.,  1837)  ;  Heindl, 
Biog.  der  beriihmtesten  Piidagogen,  etc.  ?  ; 
Keller,  H.  G.  Nageli,  eiue  Festrede,  etc. 
(Zurich,  1848)  ;  Schwager,  Der  deutscho 
Miinnergesang,  etc.  (Kaiserslautern,  1879). 

NAGILLER,  MATTHAUS,  born  at  Mini- 
ster (Tyrol),  Oct.  24,  1815  (Oct.  14,  1817  ?), 


died  at  Innspruck,  July  8,  1874.  Instru- 
mental and  vocal  composer,  first  instructed 
at  Schwaz  by  the  choir-master  Pichler,  then 
at  Innspruck,  pupil  of  Martin  Goller  in  har- 
mony, and  at  the  Vienna  Conservatorium,  of 
Preyer  in  comjjosition  ;  won  the  first  prize 
in  i840,  and  went  to  Paris  in  1842.  He 
soon  gained  reputation  as  a  teacher,  founded 
and  conducted  the  Mozart- Verein,  and  in 
1846  made  a  concert  tour  in  Germany, 
bringing  out  successfully  his  first  sym- 
phony, previously  produced  in  Paris,  and 
other  compositions,  at  Cologne,  Munich, 
and  Berlin.  In  1848  he  left  Paris  to  return 
to  his  native  land,  where  he  settled  in  1850, 
after  travelling  in  Germany.  In  1854  he 
removed  to  Munich,  bi-ought  out  some  of 
his  more  ambitious  compositions,  and  re- 
peatedly made  concert  tours  to  different 
cities  until  1805,  when  he  was  called  to 
Botzen  as  Kapellmeister  and  music  direc- 
tor ;  in  1866  he  went  in  the  same  capacity 
to  Innspruck,  where  he  assumed  also  the 
direction  of  the  Consei'vatorium  and  was 
very  active  in  promoting  a  higher  standai'd 
of  music.  Works  :  Herzog  Friedrich  von 
Tirol,  opera,  given  at  Botzen,  1861,  Inns- 
pruck, 1802  ;  Music  to  Widmann's  Nausi- 
kaa  ;  Symj)houy  in  C  minor  ;  Solemn  mass  ; 
Other  masses  ;  Offertories  ;  Tantum  ergo  ; 
etc.  ;  Overtures ;  Choruses  and  songs. 
— Allgem.  d.  Biog.,  xsiii.  227 ;  AUgem. 
Zeitg.,  July  15,  1874,  Beilagc,  190  ;  Egger, 
Tiroler,  and  Vorarlberger  (1882),  483  ; 
Heindl,  Galleni  beriihmter  Piidagogen,  etc. 
(Munich,  1859),  ii.  50  ;  Wurzbach. 

NALiDS,  THE.     See  Die  Najaden, 

NAIM,  overture  to  an  opera  in  five  acts,  of 
the  same  name,  by  Napoleon  Henri  Keber. 
The  overture  has  been  frequently  performed, 
but  the  opera  has  never  been  given. 

NAIS,  opera-ballet  in  three  acts,  text  by 
Cahusac,  music  by  Rameau,  first  repre- 
sented at  the  Academie  Royale  de  Musiquo, 
Paris,  April  22,  1749.  It  was  revived  Aug. 
7,  1764. 

NAJADEN,  DIE  (The  Naiads),  overture 
for  orchestra  in  D,  by  William   Sterndalo 


NALA 


Bennett,  op.  15,  first  performed  at  the  Ge- 
waudhaus,  Leipsic,  March  7,  1837,  under 
Mendelssohn's  dii-ection.  It  was  given  bj' 
the  Philharmonic  Society  of  London  in  1837 ; 
of  New  York  in  the  season  of  1844-45.  Pub- 
lished by  Kistner  (Leipsic,  1841). — Schu- 
mann, Gesammelte  Schriften,  ii.  98. 

NALA  UND  DAIVIAYANTI,  cantata,  text 
by  Frau  Dr.  Soiihie  Hasenclever,  music  by 
Ferdinand  HOler,  op.  150,  written  for  and 
first  performed  at  the  Birmingham  (Eng- 
land) Festival,  Sept.  1,  1870,  under  Hitler's 
direction.  The  solo  singers  were  :  Miss 
Edith  Wynne,  Mr.  Cummings,  and  Mr. 
Santley.  The  subject  is  from  the  Maha- 
bharata,  and  treats  of  the  love  of  Nala  for 
the  maiden  Damayanti.  It  was  given  in 
London,  May  15,  1871.  Pubhshed  by  No- 
vello  (Loudon,  1870).— Athenreum  (1870),  ii. 
314. 

NALDINI,  S.ANTE,  born  in  Rome,  Feb. 
5,  1588,  died  there,  Oct.  10,  1GG6.  Church 
composer,  was  tenor  in  the  papal  chapel  in 
1G17,  and  later  abbate.  Ho  was  one  of 
those  commissioned  by  Pope  Urban  "Viil.  to 
publish  the  hynuis  of  the  church  with  Gre- 
gorian melodies,  and  music  by  Palestrina. 
"Works  :  Miserere  ;  Motets ;  Hymni  Sacri  in 
Breviario  Romano.  S.  D.  N.  Urbani  YIH. 
auctoritate  recogniti,  et  cantu  musico  pro 
prsecijiuis  anni  festivitatibus  esjiressi  (^bat- 
wei"p,  1644). — Mendel ;  Fctis ;  Schilling  ; 
Gerber. 

NAMENSFEIER  (Name  Festival),  over- 
ture for  orchestra,  iu  C,  bj*  Beethoven,  op. 
115,  first  performed  in  Vienna,  Oct.  4, 
1814,  the  name-day  of  Franz  I.,  Emperor 
of  Austria.  Beethoven,  hoping  to  have  this 
work  heard  by  the  crowned  heads  of  Eu- 
rope, who  were  holding  a  Congress  in  Vienna 
in  the  autumn  of  1814,  wrote  on  the  title- 
page  "  Zum  Namenstag  unseres  Kaisers." 
It  was  played  in  the  Great  Redoutensaal, 
Vienna,  Dec.  25,  1815,  without  the  title 
"  Namensfeier,"  and  in  1818  it  was  given 
under  the  strange  title  of  "  A  la  Chasse." 
In  1825  Beethoven  called  it  simply  "  Grosse 
Ouverture  in  C  dur,"  and  dedicated  it  to 


Prince  Anton  Heinrich  Radziwill.  The 
original  MS.  is  in  the  Konigliche  Bil)liothek, 
Vienna.  This  overture  was  more  frequently 
worked  over  than  any  other  of  Beethoven's 
instrumental  compositions.  The  first  sketch 
was  made  in  1809,  and  others  arc  combined 
with  sketches  for  the  seventh,  eighth,  and 
ninth  symphonies.  It  is  especially  interest- 
ing on  account  of  its  connection  mth  the 
ninth  symphony,  for  its  principal  theme  re- 
sembles that  ■nTitten  to  Schiller's  "  Ode  to 
Joy,"  which  at  one  time  Beethoven  thought 
of  setting  as  a  chorus  preceded  by  an  over- 
ture. It  was  first  jHiblished  by  S.  A.  Steiner 
&  Co.  (Vienna),  shortly  after  Beethoven's 
death  ;  by  Haslinger  (Vienna,  1830) ;  by 
Schlesinger  under  the  title  of  "  A  la  Chasse" 
(Paris) ;  and  by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Beetho- 
ven Werke,  Serie  iii.,  No.  23. — Thayer,  Ver- 
zeichniss,  125  ;  Lenz,  Beethoven,  ii..  Part  ii. 
124  ;  Marx,  Beethoven,  ii.  225  ;  Nottebohm, 
Beothoveniaua,  35  ;  Schiudler,  ii.  153  ;  Mas. 
Wochenblatt  (187G),  1. 

NiiMOLT^A,  ballet  in  two  acts  and  three 
tableaux,  text  by  Charles  Nuittier,  music 
by  £douai-d  Lalo,  first  represented  at  the 
Opera,  Paris,  March  G,  1882,  wth  Mile 
Sangalli  as  Namouna.  Namouna,  the  danc- 
ing slave  of  Adriani,  passes  into  the  posses- 
sion of  Ottavio  in  payment  of  a  gambling 
debt.  Her  old  master,  who  loves  her,  fol- 
lows her  with  his  suit,  but  she  falls  in  love 
with  Ottavio,  and  pursues  him  until  he  is 
won  through  her  airy  grace  and  charm. 
Introduction  and  serenade  from  Namouna, 
first  performed  in  America  by  the  Symphony 
Society,  Nov.  25,  1887.— Le  Menestrel 
(1881-82),  115. 

NANCE,  song  for  chorus  and  orchestra, 
text  on  Schiller's  words,  "  Auch  das  Schdne 
muss  sterben,"  music  by  Brahms,  op.  82, 
first  given  in  Basel,  Nov.  11,  1881  ;  in  Vi- 
enna, Feb.  10,  1882.  Niinia  was  a  classical 
term  for  a  funeral  dirge.  Published  by 
Peters  (Leipsic,  1881). 

NANIE,  song  for  chorus  and  orchestra, 
text  from  SchQlcr,  music  by  Hermann 
Goetz,   op.   10,  first  given  in   1875.     Pub- 


NANINI 


lished  by  Kistner  (Leipsic,  1876). — Mua. 
Wochenblatt  (187G),  722. 

NANESfl,  GIOVANNI  BERNAKDINO 
(Ambros  gives  both  Bernardo  and  Bernar- 
dio),  born  at  Vallerano  about  the  middle  of 
the  IGth  century,  died  in  Kome  about  1C20. 
He  studied  counterpoint  under  his  elder 
brother,  Giovanni  Maria.  Went  afterwards 
to  Rome,  where  he  was  made  maestro  di  cajj- 
pella  at  S.  Luigi  de'  Francesi,  and  later  at 
S.  Lorenzo  in  Damaso.  About  1575  he 
began  to  assist  his  bi'other  in  his  newly 
founded  music  school.  No  more  is  known 
of  his  life.  Although  not  so  imposing  a 
genius  as  his  brother,  be  was  still  one  of 
the  greatest  men  of  the  "  great "  Roman 
contrapuntal  school.  His  compositions 
have  a  little  more  of  modern  flavour  than 
those  of  his  great  contemporaries,  and  he 
was  one  of  the  first  of  the  school  to  add  an 
organ  part  to  his  vocal  counterj)oint.  Many 
of  his  most  important  works,  among  them 
his  Salve  Regina,  12  voc,  are  still  in  IMS. 
Published  works  :  Madrigali  a  5  voci.  Lib. 
L  (Venice,  1579,  1588, 1598) ;  Idem,  Lib.  H. 
(ib.,  1599) ;  Mottecta  1,  2,  3,  4,  5  voc.  una 
cum  gravi  voce  ad  orgaui  sonum  accomo- 
data,  Lib.  I.  (Rome,  1G08)  ;  Idem,  Lib.  H. 
(ib.,  IGll)  ;  Idem,  Lib.  HI.  (ib.,  1G12) ; 
Idem,  Lib.  IV.  (ib.,  1618)  ;  Salmi  a  4  voci 
con  r  organo  (ib.,  1620)  ;  Venite,  exultemus 
Domino,  a  3  voci  col'  organo  (Assisi,  1620) ; 
Psalms,  motets,  and  madrigals,  some  in 
MS.,  and  many  published  in  various  collec- 
tions by  Phalesius  and  others  ;  MS.  Psalms 
and  Motets  8  voc,  and  Salve  Regina,  12  voc, 
in  Santini  collection,  now  in  the  episcopal 
Palace  at  Miinster ;  3  psalms,  4  voc,  in 
Proske's  Musica  Divina. — Ambros,  iv.  70  ; 
Riemann  ;  Fttis  ;  Grove. 

NANINI,  GIOVANNI  MARIA,  born  at 
Vallerano,  about  1540,  died  in  Rome,  March 
11,  1607.  Elder  brother  of  the  above; 
studied  counterpoint  at  Goudimel's  school 
in  Rome  ;  the  legend  that  he  was  a  fellow 
pupil  of  Palestrina  is  undoubtedly  false,  as 
Palestrina  must  have  left  the  school  before 
Naniui  entered  it.     He  returned  to  Vallera- 


no as  maestro  di  cappella,  but  in  1571  went 
back  to  Rome  to  succeed  Palestrina  aa 
maestro  di  cappella 
at  Santa  Maria  Mag- 
giore  ;  in  1575  ho 
resigned  this  post  to 
Ij^polito  Tartaglini, 
and  established  the 
first  public  music 
school  in  Rome.  At 
this  famous  school, 
in  which  he  was  as- 
sisted by  his  brother 
Giovanni  Bernardi- 
no, and  by  Palestrina  himself,  almost  all  the 
best  composers  of  the  decline  of  the  great 
Roman  period  got  their  musical  education. 
On  Oct.  27,  1577,  he  was  elected  member 
of  the  Pontifical  choir,  for  which  he  wrote 
many  of  his  best  works.  He  was  buried 
in  S.  Luigi  de'  Francesi.  Nanini  was  one 
of  the  greatest  composers  of  the  great  Ro- 
man school ;  indeed  ho  was  little  inferior 
to  Palestrina.  His  works  are  esijecially 
noted  for  their  perfection  of  form  and  style. 
His  six-voice  "  Hodie  nobis  cmlorum  rex  "  is 
still  sung  annually  in  the  Sixtino  Chai^el  on 
Christmas  morning.  Works  :  Motetti  a  3 
voci  (Venice,  Gardano,  1578) ;  do.  a  5  voci 
(ib.,  1578)  ;  Madrigali  a  5  voci,  lib.  L  (ib., 
1578) ;  do.,  hb.  H.  (ib.,  1580  ;  other  eds., 
1582,  1587,  1605)  ;  do.,  lib.  HI.  (ib.,  1584) ; 
do.,  lib.  rV.  (ib.,  1586)  ;  Canzonetti  a  2 
voci  (ib.,  1587) ;  Psalmo  7  voc.  in  Fabio 
Costantiui's  Salmi  a  8  di  diversi,  etc.  (Na- 
ples, 1615)  ;  Motets  in  Phalesius's  Har- 
monia  celeste,  Melodia  olimpica,  Musica 
divina,  Symj)honia  angelica,  etc  Cento 
ciuquanta  sette  coutrapjiunti  e  canoni  a  2- 
11  voci,  sopra  del  canto  formo  iutitolato  La 
Base  di  Costanzo  Festa,  MS.  ;  1  Madrigal, 
8  voc,  MS.,  in  the  Munich  Library  ;  Three 
motets,  3  voc,  one  do.,  4  voc.  ;  one  Miserere, 
4  voc,  in  Proske's  Musica  divina ;  other 
single  works  in  collections  by  Rochlitz, 
Tucher,  Liick,  and  Prince  von  der  Mosz- 
kwa.  Regole  di  Giov.  Maria  e  di  Bernar- 
dino Naniui,  per  far  il  contrajipunto  a  men- 


NANTEKNI 


te  sojira  il  canto  formo  (written  conjointly 
by  both  brothers)  in  MS.,  transcribed  by 
Orazio  Griffi,  is  in  the  Palazzo  Corsiui  aUa 
Luugara. — Aiubros,  iv.  67  ;  Fotis  ;  Eie- 
niann  ;  Grove. 

NANTEKNI,  ORAZIO,  born  in  ]\Iilan 
about  the  middle  of  the  16th  century,  died 
(?).  He  was  maestro  di  cappella  of  S.  Celso 
about  1590,  and  is  jiraised  by  wi-iters  of 
his  time.  Besides  the  collection  II  primo 
libro  di  Motetti  a  cinque  voci  (ililau,  160G), 
his  compositions  may  be  found  in  most  of  the 
collections  published  about  the  beginning 
of  the  17th  century.  His  son  Michel  An- 
gelo,  who  succeeded  him  at  S.  Celso,  pub- 
lished madrigals  and  canzonets. — Futis. 
NAPRAVNI'K,  EDUARD,  born  at  Bejsfc, 
near  Kouiggriitz, 
Bohemia,  Aug.  24, 
1839,  still  living, 
1890.  Dramatic 
composer,  first  in- 
structed on  the  pi- 
anoforte by  Josef 
Puhonn^,  then  at 
Pardubitz  (1850)  on 
the  jjianofortc  and 
organ  by  August 
Svoboda,  his  uncle  ; 
finally,  in  Prague,  pupil  at  the  organ  school 
of  Blaiiek,  and  Kaj-1  Pitsch,  and  at  Maydl's 
pianoforte  school,  where  in  1850  he  became 
instructor,  studying  at  the  same  time  instru- 
mentation under  Fricdrich  Kittl.  In  1861 
he  went  to  St.  Petersburg  as  Kapellmeister 
to  Prince  YussupolT,  whose  orchestra  he  re- 
organized. In  1862  he  was  appointed  or- 
ganist at  the  imperial  ojaei'a,  soon  after 
chorus-master  and  assistant  Kapellmeister, 
and  in  1869  first  court  Kapellmeister. 
From  Balakirev's  resignation  in  1872,  until 
1882,  he  also  conducted  the  symphony  con- 
certs of  the  music  society.  Works  — Ojieras  : 
The  Tempest ;  Nizegorodni,  given  at  St. 
Petersburg,  1869 ;  Harold,  ib.,  1886.  The 
Demon,  sj-mphonic  poem  ;  Vlasta,  overture 
for  orchestra,  Prague,  1861  ;  Ccske  perle 
(Bohemian  pearls),  fantasia  for  pianoforte 


and  orchestra  ;  Lou6eni  (The  Farewell),  do. ; 
Trios,  quartets,  pianoforte  music  ;  Bohemian 
and  Russian  songs. — Fotis,  Supplement,  ii. 
262  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  231  ;  Riemanu. 

NAIiCISSE,  idylle  antique,  for  chorus, 
soli,  and  orchestra,  text  by  Collin,  music  by 
Massenet,  first  performed  in  Paris  in  1878. 
It  was  first  given  in  New  York  at  Chicker- 
ing  Hall,  Feb.  2,  188G,  with  additional  in- 
strumentation by  Franz  Van  dcr  Stiickcn. 
The  solos  were  sung  by  Mme  Christine 
Dossert  and  Mr.  W.  H.  Lawton.  Pubhshed 
by  G.  Hartmann  (Paris). 
"nARDINI,  PIETRO,  born  at  Fibiana, 
Tuscany,  in  1722, 
died  in  Florence, 
May  7,  1793.  Vi- 
olinist, pupil  of 
Tartini,  in  Padua  ; 
was,  in  1753-67, 
solo  violinist  at  the 
court  in  Stuttgart. 
In  the  latter  year 
he  returned  to 
Italy,  and  was  a  short  time  at  Leghorn,  then 
in  Padua  with  Tartini,  nntil  his  old  master's 
death,  in  1779,  when  he  was  appointed  di- 
rector of  the  court  music  in  Florence.  Ho 
seems  to  have  been  a  true  musician,  and 
both  Leopold  jMozart  and  Schubart  speak 
enthusiastically  of  his  inlaying.  Works  :  6 
violin  concertos  ;  6  sonatas  for  violin  and 
bass  ;  6  flute  trios  ;  6  violin  solos  ;  6  string 


0^i^ 


<^ 


quartets  ;  6  violin  duets  ;  Sonatas  in  Alard's 
Klassische  Meistcr  and  David's  Hohe  Schulo 
dcs  Violinspiels. — Leoni,  Elogio  di  Pietro 
Nardini,  etc.  (Florence,  1793) ;  Futis  ;  Ger- 
ber  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling  ;  Hart,  The  Violin, 
224 ;  Wasielewski,  Die  Violinc,  93 ;  Du- 
bourg.  The  Violin,  76. 

NARES,  JAMES,  born  at  Stanwcll,  IMid- 
dlesex,  England,  in  1715,  died  in  Loudon, 


NAIiGEOT 


Feb.  10,  1783.  He  was  chorister  in  tbo 
Chapel  Eoyal,  under  Bernard  Gates,  and 
afterwards  j)upil  of 
Dr.  P  e  p  u  s  c  h.  He 
acted  in  the  place  of 
Pigott  as  organist  of 
St.  George's  Chajjel, 
Windsor  ;  in  1734  suc- 
ceeded Salisbury  at 
York  Minster;  in  1756 
was  organist  and  com- 
poser in  the  Chapel 
Eoyal,  and  in  1757-80  Master  of  the  Chil- 
dren there.  Mus.  Doc,  Cambridge,  175G. 
Works  :  Eight  Sets  of  Harpsichord  Les- 
sons (17-48)  ;  5  Harpsichord  Lessons  (1758)  ; 
Collection  of  Catches,  Canons,  and  Glees  ; 
The  Eoyal  Pastoral,  ode  ;  II  Principio, 
or,  A  regular  Introduction  to  playing  on 
the  Hai-psichord  or  Organ ;  Treatise  on 
Singing  ;  3  Easy  Harpsichord  Lessons  ;  Six 
Organ  Fugues  ;  Second  Treatise  on  Sing- 
ing, with  a  Set  of  English  Duets  ;  20  An- 
thems, 1778  ;  A  Morning  and  Evening  Ser- 
vice and  Six  Anthems,  1788  ;  To  all  lovers 
of  harmony,  and  other  glees  ;  Service  in  F ; 
Anthems,  canons,  and  rounds  in  various  col- 
lections.— Grove  ;  Mendel ;  Eiemann  ;  Fe- 
tis ;  Gerber ;  Barrett,  English  Church 
Composers,  134  ;  Harmonicon  (1829),  235. 

NAEGEOT,  PIEEEE  JULIEN,  born  in 
Paris,  Jan.  7,  1799,  died  (?).  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  at  the  Conservatoire  of 
Kreutzer  on  the  violin,  and  of  Barbereau, 
Eeicha,  and  Lesueur  in  composition.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  orchestras  successive- 
ly at  the  Opura  Comique,  the  Theatre  Ita- 
lien,  and  the  OiDcra,  then  became  chef  d'or- 
chestre  at  the  Theatre  des  Variotes.  W^orks 
—Operettas  :  Los  Contrabandistas,  1861  ; 
La  volonte  de  mon  oncle,  1862  ;  Les  ex- 
jjloits  de  Sylvestre,  1805  ;  Dans  le  pcti-iu, 
18GG  ;  Jeanne,  Jeannette  et  Jeauneton,  1870  ; 
Trois  troubadours  ;  I  Pifierari  ;  Le  docteur 
Frontin  ;  Les  ouvriferes  de  qualite. — Fetis  ; 
do.,  Supplement,  ii.  263. 

NASCO,  GIOVANNI,  Italian  composer  of 
the  16th  ceutuiy.     He  was  maestro  di  cai^- 


pella  at  Fano.  W^orks :  Primo  libro  di 
Madrigali,  etc.  (Venice,  1555) ;  Motetti  a 
cinque  voci  (ib.,  1558)  ;  Madrigali,  do.  (ib., 
1559) ;  Canzoni  e  Madrigali  a  sei  voci,  etc. 
(ib.,  1562)  ;  Lamentationes  Jeremise  cum 
Passionis,  etc.  (ib.,  1565). — Fetis ;  Mendel. 
NASOLINI,  SEBASTIANO,  born  at  Pia- 
cenza,  Italy,  in  1768,  died  in  Venice  in  1799 
(1810  ?).  Dramatic  composer.  Works : 
Nitteti,  Trieste,  1788  ;  L'  isola  incantata, 
Parma,   1789  ;  L'  Adriano   in  Siria,  Milan, 

1790  ;  L'  Andromacca,  London,  1790  ;  Teseo, 
Vienna,  1790  ;  La  morte  di  Cleoi^atra,  Vi- 
cenza,  1791 ;  Ercole  al  Termodoute,  Trieste, 

1791  ;  Semiramide,  Eome,  1792  ;  Eugenia, 
Viceuza,  about  1793  ;  L'  incantesimo  senza 
magia,  about  1794 ;  II  trionfo  di  Clelia, 
about  1799  ;  Merope,  about  1805  ;  and  sev- 
eral others,  given  in  different  cities  of  Italy. 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

NATHAN,  ISAAC,  born  in  Canterbury, 
England,  in  1792,  died  in  Sydney,  Australia, 
Jan.  15, 1864.  Intended  for  the  priesthood, 
he  went  to  Cambridge  in  1805  to  study 
Hebrew,  but  became  the  pupil  of  Domeuico 
Corri  in  singing  and  composition.  He  was 
then  a  singing  master  in  London,  and  ap- 
peared in  Guy  Mannering,  at  Covent  Gar- 
den, but  without  success.  He  emigrated 
afterwards  to  Sydney.  Works :  The  Al- 
caid,  opei-a,  1824  ;  Tlie  Illustrious  Stran- 
ger, operetta,  1827  ;  Music  for  Sweethearts 
and  Wives ;  Hebrew  Melodies  for  Byron's 
poetry  ;  Songs.  He  was  author  also  of  An 
Essa}'  on  the  History  and  Theory  of  Music, 
and  on  the  qualities,  capabilities,  and  man- 
agement of  the  Human  Voice  (London, 
1823)  ;  also  of  the  Life  of  Madame  Malibran 
de  Beriot  (ib.,  1830).— Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Men- 
del ;  Eiemann. 

NATIONS,  LES,  suite,  six  morceaux 
caracteristiques,  for  grand  orchestra,  by  Mo- 
ritz  Moskowski,  op.  23.  I.  Eussisch  (Alle- 
gretto) ;  II.  Italienisch  (Presto)  ;  HI. 
Deutsch  (Andante  sostenuto)  ;  IV.  Spanisch 
(Molto  vivace)  ;  V.  Polnisch  (Allegro  con 
fuoco)  ;  VI.  Ungarisch  (Molto  Allegro). 
Published  by  Heinauer  (Breslau,  1885)  ;  by 


ISTATIVITfi 


Durdilly  (Pai-is).  AiTangeJ  for  the  piano- 
forte for  four  Lands. — Neue  Zeits.  (1885), 
366. 

NATIVITY,  LA,  oratorio,  text  by  Cliaba- 
non  de  Maugris,  music  by  Gossee,  first  per- 
formed in  France  in  1780.  It  contains  a 
fine  double  chorus  sung  by  angels  and 
sliepberds,  ■which  excited  the  greatest  enthu- 
siasm. Another  effect  was  jjroduced  by  a 
second  orchestra  behind  the  scenes.  Per- 
golesi  also  wrote  an  oratorio  of  the  same 
title. — ^Hcdouin,  Gossee,  sa  vie  et  ses  ou- 
vrages. 

NATIVITY,  THE,  cantata  in  three  pai-ts, 
for  chonis,  soli,  and  orchestra,  text  from 
MU ton's  ode  "  On  the  Morning  of  Christ's 
Nativity,"  music  by  John  Knowles  Paine, 
op.  38,  first  performed,  1883. — Upton, 
Standard  Cantatas,  28G. 

NATUR  UND  LTEBE  (Natui-e  and  Love), 
cantata,  text  by  Kind,  music  by  Carl  Maria 
von  Weber,  for  two  sojjrauos,  two  tenors, 
two  basses,  and  pianoforte,  wiitten  for  the 
name-day  of  King  Friedrich  August  of 
Saxony,  first  performed  in  PiUnitz,  Aug.  3, 
1818.  It  was  sung  by  Mile  Julchen  Zuchcr, 
first  soprano ;  Mme  Mieksch,  second  so- 
prano ;  Herr  Bergmann,  first  tenor ;  Herr 
Wilhelmi,  second  tenor ;  Herr  Slieksch, 
first  bass  ;  and  Herr  Helwig,  second  bass. 
The  autograph  is  in  the  possession  of  Max 
von  Weber,  and  a  copy  is  in  the  private 
library  of  the  King  of  Saxony.  Published 
by  Schlesinger  (Berlin).  Published  with  a 
second  text,  "  Freundschaft  und  Liebe,"  by 
Hei-klots  ;  in  English  as  "  The  Offering  of 
Devotion  "  (Cramer  &  Co.,  London). — Jilhns, 
Weber  Verzeichniss,  257  ;  Weber,  Weber, 
ii.  172  ;  Berliner  mus.  Zeitg.,  i.  109. 

NAUBEET,  FRIEDRICH  AUGUST,  born 
at  Schkeuditz,  Prussian  Saxony,  March  23, 
1839,  stiU  living,  1890.  Vocal  composer, 
pupil  of  Stern's  Conservatorium  in  Berlin, 
organist  and  vocal  instructor  at  the  Gymna- 
sium of  Neu-Brandenburg.  He  enjoys  con- 
siderable reputation  as  a  song  writer. 

NAUE,  JOHANN  FRIEDRICH,  born  at 
Halle,  Nov.  17,  1787,  died  there.  May  19, 


1858.  Church  composer,  pupil  of  Tiii-k, 
whom  he  succeeded  in  1813  as  music  di- 
rector at  the  university,  where  he  exerted 
himself  for  the  elevation  of  vocal  church 
music.  He  sacrificed  his  entire  fortune  in 
collecting  a  precious  musical  library,  after- 
wards bought  in  part  for  the  royal  library 
in  Berlin,  and  in  bringing  about,  in  1829, 
the  great  music  festival  at  Halle,  which  was 
conducted  by  Sjiontini.  Works  :  Versuch 
eiuer  musikalischen  Agenda,  etc.  (Hallo, 
1818) ;  Allgemeines  evangelisches  Choral- 
buch  (ib.,  1829) ;  Cantato  zur  Gediicht- 
nissfeiereiUcr  Verstorbener  ;  Motets,  hymns, 
responses  ;  INIarcho  triomi)hale,  for  chorus 
and  wind  instruments  ;  Pianoforte  music, 
etc. — Mendel ;  Eiemauu. 

NAUMANN,  E:\nL,  born  in  Beriin,  Sept. 
8,  1827,  died  in  Dres- 
den, June  23,  1888. 
Dramatic  coin230ser 
and  distinguished 
■«Titer  on  music, 
gi-andson  of  Johaun 
Gottlieb  Navmiann, 
first  instructed  at 
Bonn  by  Johanna 
Matthieu  and  by 
Franz  Anton  Ries, 
then  at  Frankfort  pupil  of  Schnyder  von 
Wartenseo,  and  at  the  Conservatorium  in 
Leipsic  of  Mendelssohn,  finally  at  Frankfort 
of  Moser.  In  185G  bo  was  called  to  Berlin 
as  music  director  at  the  Hofkircho,  and  in 
1869  appointed  royal  professor,  isrojjosed 
by  the  Academy  of  Ai-ts.  In  1873  he  set- 
tled at  Dresden,  where  soon  after  he  founded 
a  singing  society.  Works  :  Judith,  ojaera  ; 
Die  Miihleuhexe,  Singspiel ;  Loreley,  opera, 
Berlin,  1888  ;  Christus  der  Friedensbote, 
oratorio,  Dresden,  1848  ;  Die  Zerstorung 
Jcrusalems,  cantata  ;  Dank-  und  Jiibelcan- 
tate,  BerUn,  18GG  ;  Solemn  mass ;  Psalms, 
and  other  chui-ch  music  ;  Symphonies  ;  Pi- 
anoforte music  and  songs.  Among  his  writ- 
ings, "Die  Tonkunst  in  der  Culturge- 
schichte  "  (Beriin,  18G9-70)  takes  the  high- 
est rank. — Mendel ;  Riemann. 


NAUMAN]^ 


NAUIVIANN,  ERNST  (CARL),  born  at 
Freiberg,  Saxony,  Aug.  15,  1832,  still  liv- 
ing, 1890.  Instrumental  composer,  grand- 
son of  Joliann  Gottlieb  Naumanu,  pu^nl  of 
Hauptmaun,  Richter,  Wenzel  and  Langer, 
at  Leipsic,  and  of  Johann  Schneider  at  Dres- 
den ;  became  music  director  at  the  univer- 
sity and  city  organist  at  Jena  in  ISGO,  and 
professor  in  1877.  Works  :  2  quintets  for 
strings,  op.  G,  13  ;  Quartet  for  do.,  op.  9  ; 
Trio  for  pianoforte  and  strings,  op.  7 ; 
Serenade  for  string  quintet,  flute,  oboe, 
bassoon,  and  born  ;  Sonata  for  viola,  op.  1 ; 
etc. — Mendel ;  Riemann. 

NAUIIANN,  JOHANN  GOTTLIEB,  born 
at  Blase witz,  near  Dresden,  Ajnil  17,  1741, 
died  in  Dresden,  Oct.  23,  1801.  Dramatic 
composer,  jjupil  in  Dresden  at  tlio  Ki-euz- 
scbule,  -wlience  a  Swedish  musician,  named 
Weestrom,  took  Lim  about  1757  to  Italy. 
After  a  short  time  in  Hamburg  and  Padua, 
bad  treatment  compelled  him  to  leave  the 
Swede,  and  he  became  a  pupil  of  Tartini. 
After  three  years  in  Padua  he  visited  Najjles, 
Rome,  Bologna,  where  he  studied  under 
Padre  Martini,  and  Venice.  Returning  to 
Dresden  in  17G3,  he  became  court  composer 
of  sacred  music.  He 
again  travelled  in  Italy, 
producing  operas,  and  yi  -  v-  - 
on  his  return,  having  /^^ 
declined  an  invitation  to  Berlin  from  Fred- 
erick the  Great,  was  appointed  in  177G,  by 
the  Elector,  Kajoellmeistcr,  and  in  1786 
Oberkapellmeister.  Hummel  was  his  pupil. 
Although  very  popular  in  his  time  and  a 
good  musician,  he  seems  to  have  had  no 
genius,  and  is  now  almost  forgotten. 
Works — Operas  :  AchOlo  in  Seiro,  Palermo, 
17C7  ;  Alessandro  nello  Indie,  Venice,  17C8 ; 
La  clemeuza  di  Tito,  Dresden,  17G9 ;  Lo 
uozze  disturbate,  Solimanno,  Venice,  1772  ; 
Armida,  Padua,  1772  ;  L'  isola  disabita,  Ve- 
nice, 1773  ;  Ifiermestra,  ib. ;  R  villauo  gelo- 
so,  Dresden  ;  L'  ipocondriaco,  ib.  ;  Elisa, 
ib.;  Osiride  ;  Tutto  per  amore  ;  Amphion, 
Stockholm,  177G  ;  Cora,  Gustave  Wasa,  ib., 
1780 ;  Le  reggie  d'  Imeneo,  Dresden ;  Or- 


ll\     '=rUr&>-i'^-fAy 


pheus,  Danish  opera,  Copenhagen,  1785; 
La  sorte  di  Medea,  ballet,  Berlin,  1788  ; 
La  dama  soldato,  Dres- 
den, 1791 ;  Amor  giusti- 
ficato,  ib.,  1792  ;  Prote- 
silao,  Berlin,  1793  ;  An- 
dromeda ;  Aci  e  Galatea, 
Dresden,  1801.  Orato- 
rios :  La  Passione  di 
Giesu  Cristo  ;  Isacco 
figura  del  Redentore ; 
Zeit  und  Ewigkeit ;  San- 
ta Elena  ;  Joseph  reconnu  par  ses  frfjres  ; 
Unsere  Brilder  ;  II  figlio  prodigo  ;  La  Pas- 
sione di  Giesu  Cristo,  with  new  music  ;  Da- 
vidde  in  Terebinto  ;  Betulia  liberata  ;  La 
morte  d'  Abele.  Pater  uoster,  words  by 
Klopstock  ;  20  masses  ;  Te  Deums  ;  Psalms ; 
Motets  ;  Hymns  ;  Litanies  ;  Cantatas  ; 
Elegy,  Le  tombeau  de  Klopstock  ;  18  sym- 
phonies ;  Pianoforte  concerto ;  Pianoforte 
sonatas  ;  Violin  duets  ;  Trios  for  isianoforto 
and  violins  ;  Quartets  for  piano  and  violins  ; 
German,  Italian  and  French  songs. — .iUlgem. 
d.  Biog.,  xxiii.  30G  ;  Bitter,  Gesch.  des 
Oratoriums,  47G  ;  Fetis  ;  Gerber  ;  Mendel ; 
Riemann  ;     Schilling ;     Meissner,     Bruch- 


stilcke  aus  Naumann's  Lebensgeschichte 
(Prague,  1803-4) ;  Rochlitz,  Fiir  Frcundo 
der  Toukuust,  iii.  3 ;  Schubert,  Lebens- 
geschichte Naumann's  (Dresden,  1844). 

NAVOIGILLE,  GUILLAUME  JLXIEN, 
called  Navoigillo  the  elder,  born  at  Givet 
(Ai'dennes),  about  1745,  died  in  Paris,  No- 
vember, 1811.  Violinist,  studied  music  in 
Paris,  where  a  noble  Venetian  took  him  un- 
der his  patronage,  and  finally  adojsted  him. 
For  several  years  he  held  positions  as  vio- 
linist or  chef  d'orchestre  at  various  theatres, 
and  in  180G  entered  the  orchestra  of  the 
King  of  Holland,  after  whose  abdication  ho 
returned  to  Paris.  Works  :  G  symphonies 
for  orchestra  ;  6  trios  for  violins  and  violon- 
cello, oj).  1 ;  do.,  op.  10  ;  G  duos  for  violins. 


NAVOIGILLE 


op.  2  ;  6  sonatas  for  2  violins  and  bass  ;  6 
solos  for  violin,  op.  4  ;  Square  dances  and 
waltzes  ;  Eomances. — Fotis. 

NAVOIGILLE,  HUBERT  JULIEN, 
called  Navoigille  the  younger,  born  at  Givet 
in  1749,  died  (?).  Violinist,  brother  of  the 
preceding,  whose  associate  he  usually  was 
iu  theatre  orchestras,  and  with  whom  he 
went  to  the  Hague.  Works  :  G  symphonies 
for  orchestra  ;  12  quartets  for  strings,  op. 
1,  3  ;  Quintet  for  do.  ;  Sonatas  for  violin. 
— F6tis. 

NAWRA.TIL,  KABL,  born  in  Vienna, 
Oct.  7,  183G,  stiU  living,  1890.  Instrumen- 
tal and  vocal  composer,  pupil  of  Nottebohm 
in  counterpoint  ;  studied  law  and  entered 
the  government  service,  then  practised  as  a 
lawyer,  and  finally  became  a  railway  official. 
Works :  Psalm  XXX.,  for  soprano  solo, 
chorus,  and  orchestra  ;  Mass  ;  Overture  ; 
Quintet  for  pianoforte  and  strings,  iu  D  ma- 
jor ;  Other  chamber  music,  isiauoforte  pieces, 
and  songs. 

NAYLOR,  JOHN,  born  at  Stanningley, 
near  Leeds,  England, 
June  8,  1838,  still  hv- 
ing,  1890.  Organist, 
pupil  of  Robert  Senior 
Burton,  became  organ- 
ist at  Scarborough  in 
18.50,  and  at  York  Min- 
ster iu  1883.  Mus. 
Bac,  Oxford,  1863; 
Mus.  Doc,  ib.,  1872.  Works :  Jeremiah, 
oratorio,  York,  1883  ;  Church  services  ;  An- 
thems ;  Part-songs,  and  songs. 

NEATE,  CHARLES,  born  in  Loudon, 
March  28,  1784,  died  in  Brighton,  March 
30,  1877.  Pianist,  pupil  of  William  Sharp 
and  John  Field  ;  studied  also  composition 
under  Woelfl  and  counterpoint  under  Win- 
ter in  Munich.  He  first  appeared  iu  pub- 
lic as  a  pianist  in  Loudon  in  1800  ;  was 
one  of  the  original  members  of  the  Phil- 
harmonic Society,  and  for  many  years  its 
director.  He  visited  Vienna  in  1815,  and 
for  some  months  enjoyed  the  friendship  of 
Beethoven.      Works :    Trio    for  jjianoforte 


and  strings  ;  Sonatas,  rondos,  fantasias  and 
variations,  for  isianoforte. — Grove  ;  Fetis  ; 
do.,  Supplement,  ii.  2G5  ;  Mendel,  Ergiiuz., 
298. 

NEEB,  HEINRICH,  born  at  Lich,  Hesse, 
in  1807,  died  at  Frankfort,  Jan.  18,  1878. 
Dramatic  composer,  jjupil  of  Peter  Miiller 
at  Friedberg,  and  of  Aloys  Schmitt  at 
Frankfort,  where  ho  settled  in  1831  to 
teach  music.  He  conducted  there  the  sing- 
ing societies  Germania,  Neeb's  Quartett, 
Teutonia,  and  Neeb's  Miiunerchor.  Works 
— Ofjeras  :  Domenico  Baldi ;  Der  Cid  ;  Die 
schwarzcn  Jiigcr  ;  Rudolf  von  Habsburg. 
Das  deutsche  Lied  und  sein  Sanger,  canta- 
ta ;  String  quartets  ;  Pianoforte  pieces  ;  Bal- 
laden  and  songs. — Riemann. 

NEEFE,  CHRISTIAN  GOTTLOB,  born 
at  Chemnitz,  Saxony,  Feb.  5,  1748,  died  at 
Dessau,  Jan.  2G,  1798.  Dramatic  compo.ser, 
son  of  a  poor  tailor,  obtained  through  his 
fine  soprano  voice  a  position  as  choir-boy  in 
his  native  place.  Later  he  studied  law  at  the 
University  of  Leipsie,  and  music  under  J. 
A.  HOler.  The  success  of  some  of  his  com- 
positions induced  him  to  give  up  law  for 
music,  and  iu  187G-79  he  was  oijeratic  con- 
ductor of  Seller's  travelling  theatre  company, 
and  then  of  the  Grossmann-Hellmuth  com- 
pany at  Bonn.  Here  he  became  court  or- 
ganist, and  in  1782  succeeded  vau  der  Eeden 
as  court  music  director  and  as  the  instruc- 
tor of  Beethoven.  The  theatre  was  given 
up  in  1784,  and  his  salary  was  cut  down, 
but  in  1788  a  new  court  theatre  was  estab- 
lished and  gave  him  cmijloyment.  In  1794 
the  war  stopped  this  theatre  also,  and  not 
untU  179G  did  he  obtain  an  engagement  as 
conductor  at  Dessau.  Works — Operettas  : 
Die  Apotheke,  Amor's  Guckkasten,  and  airs 
for  Hiller's  Dorfbarbier,  Leipsie,  1772  ;  Die 
Einspriiche,  ib.,  1773  ;  Heinrich  und  Lj'da, 
ib.,  1777  ;  Zamiro  und  Azor,  1778  ;  Adel- 
heid  von  Vcltheim,  Bonn,  1781  ;  Die  ncuen 
Gutsherren,  1781  ;  Der  dumme  Gartner, 
oder  die  beiden  Antone  ;  IMusic  to  the  mo- 
nodrama,  Sophonisbe  ;  Pater  noster  ;  Ode 
by  Klopstock  for  four  voices  and  orchestra ; 


NEllMT 


2  symphonies  ;  Concerto  for  pianoforte,  vio- 
lin, and  orchestra  ;  2-1:  sonatas  for  piano- 
forte, with  and  without  viohn  ;  Other  pi- 
anoforte music  and  songs  ;  Arrangements 
and  translations  of  operas. — Allgem.  d. 
Biog.,  xxiii.  359  ;  Mendel ;  Riemaun  ;  Schil- 
ling ;  Gerber  ;  Fetis  ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg., 
i.  241,  257,  273,  360  ;  Thayer,  Ludwig  von 
Beethoven's  Leben,  i.  81,  117. 

NEHMT  MEINEN  DANK,  aria  for  so- 
lirano  with  orchestra  in  G,  by  Mozart,  com- 
posed for  Mme  Lange,  in  Vienna,  April  10, 
1782.  Breitkopf  &  Hlirtel,  Mozart  Werke, 
Serie  vi..  No.  23. — KOchel,  Verzeichniss, 
No.  383  ;  Andre,  No.  81  ;  Jahu,  Mozart,  iii. 
274. 

NEIGE,  LA,  ou  le  nouvel  Eginhard, 
opera-comiqiio  in  four  acts,  text  by  Scribe 
and  Germain  Delavigne,  music  by  Auber, 
first  represented  at  the  Theatre  Feydeau, 
Paris,  Oct.  8,  1823.  It  was  given  in  Lon- 
don as  "  The  Frozen  Lake,"  at  Covent  Gar- 
den Theatre,  Nov.  2G,  1824  PubUshed  by 
Schott  (Mainz,  1825)  ;  and  by  Simrock 
(Bonn,  1825).— Berliner  mus.  Zeitg.,  ii.  330, 
338  ;  iii.  149. 

NEITHAEDT,  AUGUST  HEINRICH, 
born  at  Schleiz,  Aug.  10,  1793,  died  in  Ber- 
lin, April  18,  18G1.  Pupil  of  Brunow  and 
Ebhardt ;  then  served  aa  a  volunteer  in  the 
wars  of  1813-15  ;  was  bandmaster  of  the 
Garde-Schiitzen  Battalion  in  181G-22,  and 
of  the  Kaiser  Franz  Grenadiers  in  1822-40. 
He  received  the  title  of  royal  music  du-ec- 
tor  in  1839,  and  in  1843  was  entrusted  with 
tlie  formation  of  a  regular  choir  for  the 
Berlin  Cathedral,  of  which  he  was  appointed 
director  in  1845.  He  visited  St.  Peters- 
burg and  Rome  for  study,  raised  his  choir 
to  a  high  state  of  efficiency,  and  gave  con- 
certs with  it  in  London  in  1850.  Works  : 
Julietta,  die  schOne  Dalmatierin,  opera, 
KOnigsberg,  1834  ;  Horn  duets,  trios,  and 
quartets  ;  Marches  and  other  military  mu- 
sic ;  Sonatas,  variations,  waltzes,  and  other 
pieces  for  pianoforte  ;  Quintets  for  flute, 
violin,  and  bass  :  Quartets  for  men's  voices  ; , 
Many  songs,  including  Ich  bin  eiu  Preusse.  | 


He  edited  Musica  Sacra  (Berlin,  8  vols.) 
and  Chorale  zum  Kirchengebrauch  (ib.). 
— Mendel  ;  Schilling,  Supplement,  322  ; 
Riemann  ;  Futis. 

NEL  COR  Pit!  NON  MI  SENTO,  six 
variations  for  the  pianoforte,  in  G,  by  Beet- 
hoven, on  a  theme  from  Paisiello's  La  3Ioli- 
nara,  composed  in  1795,  and  published  by 
Diabelli  (Vienna,  1795,  and  by  Traeg  (Vi- 
enna, 1795).  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Beetho- 
ven Werke,  Serie  17,  No.  7.  The  theme  is 
known  in  English  as  "  Hope  told  a  flatter- 
ing tale." — Thayer,  Verzeichniss,  17  ;  Nohl, 
Beethoven,  iii.  58,  123. 

NENNA  (NENNO),  POMPONIO,  born  at 
Bari,  Najjles,  about  15G0.  He  was  of  noble 
birth  ;  in  1G13  he  was  crowned  with  laurel 
in  Naples.  Although  many  editions  of  his 
madrigals  were  published,  they  are  singu- 
larly rare.  Works :  Madrigals  in  collections 
published  in  1585  and  1594  ;  Madrigali  a 
cinque  voci,  8  books  (Venice,  1G09-24) ; 
Madrigali  a  quattro  voci  (ib.,  1631). — Fetis ; 
Mendel  ;  Riemaun. 

NERO,  German  opera,  text  by  Feustking, 
music  by  Handel,  first  re2)rosented  in  Ham- 
burg, Feb.  25,  1705.  Its  full  title  was  "  Die 
durch  Blut  uud  Mord  erlangte  Liebe,  odor 
Nero."  Johann  Mathesou  sang  the  part  of 
Nero,  this  being  the  last  ©ijera  in  which 
he  a^jpeared.  The  work  contained  at  least 
seventy-five  airs,  but  the  entire  score  is  lost. 
— Rockstro,  Handel,  40. 

NERO,  German  opera  in  four  acts,  text 
by  Jules  Barbier,  music  by  Rubinstein,  first 
represented  at  the  Stadttheater,  Hamburg, 
Nov.  1,  1879.     Original  cast : 

Nero  (T.) Herr  Winekelmann. 

Viudex  (Bar.) Herr  Kriickel. 

Saccus  (B.) Herr  Landau. 

Crysa  (S.) Mme  Sucher. 

Epicharis  (C.) Mile  Borree. 

Poppoea  (S. ) Mme  Prochaska. 

First  represented  in  St.  Petersburg,  Feb. 
10,  1884  ;  in  New  York,  in  English,  by  the 
American  Opera  Company,  March  14,  1887. 
Published  by  Scuff  (Leipsic,  1878).     Other 


KERUDA 


operas  of  the  same  title,  in  Italian :  text  by 
Maria  Piccioli,  music  by  Carlo  Pallavicino, 
Venice,  1G79 ;  music  by  Carlo  Porsile,  Na- 
ples, 1686  ;  Nerone  fatto  Cesare,  text  by 
Matteo  Noris,  music  by  Perti,  Venice,  1G93  ; 
Nerone,  music  by  Antonio  Gianettini,  Mo- 
dena,  about  1710 ;  text  by  Piovene,  music 
by  Giovanni  Maria  Orlandini,  Venice,  1721 ; 
music  by  Vignati,  about  1725  ;  music  by 
Egidio  Komoaldo  Duni,  Eomc,  1735  ;  La 
morte  di  Nerone,  by  Angelo  Tarchi,  Venice, 
1792  ;  and  in  German  by  Reissiger,  Municb, 
1822. — Clement  et  Larousse,  929  ;  La  Mai-a, 
Mus.  Studienkopf,  iii.  217 ;  Mus.  Woclien- 
blatt  (1879),  544;  Signale  (1879),  929; 
(1884),  273;  Krebbiel,  Review  (1886-87), 
152. 

NERUDA,  JOHANN  GEORG,  bom  at 
Rossicz,  Bohemia,  in  1706,  died  in  Dresden 
in  1780.  He  played  in  the  orchestra  of  a 
theatre,  travelled,  and  from  1750  until  his 
death  was  a  member  of  the  Elector's  chapel 
in  Dresden.  His  two  sons,  Ludwig  and 
Anton,  were  also  attached  to  the  Dresden 
chapel.  Works:  18  symphonies;  4  violin  con- 
certos ;  30  trios  ;  6  solos  for  \'iolin. — Wurz- 
bach  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling  ;  Gerber  ;  Fctis. 
NESSLER,  \1CT0R  ERNST,  bom  at 
Baldenheim,  near 
Schlettstadt,  Alsace, 
Jan.  28,  1841,  still  hv- 
ing,  1890.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  of 
Thcophil  Stem  at 
Strasburg,  where  he 
studied  theology,  then 
finished  his  musical 
education  at  Leipsic, 
where  he  conducted 
several  singing  societies,  and  in  1870  be- 
came chorus  master  at  the  Stadttheater  ;  in 
1879  music  director  at  the  Carolatheater. 
He  has  lived  at  Strasburg  for  several  years. 
Works — Operas :  Dornroschens  Brautfahi't, 
Leipsic,  1867;  Irmingard,  ib.,  1876;  Der 
Rattenfiinger  von  Hameln,  ib.,  1879 ;  Der 
wide  Jiiger,  ib.,  1881 ;  Der  Trompeler  von 
Siikkingen,  ib.,  1884.    Operettas  :  Fleurette, 


Strasbui'g,  1864  ;  Die  Hochzeitsreise,  Leip- 
sic, 1867 ;  Nachtwiichter  und  Student,  ib., 
1868;  Am  Alexandertag,  ib.,  1869.  Der 
Blumen  Rache,  for  chorus,  soli,  and  orches- 
tra ;  Siingers  FriihUngsgruss,  double  chorus 
for  male  voices ;  Voa  der  Wiege  bis  zum 
Grabe,  cycle  for  chorus,  soU,  and  i^iano- 
forte ;  Quartets  for  male  voices ;  Songs. 
— 3Ius.  Wocheublatt,  xv.  559  ;  Riemann. 

NESWADBA,  JOS  (properly  Hamacek), 
born  at  Vj'skef,  Bohemia,  Jan.  19,  1824, 
died  at  Darmstadt,  June  20,  1876.  He 
was  Kapellmeister,  successively,  at  the  the- 
atres of  Karlsbad  (1848),  Olmiitz,  Bri'mn, 
Gratz,  at  the  National  Theatre  in  Prague 
(1857-58),  at  the  Italian  Opera  in  Berlin 
(1859-60),  at  the  Stadttheater  in  Hamburg 
(1861-63),  and  in  1864  became  Hof-KapeU- 
meister  at  Darmstadt.  Works  :  Music  to 
several  ballets,  performed  at  Darmstadt ; 
Overtures,  and  other  pieces  for  orchestra  ; 
Bohemian  songs,  and  choruses. — Mendel ; 
Slovnik  naMhnf  (Prague,  1859),  v.  790; 
Wurzbach. 

NETZER,  JOSEF,  bom  at  Zams,  Tyrol, 
March  18,  1808,  died  at  Gratz,  May  28, 1864. 
Dramatic  composer,  self-taught  on  the  piano- 
forte and  organ,  afterwards  at  Innsbruck  pu- 
pil of  Martin  GoUer  on  the  pianoforte,  and 
of  Kathi'ein  on  the  violin.  He  then  went  to 
Vienna,  where  he  became  one  of  the  favour- 
ite pianoforte  teachers,  and  studied  comjio- 
sition  under  Gilnsbacher,  and  counterpoint 
under  Sechter.  In  1839  he  visited  Italy, 
and  in  1842  made  a  tour  through  Germany 
to  produce  his  opera  Mara,  which  had  been 
brought  out  with  great  success  in  Vienna, 
in  1841.  At  Leipsic  he  assisted  Lortzing 
as  Kapellmeister  at  the  Stadttheater  and 
conductor  of  the  Euteii^e  Concerts  in  1844- 
45,  then  was  for  one  year  Kapellmeister  of 
the  Theater  an  der  Wien  in  Vienna,  where 
he  resided  three  years.  After  a  visit  at 
Meldenau,  near  Leipsic,  in  1848,  he  went, 
in  1849,  as  Kapellmeister  to  Mainz,  and, 
having  again  lived  at  Leipsic,  accepted,  in 
1853,  an  engagement  as  Kapellmeister  of 
the  theatre  at  Gratz.    Works — Operas  :  Die 


12 


^EUBAUEli 


Belagerung  von  Gothenburg  ;  Mara,  given  in 
Vienna,  1841 ;  Die  Eroberung  von  Granada, 
ib.,  1844  ;  Die  seltene  Hocbzeit,  ib.,  1846  ; 
Die  Konigin  von  Castilien.  Overtures,  sym- 
phonies, string  quartets.  More  than  100 
songs. — Heiudl,  Gallerie,  etc.,  ii.  54 ;  Kess- 
ler,  Jos.  Nctzer,  etc.  (Gratz,  18G4) ;  "Wurzbacb. 

NEUBAUEE,  FEANZ  CHEISTIAN,  born 
at  Horzin,  Bohemia,  in  17G0,  died  at  Biicke- 
burg,  Oct.  11,  1795.  Violinist,  pupil  of  a 
village  school  teacher,  went  early  to  Prague 
and  Vienna,  where  he  made  the  acquaint- 
ance of  Mozart,  Haydn,  and  Wranitzky ; 
then  led  a  wandering,  dissipated  life,  giving 
concerts  in  many  German  cities,  and  com- 
posing. In  1780  he  became  Kapellmeister 
to  Prince  Weilburg,  but,  as  the  French 
Eevolution  soon  caused  the  disbanding  of 
the  orchestra,  he  went  to  Minden,  and  later 
to  Biickebui'g,  where  he  was  at  first  court 
composer,  and  afterwards  successor  of  J.  C. 
F.  Bach  as  Kapellmeister.  His  early  death 
was  partly  due  to  intemperance.  Works  : 
Ferdinand  und  Yoriko,  operetta,  given  in 
Vienna  about  1786 ;  Cantatas ;  12  sym- 
phonies ;  10  string  quartets  ;  String  duets 
and  trios ;  Violin  sonatas ;  Violoncello, 
flute,  and  pianoforte  concertos  ;  Flute  duets 
and  trios  ;  Sonata  for  pianoforte,  violin, 
and  bass ;  Valuations  for  pianoforte  and 
violin  ;  Songs. — Dlabacz  ;  Fetis ;  Gerber  ; 
Mendel ;  Eiehl,  Mus.  CharakterkOpfe,  i. 
253  ;  Schilling  ;  Schlichtegi-oU,  Nekrolog 
auf  des  Jahr,  1795  (Gotha),  395  ;  Wurzbach. 

NEUENDOEFF,  ADOLPH,  born  in 
Hamburg,  Germany,  June  13,  1843,  still 
living,  1890.  When  twelve  years  old  he 
was  a  fair  pianist ;  in  1855,  his  father  hav- 
ing removed  to  New  York,  he  received  in- 
straction  there  on  the  violin  from  Joseph 
Weinlich.  When  sixteen  he  became  sec- 
ond violinist,  and  in  1859  first  violinist,  of 
the  old  Stadt  Theatre,  New  York,  and  made 
his  debut  as  a  pianist.  In  1860-61  he  was 
in  South  America,  and  on  his  return  to 
New  York  studied  theory  and  composition 
imder  Carl  Anschtltz,  whom  he  succeeded 
in  1864,  after  a  short  residence  in  Milwau- 


kee, as  conductor  of  the  German  opera.  In 
1867  he  was  conductor  of  the  New  Stadt 
Theatre,  and  is  said  to  ,  >  -~;  '■-- 

have  produced,  in  three 
successive  seasons, 
forty  comic  operas ; 
in  1870-71  he  brought 
from  Europe  another 
comjjany,  with  which 
he  gave  more  than 
thirty  German  operas 
in  seven  months,  Lo- 
hengTin  being  then  sung  for  the  first  time 
in  America.  In  1872  he  went  to  Europe, 
and  brought  back  with  him  Theodor  Wach- 
tel,  and  gave,  in  partnership  with  Carl 
Eosa,  a  season  of  Italian  opera  at  the  new 
Academy  of  Music  in  New  York,  with  Pa- 
repa,  Adelaide  Phillipps,  Wachtel,  and  Sant- 
ley  as  singers.  He  also  established  the 
Germania  Theatre  in  New  York,  and  served 
as  conductor  of  a  choral  society,  and  organ- 
ist of  one  of  the  city  churches.  In  1875  he 
brought  Wachtel  to  America  again,  and 
with  Mme  Papi^enheim  gave  German  opera 
in  the  Academy  of  Music.  In  1876  he  con- 
ducted the  Beethoven  Centennial  Concerts 
in  New  York,  and  attended  the  first  Wagner 
Festival  at  Baireuth  as  correspondent  of 
the  "  New-Yorker  Staats  Zeitung  ;  "  and  in 
the  winter  of  1877  produced,  at  the  Acad- 
emy of  Music,  Der  fliegende  holliinder, 
Tannhiiuser,  and  Die  Walkiire.  In  1878  he 
succeeded  Theodore  Thomas  as  conductor 
of  the  New  York  Philharmonic  Society. 
Financially  ruined  in  1883  by  the  failure  of 
the  Germania  Theatre,  he  has  since  con- 
ducted operas  and  concerts  all  over  the 
United  States,  and  in  1887-88  was  con- 
ductor of  the  concerts  given  by  Josef  Hoff- 
mann on  his  first  tour  in  America.  Works  : 
The  Eat  Charmer  of  Hamelin,  comic  ojiera 
in  four  acts,  1880 ;  Don  Quixote,  comic 
opera  in  four  acts,  1882  ;  Prince  Woodruff, 
romantic  comic  opera  in  three  acts,  1887  ; 
Symphony  No.  1,  1878  ;  Symphony  No.  2, 
1880  ;  Several  smaller  orchestral  works ; 
Songs,  male  quartets,  etc. 


NELTKOMM 


NEUKOMjVI,  SIGIS:MUND,  Eltter  VON, 
bom  at  Salzburg,  July  10,  1778,  died  iu 
Paris,  April  3,  1858. 
Pupil  of  the  organist 
W  e  i  s  s  a  u  e  r ,  whose 
place  he  often  filled  ; 
then  studied  compo- 
sition under  llichael 
Haydn,  and  at  the 
age  of  fifteen  became 
university  organist. 
He  leai'ned  sevei-al 
other  instruments, 
and  played  the  flute 
in  concerts.  When 
eighteen  years  old  he 
was  made  Correpetitor  of  the  opera,  but 
after  finishing  his  university  studies  left 
Salzburg  in  1798  for  Vienna.  He  became 
the  pupil  of  Joseph  Haydn,  who  treated  him 
like  a  son.  In  1807  he  went  to  Stockholm, 
where  he  was  elected  member  of  the  Acad- 
emy ;  then  to  St.  Petersburg,  and  became 
there  conductor  of  the  German  opera.  At 
the  time  of  Haydn's  death  he  returned  to 
Vienna,  and  in  1809  went  to  Paris,  where 
he  was  intimate  with  Grutry,  Cherubini, 
and  other  celebrities.  He  succeeded  Dus- 
sek  as  pianist  to  Talleyrand,  whom  lie  ac- 
companied to  the  Congress  of  Vicuna, 
where  he  was  commissioned  to  compose  a 
l{equiem  in  memory  of  Louis  XVI.,  and 
where  Louis  XVIH.  conferred  iipon  him 
the  Legion  of  Honour-  and  a  title  of  nobil- 
ity. 'With  Talleyrand  he  retm-ued  to  Paris, 
but  in  1816  he  went  in  the  suite  of  the 
Due  de  Luxembourg  to  Brazil  and  was 
a^ipointed  coui't  du-ector  by  the  Emperor 
Dom  Pedro,  with  whom  he  went  to  Lisbon 
when  the  revolution  of  1821  comjieUed  him 
to  leave  Rio  Janeiro.  Then  he  returned 
to  Talleyrand,  but  in  1826  travelled  ia 
Italy,  in  1827  in  Holland  and  Belgium,  and 
in  1829  in  England  and  Scotland.  He  ac- 
companied Talleyrand  on  his  embassy  to 
England  iu  1830  ;  in  1832  visited  Germa- 
ny, in  1833-31  Italy,  and  in  1834-35  Sou- 
thern  France   and  Algiers.      Illness  alone 


prevented  him  from  embarking  for  North 
America  iu  1836,  and  the  last  years  of  his 
Ufe  were  spent  between  London  and  Paris, 
with  brief  visits  to  other  cities.  For  some 
time  he  was  blind,  but  a  successful  opera- 
tion restored  his  sight.  In  spite  of  the  dis- 
tractions of  travelling  he  composed  indus- 
triously, but,  fluent  and  interesting  as  his 
works  are,  they  are  now  almost  forgotten. 
He  cultivated  the  more  serious  kind  of  mu- 
sic, and  attempted  to  revive  the  style  of 
Palestrina.  His  refinement  and  elevated 
character  won  him  many  friends.  Works  : 
Alexander  am  Indus,  ojiera ;  nine  other 
German  operas.  Oratorios :  Das  Gesetz 
des  alten  Bundes  (in  English,  Mount  Sinai) ; 
David  ;  Grableguug,  Auferstehung  und 
Himmclfahi-tChristi;  Pfiugsten.  Cantatas: 
Der  Ostermorgen  ;  Circe  ;  Music  to  Schil- 
ler's Braut  von  Messina  ;  15  masses  ;  5  Te 
Deums  ;  5  chui'ch  cantatas  ;  Morning  and 
evening  service  ;  Many  psalms  ;  3  Italian 
dramatic  scenes  ;  About  two  hundred 
songs  ;  Duets,  terzets,  and  choruses ;  Sj'm- 
phony  ;  5  overtures  ;  7  orchestral  fantasias ; 
57  organ  pieces  ;  Concerto,  sonatas,  and 
other  music  for  pianoforte  ;  Chamber  and 
mUitary  music,  altogether  more  than  1,000 
comjwsitions. — Wurzbach  ;  Mendel  ;  Schil- 
ling ;  Eiemann  ;  Fetis  ;  Rochlitz,  Fiir 
Freunde  der  Tonkunst,  iii.  226  ;  Schebest, 
Aus  dem  Leben  einer  Kilnstlerin  (Stutt- 
gart, 1857)  ;  niustr.  Zeitg.  (1858),  i.  394. 

NEUPERT,  (CARL  FREDERIK)  ED- 
MUND, born  at  Christiania,  Norway,  April 
1,  1842,  died  in  New  York,  June  22,  1888. 
Pianist,  pupil  of  his  father  until  1856,  then 
iu  Berlin  of  KuUak  and  Kiel.  In  1868  he 
became  teacher  of  pianoforte  at  the  Copen- 
hagan  Conservatoi-y,  and  in  1880  professor 
at  the  Imperial  Conservatory,  Moscow,  but 
left  the  latter  on  the  death  of  Nicolas  Ru- 
binstein (1881)  and  after  a  visit  to  Norway 
removed  in  1882  to  New  York,  where  he  de- 
voted himself  to  teaching  and  concert  play- 
ing. Works  :  Andante  fantastique  ;  Before 
the  Battle;  Funeral  Marcli;  6  Norwegian  Im- 
provisations ;  Danse  orientale ;  4  Romances  ; 


NEUSIEDLER 


4  Valses  ;  3  Barcarolles  ;  3  Ballades ;  3  Polo- 
naises ;  124  Concert  etudes.  He  published 
also :  Piano  School  (1880),  and  more  than 
700  technical  studies  and  exercises. 

NEUSIEDLER  (Newsidler),  M  E  L  - 
CmOR,  born  at 
Augsburg  in  the 
first  half  of  the 
ICth  century, 
died  in  Nurem- 
berg in  1590. 
Lutenist,  lived  in 
Italy  in  156G,  and 
afterwards  in 
Nuremberg.  He 
did  much  to  im- 
l>rove  the  lute,  and  published  two  books  of 
lute  music  (Venice,  15GC),  which  were  re- 
printed by  P.  Phaliise  (Louvain,  1571)  and 
by  Tobin  (Strasburg).  He  published  also 
Deutsch  Lautenbuch,  darinnen  kunstreiche 
Motetteu,  etc.  (1574,  2d  ed.,  1596  ;  in  Ital- 
ian, n  primo  libro  in  tabulatura  di  liuto, 
1576)  ;  and  Sechs  Motetteu  von  Josquin  in 
Lautentabulatur  heraus  (1587). 

NEVER  WILL  MY  HEART  REFUSE 
THEE.  See  Ich  will  dir  mein  Herze  schen- 
ken. 

NEVIN,  ETHELBERT  WOODBRIDGE, 
born,  of  American  jjarentage,  in  Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania,  Nov.  25,  1862,  still  living, 
1890.  Pianist,  pupil  in  Pittsburgh  of  von 
der  Heide,  and  of  William  Guenther ;  and 
in  1877-78  studied  singing  in  Dresden  un- 
der von  Boehme.  In  1880-81  he  studied 
counterpoint  under  S.  Austen  Pearce,  of 
New  York,  and  then  in  Boston,  for  two 
years,  the  pianoforte  under  B.  J.  Lang,  and 
harmony  under  Stephen  A.  Emery.  In  1884 
he  went  to  Europe  and  studied,  in  Berlin, 
the  pianoforte  and  theory  under  Karl  Klind- 
worth,  von  Biilow,  and  Carl  Bial.  Works  : 
Suite  for  pianoforte,  op.  2  ;  Waltzes,  and 
other  pianoforte  music  ;  Songs. 

NIBELUNGEN.  See  Ring  des  Nibe- 
lungen. 

NIBELUNGEN,  eleven  Charakterstucke 
for  orchestra  by   Eduard  Lassen,   op.   47, 


written  for  Hebbel's  drama  of  Die  Nibe- 
lungen  (1862),  first  performed  in  1875. 
Published  in  Munich. 

NICCOLINI  (Nicolini),  GIUSEPPE,  born 
in  Piacenza  in  1771  (April,  1763  ?),  died 
there,  Dec.  18,  1842.  Dramatic  composer, 
son  and  pupil  of  Omobono  Niccolini,  ma- 
estro di  cappella  at  Piacenza  ;  he  studied 
singing  under  Macedone,  and  at  the  Con- 
servatorio  di  San  Onofrio  in  Naples  was  the 
pupil  of  Insanguine,  called  Mouopoli.  His 
first  opera  was  performed  in  1793,  and  he 
wrote  more  than  fifty  others,  which  were 
rei^resented  with  great  success  in  the  prin- 
cipal cities  of  Italy.  After  becoming  ma- 
estro di  cappella  of  the  cathedral  at  Pia- 
cenza in  1819,  he  composed  chiefly  church 
music.  Works— Operas  :  La  famiglia  stra- 
vagante,  Parma,  1792  ;  II  principe  Spazza- 
camino,  I  molinari,  Genoa,  1794 ;  Le  nozze 
campestri,  Milan,  1794  ;  L'  Artaserse,  Ven- 
ice, 1795  ;  La  donna  innamorata,  ib.,  1796  ; 
Alzira,  Genoa,  1797  ;  La  clemenza  di  Tito, 
Leghorn,  1798  ;  I  due  fi-atelli  ridicoli, 
Rome,  1798;  II  Bruto,  Genoa,  1799;  Gli 
Scitti,  II  trioufo  del  bel  sesso,  Milan,  1799  ; 
L'iudativo,  Genoa,  1800  ;  I  baccanali  di 
Roma,  Milan,  1801 ;  I  Manlj,  ib.,  1802  ;  La 
selvaggia,  Rome,  1803  ;  Fedra,  ossia  il  ri- 
torno  di  Teseo,  ib.,  1804  ;  II  geloso  siuce- 
rato,  Geribea  e  Telamone,  Gl'  incostauti 
uemici  delle  donne,  Le  nozze  inaspettate, 
Najsles,  1805  ;  Abenhamet  e  Zoraide,  Mil- 
an, 1806  ;  Trajano  in  Dacia,  Rome,  1807  ; 
Le  due  gemelle,  ib.,  1808  ;  Coriolauo,  Milan, 
1809  ;  Dario  Istaspe,  Turin,  1810  ;  Angeli- 
ca e  Medoro,  ib.,  1811  ;  Abradame  e  Dir- 
cea,  Milan,  1811  ;  Quinto  Fabio,  Le  nozze 
dei  Morlacchi,  Vienna,  1811  ;  La  feudataria, 
Piacenza,  1812  ;  La  casa  del  astrologo  ;  Mi- 
tridate  ;  L'  ira  d'  Achille  ;  Balduino  ;  Carlo 
Magno  ;  II  conte  di  Lennos  ;  Annibale  in 
Bitinia  ;  Cesare  nelle  Gallic  ;  Adolfo  ;  La 
presa  di  Granata  ;  L'  eroe  di  Lancastro  ; 
Aspasia  ed  Agide ;  II  Teuzzone  ;  Ilda  d' 
Avenelle,  Bergamo,  1828  ;  La  conquista  di 
Malacca ;  Witikind  ;  II  trionfo  di  Cesare. 
Five  oratorios  ;  30  masses  ;  2  requiems  ;  100 


NICCOLINI 


psalms  ;  Cantatas  ;  Pianoforte  sonatas  ;  Quar- 
tets for  different  instruments  ;  Canzonets, 
and  other  compositions. — Fetis  ;  Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

NICCOLINI,  LOUIS,  born  at  Pistoja  in 
17G9,  died  at  Leghorn  in  1829.  PupU  of 
llutiui  at  Florence,  then  of  Sala,  Tritto,  and 
Paisiello  at  the  Conservatorio  della  Pieta 
dei  Turchini  in  Naples.  In  1789  he  was 
appointed  maestro  di  cappella  of  the  cathe- 
dral at  Leghorn.  Works  :  Several  baUets 
for  the  Teatro  San  Carlo,  Naples  ;  Masses, 
Utanies,  and  many  other  sacred  composi- 
tions.— Fetis. 

NICCOLO  DE'  LAPI,  ossia  1'  assedio  di 
Firenze,  Italian  opera  seria  in  four  acts, 
text  bj'  Pinto,  music  by  Pacini,  first  ref)re- 
sented  in  Florence,  Oct.  29,  1873.  It  was 
sung  by  Mme  Ronzi-Checchi,  Augusti,  and 
Nierly.  Same  text,  music  by  Francesco 
Schira,  London,  March  7,  1SG3  ;  by  Gio- 
vanni Rossi,  Ancona,  1804,  Parma,  18GG  ; 
by  Gammieri,  St.  Petersburg,  Dec.  6,  1877  ; 
and  by  Terziaui,  Rome,  Februaiy,  1883. 

NICHEL:\L\NN,  CHRISTOPH,  bom  at 
Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg,  Aug.  13, 1717, 
died  in  Berlin,  July  20,  17G2.  Instrumental 
and  vocal  composer,  and  writer  on  music ; 
pupil  of  Bach,  and  his  oldest  sou,  at  the 
Thomasschule  in  Leijisic,  and  of  Quautz  in 
Berlin,  having  in  the  meanwhile  lived  in 
Hamburg.  In  1741-5G  he  was  pianist  to 
Frederick  the  Great.  He  is  now  chiefly 
known  by  his  book  Die  Melodie  nach  ihrem 
Wesen,  etc.  (Dautzic,  1755),  which  he  de- 
fended successfully  against  the  attacks  of 
a  pseudonymous  Diinkelfeind.  Works  :  H 
Boguo  di  Scipione,  serenade,  Berlin,  17i6  ; 
Galatea,  pastorale  (with  Frederick  the  Great, 
Grauu,  and  Quantz),  ib.  ;  Pianoforte  music, 
and  songs  for  the  collections  of  Mai-pm-g 
(175G),  Voss  (1758),  Lange  (1758),  and  Bu-n- 
stiel  (17G0).— Fetis  ;  Gerber  ;  Mendel  ; 
Schilling. 

NIC0D£,  jean  LOUIS,  born  at  Jerczik, 
near  Posen,  Aug.  12,  1853,  still  living,  1890. 
Pianist,    first  instructed   in    Berlin  by   his , 
father,  then  pupil  of  Hartkiis,  and  at  Kul- 1 


lak's  Academic  of  KuUak  on  the  pianoforte, 
and  of  Wiierst  in  theory  ;  finally,  of  Iviel  in 
counterpoint  and  com- 
position. Having  for 
several  years  taught  in 
Berlin,  where  he  re- 
peatedly played  in  pub- 
lic, he  made  a  concert 
tour  with  Madame  Ai-- 
tut  through  Galicia  and 
Roumania  in  1878,  and 
became  in  1879  in- 
structor at  the  Conser- 
vatorium  in  Dresden.  Works  :  Maria  Stu- 
ai't,  symphonic  poem  ;  Symphonic  variations 
on  an  original  theme  ;  Chamber  music ;  So- 
natas for  pianoforte,  etc. — Riemann. 

NICOLA,  IvARL,  born  at  Mannheim  in 
1797,  died  at  Hanover,  June,  1875.  Vio- 
linist, pupil  of  Wendling  and  in  composi- 
tion of  Gottfried  Weber  ;  member  of  the 
court  orchestra  at  Mannheim,  Stuttgart 
(1821-23),  and  finally  at  Hanover.  Works  : 
Overture  to  the  drama  Anna  Boleyn  ;  Ada- 
gio and  rondo  for  violin  and  orchestra  ;  2 
quartets  for  strings  ;  Sonatas  for  violin  and 
pianoforte  ;  About  7  collections  of  German 
songs. — Fetis  ;  Schilling. 

NICOLAI,  (CARL)  OTTO  (EHREN- 
FRIED),  born  at 
Kiinigsberg,  June  9, 
1810,  died  in  Berhn, 
May  11,  1849.  Dra- 
matic composer,  pu- 
pil on  the  pianoforte 
of  his  father,  a  sing- 
ing teacher  ;  was  so 
unhappy  a  t  home 
that  he  ran  away  at 
the  age  of  sixteen.  He  was  befriended  by 
the  Justizrath  Adler,  of  Stargard,  who 
helped  him  in  his  studies,  and  in  1827  sent 
him  to  Berlin,  where  he  studied  under  Zelter 
and  Klein.  In  1833  the  Chevalier  Buusen 
sent  him  to  Rome,  as  organist  to  the  chapel 
of  the  Prussian  embassy,  where  he  studied, 
under  Baini,  the  great  Italian  masters,  es- 
pecially the  older  ones.     Late  in  1837  be 


NICOLAI 


went  to  Vienna,  where  he  was  made  Ka- 
pellmeister and  singing  master  at  the  court 
opera.  In  October,  1838,  he  returned  to 
Rome,  and  began  his  career  as  a  dramatic 
composer,  producing  several  operas  in 
various  Italian  cities  with  much  suc- 
cess. In  1841  he  retui-ned  once  more 
to  Vienna,  to  become  first  Kapellmeister 
of  the  opera,  which  post  he  held  to  gen- 
eral admiration  until  Easter,  1847,  hav- 
ing produced  two  operas  during  hia  stay. 
lu  1842  he  founded  the  Philharmonic  Con- 
certs there.  The  composition  of  a  mass 
(1843)  dedicated  to  Friedrich  WUhelm  IV., 
and  of  a  Festival  Overture  for  chorus  and 
orchestra  on  Ein'  feste  Burg  for  the  Jubilee 
of  the  KOnigsberg  University  in  1844,  got 
him  a  call  to  Berlin  as  director  of  the  then 
newly  organized  Domchor,  and  Kapellmeis- 
ter of  the  opera.  Here  he  finished  his  Die 
lustigeu  Weiber  von  Windsor,  decidedly  his 
best  work,  which  he  had  begun  at  Vienna. 
It  was  brought  out  at  Berlin  with  resound- 
ing success,  only  two  mouths  before  he 
died  of  apoplexy.  Excepting  this  last  work, 
and  his  Festival  Overture,  nothing  of  his 
ever  had  a  very  lasting  success.  He  had 
a  natural  gift  of  bright,  graceful  melody, 
and  wrote  in  excellent  style,  albeit  he  nev- 
er aimed  very  high,  and  was  content  to 
please  the  taste  of  the  day.  Yet  much 
might  have  been  expected  of  him,  had  he 
lived  longer.  He  was  honorary  member  of 
the  Societa  CeciHa  at  Rome,  and  of  the  Fi- 
larmonici  at  Bologna.  In  1851  the  Berlin 
Tonkiinstler-Vereiu  set  up  a  monument  over 
his  grave  in  the  church-yard  of  the  Doro- 
theenstadt.  Works — Ojieras  :  Rosmonda 
d'  Inghilterra,  given  in  Turin,  1838,  in 
Trieste,  as  Eurico  H.,  April  2G,  1839  ;  II 
Templario,  three  acts,  text  by  G.  M.  Marino, 
after  Scott's  "Ivauhoe,"  Turin,  Feb.  11, 
1840  ;  Odoardo  e  Gildippe,  Turin,  1841  ;  II 
proscritto,  three  acts,  Milan,  March  13, 
1842,  in  German  as  Die  Heimkehr  des  Ver- 
bannteu,  Vienna,  Feb.  3,  1844  ;  Die  bisti- 
gen  Weiber  von  Windsor,  Berlin,  March  9, 
1849.     Mass,  dedicated   to  Friedrich  Wil- 


helm  IV.,  1843 ;  i^'es^Ouverture,  KOnigsberg, 
1844  ;  Symphony  ;  Requiem  ;  Te  Deum  ;  G 
Lieder,  op.  G  ;  Lieder  uud  Gesilnge,  op.  IG  ; 
Concerto  for  pianoforte  and  orchestra,  and 


JP 


other  pianoforte  music ;  Songs  and  cho- 
ruses.— Mendel,  Otto  Nicolai,  Eiue  Bio- 
graphic (Berhn,  18G8). 

NICOLAI,  JOHANN  GOTTLIEB,  born 
at  Gross-Neuudorf,  Saxe-Meiningen,  Oct. 
15,  1744,  died  at  Zwoll  in  1801.  Organist 
and  concert  director  from  1780  at  Zwoll. 
Works :  Die  Wilddiebe,  operetta,  1774 ; 
Der  Geburtstag,  do.,  1779  ;  Jolantha,  do., 
1785  ;  Symphonic  concertaute  for  violin  and 
violoncello,  op.  7  ;  2  quartets  for  strings  ; 
Sonatas  for  pianoforte  ;  Soli  for  flute,  etc. 

NICOLAI,  WILLEM  FREDERIK  GE- 
RARD, boru  in  Leyden,  Holland,  Nov.  20, 
1829,  still  living,  1890.  Organist  and  pian- 
ist, pupil  at  the  Conservatorium,  Leipsic,  of 
Moscheles,  Rietz,  Hauptmann,  and  Richter, 
and  at  Dresden  of  Johanu  Schneider  on  the 
organ.  In  1852  he  was  appointed  instruc- 
tor at  the  royal  school  of  music  at  The 
Hague  and,  after  Liibeek's  death,  became 
its  director.  As  conductor  of  several  musi- 
cal societies  and  as  editor  of  the  "  Cecilia" 
(since  1870),  he  has  had  much  influence 
among  his  countrymen.  Works:  Bouifa- 
cius,  oratorio ;  Das  Lied  von  der  Glocke, 
for  chorus,  soli,  and  orchestra  ;  Hansken 
van  Gelder,  for  male  chorus  and  do.  ;  Ter 
herinnering,  for  do. ;  Vondel-hymne,  for  do. ; 
Door  het  woud,  for  do.  ;  Thorbeckecantate, 
for  do.  ;  De  zweedsche  nachtegaal,  for  chil- 
dren's voices,  mixed  chorus,  and  orchestra  ; 
Other  cantatas  ;  Duets  and  songs ;  Piano- 
forte music. — Mendel ;  Riemann  ;  Viotta. 

NICOLO.     See  Uoxmrd. 

NICOU-CHORON,  STEPHANE  LOUIS, 
born  in  Paris,  April  20,  1809,  died  there, 
Sei^t.  G,  188G.     Church  composer,  educated 


17 


XIDECKI 


at  Choron's  Institution  Eoyale  de  Musique, 
where  Le  became  professor  and,  in  1832, 
insf)ector  of  studies.  Ou  the  death  of 
Chorou,  whose  son-iu-law  he  had  become, 
he  assumed  the  direction  of  the  school, 
which,  however,  abandoned  by  the  govern- 
ment, could  not  support  itself.  Works : 
Oratorios  for  Cluistmas,  Easter,  and  Pen- 
tecost :  Several  cantatas ;  Several  solemn 
masses  with  orchestra  ;  Short  masses  with 
organ  ;  Many  motets  and  canticles  ;  Marche 
religieusc,  for  orchestra  ;  Sacred  songs,  etc. 
— Fotis,  Supjjh'meut,  ii.  272. 

NIDECKI,  TOMASZ,  born  at  Waisaw 
about  1800,  died  there  in  1852.  Dramatic 
composer,  pui^il  of  Eisner  at  the  Conserva- 
torium  in  Warsaw  ;  went  to  Vienna  with  a 
government  stipend,  and  in  1837  settled  at 
Poseu,  whence  he  was  called,  in  1841,  to 
succeed  Kurj)iliski  as  conductor  of  the  op- 
era in  Warsaw.  Works  :  Der  Wasserfall  in 
Feenheim,  melodrama,  Vienna,  1825  ;  Przy- 
sifga  (The  oath),  lyrical  drama  ;  Masses  and 
other  church  music  ;  Overtures. — Fetis  ; 
Sowinski. 

NIEDEKMEYEE,  LOUIS,  born  at  Nyon, 
near  Geneva,  Switzerland,  April  27,  1802, 
died  in  Paris,  ]March  14,  18G1.  Dramatic 
composer,  puj)il  of  his  father,  and  in  Vi- 
enna of  Moscheles  on  the  pianoforte,  and 
of  FOrster  in  composition.  In  1819  ho 
went  to  Italy,  studied  vocal  composition 
under  Fioravanti  in  Rome,  and  under  Zin- 
garclli  in  Naples,  where  he  became  intimate 
with  Rossini,  and  brought  out  his  first  opera. 
He  settled  in  1821  in  Geneva,  thence  went 
to  Paris  in  1823,  but  his  success  falling  short 
of  his  desires,  he  became  music-master  for 
eighteen  months  of  a  school  in  Brussels, 
and  afterwards  returned  to  Paris.  After 
failing  as  a  dramatic  composer  he  devoted 
himself  to  raising  the  school  of  sacred 
music  founded  by  Choron,  and  with  d'Or- 
tigue  founded  the  periodical  "La  Maitrise," 
devoted  to  sacred  music.  Works — Operas  : 
II  reo  per  amore,  Naples  ;  La  casa  nel  bos- 
co,  Paris,  1828  ;  Stradella,  ib.,  1837  ;  Ma- 
ria Stuart,  ib.,  1844  ;  La  Fronde,  ib.,  1853. 


I  Masses,  motets,  anthems,  hymns  ;  Organ 
preludes  ;  Lo  lac,  and  other  melodies,  to 
words  by  Lamartine,  Victor  Hugo,  and  Des- 
champs  ;  Italian  songs ;  Pianoforte  music  ; 
Methode  d'accompagnement  du  plain-chant, 
with  d'Ortigue  (Paris,  1855,  2nd  ed.,  1876) ; 
Accompagnement   pour   orgue   des    offices 

'  de  l'£gUse  (ib.,  1861).— Fi'tis  ;  do..  Supple- 
ment, ii.  273  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann. 

I  NIEMANN,  RUDOLF  (FRIEDRICH), 
born  at  Wesselburen,  Holstein,  Dec.  4, 1838, 
still  living,  1890.  Pianist,  first  instructed 
by  his  father,  an  organist,  then  pupil  at  the 
Conservatorium,  Leipsic,  of  Moscheles, 
Plaidy,  and  Rictz,  at  the  Conservatoire  in 
Paris,  of  Marmontel  and  H;dcvy,  and  finally 
iu  Berlin,  of  Billow  and  liieL  He  made 
himself  iii-st  known  as  a  pianist,  in  1873-77, 
when  he  accompanied  Wilhelmj  on  his  con- 
cert tours  through  Germany,  Russia,  and 
England.  For  several  yeai's  he  lived  at  Ham- 
burg, and,  iu  1883  settled  at  Wiesbaden, 
whence  he  accompanied  Wdhelmj  on  his 
travels,  teaching  also  at  the  hitter's  violin 
school,  at  Biebrich.  He  has  composed  chief- 
ly genre  jjieces  for  pianoforte,  and  songs, 
besides  a  sonata  for  violin. — Riemann. 

NIE  SOLLST  DU  jNHCH  BEFRAGEN. 
See  Lohenfjrin. 

NIEUWENHUIJSEN,  FRED  ERIK, 
born  at  Zutpheu,  Holland,  in  1758,  died  at 
Utrecht,  Jan.  29,  1841.  Organist,  pujjil  of 
Bleumer,  and  in  1772-78  of  Groeuemaun, 
whereupon  he  became  organist  of  the  cathe- 
dral at  Utrecht.  He  made  also  a  great  repu- 
tation as  carillonneur.  Works  :  Do  zeoslag 
by  Doggersbank,  symphonic  jDiece  for  2  or- 
chestras, Utrecht,  1781 ;  La  pais  d'Alkmaar, 
cantata,  1802  ;  De  toonkunst,  do.,  1818  ; 
Other  cantatas  ;  Dramatic  song  for  the  in- 
auguration of  the  theatre  at  Utrecht,  1796  ; 
etc. — Viotta. 

NIEUWENHUIJSEN,  WILLEM  JAN 
FREDERIK,  born  at  Utrecht,  Jan.  4,  1818, 
died  there,  May  19,  1869.  Organist  and 
writer  on  music,  sou  of  the  preceding, 
whom  he  succeeded  in  his  position  at  the 
cathedral.      Works:     Overtui'e    to    Victor 


NIIIOUL 


Hugo's  Hornani ;  Leicester,  cantata  ;  Chor- 
uses for  male  voices  ;  Instrumental  music. 
— Viotta. 

NIHOUL,  IVnCHEL,  born  at  Tongres, 
Belgium,  in  1790,  dietl  there,  November, 
18G5.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Daus- 
soigne-Mehul.  In  1834  he  accepted  a  gov- 
ernment position,  and  in  18G0  was  post- 
master in  his  native  city.  Works  :  Une 
soiree  a  la  mode,  opera-comique,  Liege, 
1836  ;  Le  compromis  des  nobles,  grand  op- 
era ;  Church  music,  and  symphonic  compo- 
sitions. His  son  Romain  (born  at  Tongres 
in  1821,  died  there,  July  30,  1881),  pupil  at 
the  Conservatoire  at  Liege,  was  conductor 
and  director  of  mtisical  societies  in  Ton- 
gres, maitre  de  chapelle  at  the  cathedral, 
and  professor  in  various  schools.  "Works  ; 
Le  bandit,  ojX'ra-comique,  Tongres,  18.'')7; 
Masses,  canticles,  choruses,  etc. — Fetis,  Sup- 
plement, ii.  275. 

NIMM  mCH  DIR  ZU  EIGEN  HIN, 
tenor  aria  in  C  major,  with  accompaniment 
of  two  flutes,  two  horns,  two  oboi  da  caccia, 
strings  complete,  and  continuo,  in  Johann 
Sebastian  Bach's  cantata,  Sie  werden  aus 
Saba  Alio  kommen. 

NINA,  ou  la  folle  par  amour,  comedie  in 
one  act,  text  by  Marsollier,  music  by  Dalay- 
rac,  first  re2)resented  at  the  Italiens,  Paris, 
May  15,  178G,  with  Mme  Dugazon  as  Nina. 
Nina,  believing  that  her  lover,  Germeuil, 
has  been  killed  in  a  duel,  becomes  insane, 
but  recovers  her  reason  on  his  safe  return. 
Given  in  Leii^sic  with  Mme  Aue  as  Nina, 
in  AprU,  1808.  It  was  arranged  as  a  ballet 
in  three  acts  by  Milon  and  Persuis,  and  rep- 
resented at  the  Academie  Royale  de  Mu- 
sique,  Paris,  Nov.  23,  1813,  with  Mile 
Bigottini  as  Nina  and  M.  Milon  as  Ger- 
meuil. Published  by  Scblesinger  (Berlin 
18G0-G7).— Clement  et  Larousse,  477  ;  La- 
jarte,  ii.  81  ;  Clement,  Mus.  celebres,  194  ; 
Jullien,  Airs  varies,  259  ;  Hogarth,  ii.  331. 

NINA,  ossia  la  pazza  per  amore,  Italian 
opera  in  three  acts,  text  by  Lorenzi  after 
Marsollier,  music  by  Paisiello,  first  repre- 
sented in  Naples  in  May,   1787,  with  Mme 


Celestina  Coltellini  as  Nina  and  Signor  Laz- 
zarini  as  her  lover,  Lindor.  Reduced  to 
one  act  by  Paiir,  and  represented  at  the 
King's  Theatre,  London,  May  2G,  1825, 
with  Pasta  as  Nina,  one  of  her  best  achieve- 
ments, and  Signor  Curioni  as  Lindor.  Pub- 
lished by  Eicordi  (Milan),  and  by  Witzen- 
dorf  (Vienna).  Same  title,  Italian  opera 
semi-seria,  text  by  Ferretti,  music  by  Cop- 
pola, first  represented  in  Rome,  May  6, 
1854.  The  part  of  Nina  was  written  for 
Adelina  Sjjech,  who  won  much  success,  and 
it  was  sung  with  effect  also  by  Mme  Alboni. 
It  was  given  at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris, 
in  December,  1839,  under  the  title  of  Eva, 
with  words  bj'  MM.  de  Leuven  and  Bruns- 
wick, and  with  Mme  Eugenie  Garcia  as 
Nina.  An  intermede  in  two  acts,  Nina  et 
!  Lindor,  ou  les  caprices  du  coeur,  text  by 
Eichelet,  music  by  Dimi,  was  given  at  the 
Foire  Saint-Laurent,  Paris,  Sept.  9,  1758. 
— Clement  et  Larousse,  478  ;  Queens  of 
Song,  ii.  18  ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xxvi.  2G1. 

NINI,  ALESSANDRO,  born  at  Fnno, 
Eomagna,  Nov.  1,  1805,  died  at  Bergamo, 
Dec.  27,  1880.  Dramatic  and  church  com- 
poser, pupil  of  Ripiui,  and  at  Bologna  (1827) 
of  Palmerini.  In  1831  he  went  to  St.  Peters- 
burg, where  he  established,  and  until  1837 
directed,  a  school  of  singing.  Some  j'ears 
after  his  return  to  Italy  he  was  made  maestro 
di  cappella  at  the  cathedral  of  Bergamo. 
Works — Operas  :  Ida  della  Torre,  Venice, 
1837  ;  La  Marescialla  d"  Ancre,  Padua,  1839  ; 
Cristina  di  Svezia,  Genoa,  1840  ;  Marghe- 
rita  di  York,  Venice,  1841  ;  Odalisa,  Milan, 
1842  ;  Virginia,  Genoa,  1843.  Church  mu- 
sic.— Fetis  ;  do..  Supplement,  ii.  27G. 

NIOBE,  REGINA  DI  TEBE  (Niobe, 
Queen  of  Thebes),  Italian  opera,  text  by 
Luigi  Orlandi,  music  by  Stefi'ani,  first  rep- 
resented in  Munich,  January,  1G88.  This 
was  Steffani's  last  work  for  the  court  of 
Munich.  Same  subject,  ojiera  by  Pacini, 
Naples,  Nov.  19,  182G,  written  for  Pasta, 
who  won  a  great  triumph  in  it.  Published 
by  Ricordi  (Milan). — Eudhart,  Munchener 
Oper  (1G54-1787),  8L 


19 


Kill  VAN  A 


NIRVANA,  symplionisclies  Stimmungs- 
bild,  for  orchestra,  by  Hans  von  Biilow,  op. 
20,  performed  in  Weimar,  May  25,  1884. 
Published  by  Heine  (Leipsic,  18G0-67); 
and  by  Aibl  (Munich,  1884)  ;  arranged  by 
Richard  Kleinmichel  for  pianoforte  for  four 
hands. 

NISLE,  JEAN  FET^DfiRIC,  born  at 
Neuwied  in  1782,  died  (?).  Virtuoso  on 
the  horn  and  pianist,  pupil  of  Koch  at  Ru- 
dolstadt,  whence  he  went  to  Rostock,  and 
in  1806  joined  in  Vienna  his  elder  brother 
David,  with  whom  he  had  travelled  before 
studying  at  Rudolstadt.  The  two  went  into 
Hungary,  and  thence  to  Trieste,  and  thi'ough 
Italy  as  far  as  Sicily.  Jean  Froduric  settled 
at  Catania,  where  he  founded  a  musical  so- 
ciety, and  lived  for  about  twenty  years.  In 
1834  he  retui-ned  to  Germany,  went  to  Paris 
in  1836,  and  then  to  Loudon,  where  he  still 
was  in  1837.  For  many  years  previously 
ho  had  abandoned  his  former  instrument  for 
the  pianoforte.  Works :  Overture  for  full 
orchestra ;  Quintets  for  vioUns  ;  Quintet  for 
flute,  horn,  and  strings  ;  Do.  for  flute  and 
strings ;  Quartets  for  strings ;  Trios  for  do. ; 
Do.  for  2  horns  and  violoncello ;  Do.  for 
pianoforte,  violin,  and  horn  ;  Duos  for  vio- 
lins ;  Do.  for  horns  ;  Do.  for  pianoforte  and 
horn ;  6  solos  for  violin ;  Divertissements 
and  fantaisies  for  pianoforte  ;  German  and 
Itahan  songs. — Fctis  ;  Schilling. 

NITTETI,  Italian  oper.a  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Metastasio,  music  by  Sarti,  first 
represented  in  Parma  in  17G5.  Scene  in 
Egypt.  Characters  represented  :  Amasi, 
King  of  Egypt ;  Sammete,  his  son  ;  Beroe, 
a  shepherdess,  loved  by  Sammete ;  Nitte- 
ti,  Egyptian  princess,  daughter  of  the  de- 
throned king  Aprio  ;  Amenofi,  sovereign  of 
Cirene,  friend  of  Sammete  and  lover  of 
Nitteti ;  and  Bubaste,  captain  of  the  king's 
guards.  Amasi,  captain  of  the  Egyptian 
army  and  friend  of  Ajjrio,  King  of  Egypt, 
is  sent  by  him  to  subdue  rebellious  prov- 
inces. He  fulfils  his  mission,  and  on  his 
return  is  proclaimed  king  of  Egj'pt  by  the 
people.      Aprio  yields  the   throne  without 


demui',  and  begs  Amasi  to  aid  in  finding 
his  daughter  Nitteti,  lost  in  the  tumult, 
whom  he  wishes  given  in  marriage  to  Sam- 
mete, the  son  of  Amasi,  so  that  she  may  be 
restored  to  the  throne.  Aprio  then  dies  in 
the  arms  of  Amasi.  Published  by  Ricordi 
(Milan).  Same  test,  Italian  operas,  music 
by  Jommelli,  Stuttgai-t,  17.53  ;  Nicolo  Con- 
forti,    INIadrid,    175G  ;    Holzbaucr,    Turin, 

1757  ;    Johann    Adolpli    Hassc,    Dresden, 

1758  ;  by  Angelo  Petrucci,  Mantua,  1766  ; 
Ignaz  Fiorillo,  Cassel,  1770  ;  Sacchini,  Lon- 
don, 1774 ;  Dominico  Fischetti,  Naples, 
Nov.  4,  1775  ;  Carlo  Monza,  Venice,  1777  ; 
Josef  Mysliweczek,  ib.,  1780  ;  Paisiello,  St. 
Petersburg,  1781 ;  Luigi  Gatti,  Lucca,  1786 ; 
Sebastiano  Nasolini,  Trieste,  1788  ;  Parenti, 
Naples,  1789  ;  Bertoni,  ib.,  1789  ;  Bianchi, 
Milan,  1789  ;  Federici,  London,  1797  ;  Be- 
nincori,  Vienna,  1800  ;  Stefano  Pavesi,  Tu- 
rin, 1812  ;  and  Poissl,  Darmstadt,  1817. 

NIVERS,  GUILLAmiE  GABRIEL,  born 
in  a  village  near  Melun  in  1617,  died  in 
Paris  after  1700.  Church  composer  and 
writer  on  music,  pupil  of  Chambonuieres 
on  the  pianoforte,  became  in  1G40  organist 
of  Saint-Sulpice,  in  1642  tenor  in  the  royal 
chapel,  and  in  1G67  organist  of  the  same. 
Afterwards  he  was  also  maitrc  do  mnsiquo 
to  the  queen.  Works  :  Chants  d'eglisc  a 
I'usage  de  la  paroisse  de  Saint-Sulpice  (Pa- 
ris, 1G5G)  ;  Graduale  romanum  juxta  mis- 
sale  Pii  Quinti,  etc.  (ib.,  1G58) ;  Antiphona- 
rium  romanum,  etc.  (1G58)  ;  Passiones  cum 
benedictione,  etc.  (ib.,  1670) ;  Lejons  de 
tenc'bres,  etc.  ;  Chants  et  motets,  etc.  (ib., 
1G92)  ;  Livi-e  dorgue  (3,  1GG5,  1671,  1675). 
— Fc'tis  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann. 

NIXE,  DIE,  cantata  for  alto  solo,  female 
chorus,  and  orchestra,  text  by  Lermontoff, 
music  by  Anton  Rubinstein,  op.  63,  first 
given  at  the  Gewandhaus,  Leipsic,  Fcbru- 
ai-y,  1864.  Published  by  Scnft'  (Leipsic). 
— Hanslick,  Concertwesen  in  Wien,  ii.  340. 

NOBLES  SEIGNEURS,  SALUT !  See 
Uugitenots. 

NOCES  DE  JE.\NNETTE,  LES  (Jcan- 
nette's    Wedding),   optra-comiquc   in    one 


20 


jsrocEs 


act,  test  by  Carre  and  Barbier,  music  by 
Victor  Masso,  first  represented  at  the  Oj)era 
Comique,  Paris,  Feb.  4,  1853.  Tlie  subject, 
Jeauuette,  is  a  young  working-woman,  who 
through  love  and  tact  elevates  the  charac- 
ter of  her  betrothed,  Jean,  a  coarse  and  ill- 
tempered  peasant.  The  chief  parts  were 
sung  originally  by  Mme  Miolan  and  M. 
Coudcrc.  This,  one  of  Masse's  best  works, 
was  first  given  in  New  York  iu  ISGl,  with 
Clara  Louise  Kellogg  and  M.  Dubreuil ;  in 
Loudon  iu  1875  ;  in  Vienna  in  1884 ;  and 
by  the  American  Opera  Company,  New 
York,  March  24,  188G.  Published  by 
Schlesinger  (Berlin,  1854). — Clement  et 
Larousse,  481  ;  Krehbiel,  Eeview  (1885-86), 
183. 

NOCES  D'OLIVETTE,  LES,  opera-co- 
miquo  in  three  acts,  text  by  Chivot  and  Du- 
ra, music  by  Edmond  Audran,  first  repre- 
sented at  the  Boutfes-Parisieus,  Paris,  Nov. 
13,  1879.  Olivette,  daughter  of  the  seue- 
chal  de  Perpignan,  loves  Valentin,  a  young 
officer  in  the  body  guard  of  the  comtesse 
de  Pioussillou,  and  nejjhew  of  capitaine 
Merimac,  whom  Olivette's  father  wishes 
her  to  marry.  Valentin  disguises  himself 
as  his  uncle  and  marries  Olivette.  Matters 
become  complicated,  for  Valentin  dares 
not  appear  as  himself  before  the  comtesse, 
who  is  iu  love  with  him,  and  Olivette  is  in- 
volved with  two  Murimacs.  The  thread  is 
disentangled  through  the  aid  of  the  due 
des  Ifs,  who  draws  the  elder  Merimac  into 
a  conspu'acy  which  forces  him  to  leave  the 
country,  and  wins  the  comtesse's  consent 
to  the  union  of  Valentin  and  Olivette. 
The  original  cast  included  JJlle  Clary  as 
Olivette ;  IMllo  Bennati  as  la  comtesse  de 
Koussillon  ;  MM.  Jolly,  Marcelin,  Gerpre, 
Desmonts,  Pescheus,  and  Bertelot.  The 
opera  was  first  given  in  New  York,  Jan.  7, 
1881.— Kevue  et  Gaz.  mus.  de  Paris  (1879), 
372. 

NOCES  DE  TthtE  ET  DE  THETIS. 
See  Nozze  di  Tetide  e  di  Peleo. 

NOCES  DE  PROMETHfiE,  LES  (The 
Wedding  of  Prometheus),  cantata  for  cho- 


rus, soli,  and  orchestra,  by  Saint-Saens,  op. 
19,  first  performed  at  the  Cirque  des 
Champs  Elysees,  Paris,  Sept.  1,  1867.  Pub- 
lished by  Maho  (Paris,  1868). 

NODUS  SOLOMONIS  (Solomon's  Knot), 
a  celebrated  canon  composed  by  Pietro 
Francesco  Valentini  in  Komc  in  1631.  It 
is  written  on  the  chord  of  G  for  ninety- 
six  voices  iu  twenty-four  choirs.  lurcher 
describes  it  in  his  Musurgia  Universalis 
(Rome,  1650),  and  says  if  the  proper  dis- 
tribution of  the  four-part  chorus  is  made, 
this  canon  may  be  sung  by  twelve  million 
two  hundred  thousand  voices. — Grove,  ii. 
461 ;  Burney,  iii.  522  ;  Hawkins,  iii.  376. 

NOEL.     See  Oratorio  de  Noel. 

NOHR,  CHRISTIAN  FEIEDRICH,  born 
at  Laugeusalza,  Thuringia,  Oct.  7,  1800, 
died  at  Meiningen,  Oct.  5,  1875.  Virtuoso 
on  the  violin,  jjupU  of  Spohr,  and  in  com- 
position of  Umbreit  and  Hauptmann  ;  after 
several  successful  concert  tours  he  became 
Conzertmeister  in  the  ducal  orchestra  at 
Meiningen.  Works — Operas  :  Der  Alpen- 
hirt,  Gotha,  1831  ;  Liebeszauber,  Meinin- 
gen, 1831;  Die  wunderbaren  Lichter,  ib., 
1833 ;  Der  vierjilhrige  Posten,  ib.,  1851. 
Oratorios  :  Martin  Luther,  Eisenach,  1850  ; 
Fraueulob ;  Helvetia.  Symphony  for  full 
orchestra  ;  Pot-pourri  for  wind  instruments  ; 
Quintet  for  strings  ;  2  quartets  for  do.  ; 
Quartets  for  male  voices  ;  German  songs. 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel 

NOLA,  GIOVANNI  DOJHNIC  DE,  Ital- 
ian comjjoser  of  the  10th  century.  His  name 
is  probably  only  that  of  his  birthplace.  He 
was  maestro  di  cajjpella  of  S.  Annunciata  at 
Naples  in  1575.  Works :  D.  Joannis  Dom- 
ini juvenis,  etc.,  cantiones,  vulgo  Motecta 
appellattc,  etc.  (Venice,  1575)  ;  Canzone  vil- 
lanesche  a  3  voci  (ib.,  1545) ;  Villanella  alia 
Napolitana  a  3  e  4  voci  (ib.,  1570) ;  Madri- 
gals in  various  collections  of  the  time. — Fe- 
tis ;  Mendel. 

NON  CASA,  NON  SPIAGGIA.  See 
Pnritani. 

NON,  CE  N'EST  POINT  UN  SACRI- 
FICE.    See  Alcesle,  Gluck. 


NON 


NON,  DE  MA  JUSTE  COLEEE.  See 
Deii.r  families. 

NON  MI  DIE,  BELL'  IDOL  mO.  See 
Don  Giovanni. 

NONNENGESANG  (Song  of  the  Nuns), 
for  soprano  solo  and  female  chorus,  with  ac- 
companiment of  two  horns  and  harp,  text 
from  Uhland's  "  Brautlied,"  music  l)y  Jen- 
sen, op.  10,  No.  1.  It  is  dedicated  to  J.  V. 
E.  Hartniann  and  Niels  W.  Gade.  Pub- 
lished by  Sclmberth  (Hamburg,  18fiO-G7). 

NONNE  SANGLANTE,  LA  (The  Bloody 
Nun),  French  opera  in  five  acts,  text  by 
Scribe  and  Dolavigne,  music  by  Gounod, 
first  represented  at  the  Academic  Royalo  do 
Musique,  Paris,  Oct.  18, 1854.  Subject  from 
Lewis's  romance  "  The  Monk "  (179."))  ; 
scene  in  Bohemia  in  the  eleventh  century. 
Agnes,  daughter  of  Comte  de  Moldaw,  prom- 
ised by  her  father  to  Theobald,  son  of  the 
Baron  de  Luddorf,  loves  Rodolphe,  brother 
of  Theobald.  In  order  to  meet  him  she 
promises  to  assume  the  disguise  of  the 
Nonnc  sanglante,  a  phantom  that  haunts 
the  estate.  Rodolphe,  seeking  her  at  mid- 
!iight,  falls  in  with  the  real  phantom,  and, 
supposing  her  to  be  Agnes,  pledges  her  his 
love.  Theobald  dies,  and  Rodolphe  wish- 
ing to  niaiTV  Agnt'S,  the  Nonne  sanglante 
agrees  to  release  him  from  his  vows  to  her 
if  he  will  slay  her  seducer  and  murderer. 
To  Rodolphe's  horror,  she  points  out  his 
own  father  as  the  iiroposcd  victim.  For- 
tunately, the  baron  is  removed  by  the  poig- 
nards  of  the  Jloldaws,  and  the  appeased 
nun  bears  him  to  heaven  in  a  grand  tableau. 
This  opera  was  given  only  eleven  times. 
— Clement  et  Larousse,  481. 

NONNES  QUI  REPOSEZ.  See  Robert 
le  Diable. 

NON  NOBIS,  DOmNE,  a  celebrated 
canon  in  the  Mixolydian  mode,  frequently 
sung  in  England  at  the  close  of  public  din- 
ners. Its  authorship  has  been  assigned  by 
English  historians  to  William  Byrd,  but  the 
canon  does  not  appear  in  any  of  his  pub- 
lished works.  According  to  Bumey,  the 
first  copy  bearing  Byrd's  name  is  contained 


in  Hilton's  "Catch  that  Catch  can,"  but 
the  author's  name  is  not  mentioned  in  the 
edition  of  1652.  Its  composition  has  been 
ascribed  also  to  Palestrina,  who  used  the 
opening  theme  for  his  Madrigal,  "  ^yhen 
iiowery  meadows  deck  the  year,"  possibly 
on  the  evidence  of  a  copy  of  this  canon,  en- 
graved on  a  plate  of  gold,  and  said  to  be  in 
the  Vatican;  but  Dr.  Blow,  in  his  "Am- 
2)hion  Anglicus  "  (1700),  speaks  of  this  as 
"Byrd's  Anthem  in  golden  notes,"  "Pre- 
served intirc  in  the  Vatican."  The  canon 
has  been  set  to  German  words  and  ascribed 
to  Mozart.  Bach  used  the  theme  for  the 
subject  of  an  "  Allabreve  per  Organo  pleno 
in  D  ; "  Handel,  in  the  TTallehijah  chorus  in 
the  3li!.<<siah,  and  in  "  I  will  Sing  unto  the 
Lord,"  in  I.-^i-ael  in  Egypt ;  Mendelssohn,  in 
the  last  chorus  in  Faidus  ;  and  Carlo  Ricci- 
otti  founded  upon  it  a  concei'to,  published 
in  Amsterdam  in  the  eighteenth  centurj-. 
The  canon  is  capable  of  many  solutions,  an 
interesting  one  of  which  is  in  an  anonymous 
MS.  in  Buckingham  Palace.  Mendelssohn 
also  set  this.  Psalm  cxv.,  op.  31,  Simroek 
(Bonn,  183(5). — Grove,  ii.  4G4  ;  Burney,  iii. 
92  ;  Pohl,  Mozart  uud  Haydn  in  London,  i. 
19,  25. 

NON  PliT  ANDRAI.  See  Nozze  di  Fi- 
garo. 

NON  PLUS  ULTRA.     See  Pbta  ultra. 

NON  SO  DONDE  \TENE,  aria  for  bass 
with  orchestra  in  F,  text  from  Metastasio's 
Olimpiade,  music  by  Mozart,  composed  for 
Herr  Fischer  in  Vienna,  March  18,  1787. 
Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Mozart  Werke,  Serie  vi., 
No.  35. — KiJchel,  Verzeichniss,  No.  512 ; 
Andre,  No.  85. 

NON  SO  DONDE  VIENE,  aria  for  so- 
prano with  orchestra,  in  E-flat,  text  from 
Jletastasio's  OUmpiade,  music  by  Mozart, 
composed  in  Manheim,  Feb.  24,  1778,  for 
Aloysia  Weber,  and  sung  by  her  in  Vienna, 
March  11,  1783.  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Mo- 
zart Werke,  Serie  vi.,  No.  17.^ — Kochel, 
Verzeichniss,  No.  294 ;  Jahn,  Mozart,  ii. 
170  ;  Mozart's  Letters  (Lady  Wallace),  i. 
175. 


22 


NON 


NON  SO  Pitr  COSA  SON.  See  Nuzze 
di  Figaro. 

NON  TEMEK,  AMATO  BENE,  rondo 
for  soprano  with  orcliestra  and  pianoforte 
obligate,  in  E-flat,  text  from  Idomeneo,  mu- 
sic by  Mozart,  composed  for  Mme  Storace 
and  himself,  Dec.  2G,  178(3.  Breitkopf  & 
Hiirtel,  Mozart  Werke,  Serie  vi.,  No.  34. — 
KOchel,  Verzeichuiss,  No.  505  ;  Andre,  No. 
84  ;  Jahu,  Mozart,  iii.  282. 

NO,  NO,  CHE  NON  SEI  CAPACE,  aria 
for  soprano  with  orchestra,  in  C,  text  from 
Aufossi's  opera,  H  curlvso  indiscrete,  music 
by  Mozart,  composed  iu  Vienna  in  June, 
1783.  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Mozart  Werke, 
Serie  vi..  No.  20. — KOchel,  Verzeichuiss,  No. 
419  ;  Jahn,  Mozart,  i.  426  ;  iii.  276. 

NOIIDISCHE  SOMMEKNACHT  (North- 
ern Summer  Night),  cantata  for  mixed 
chorus,  soli,  and  orchestra,  text  by  Lingg, 
music  by  Friedrich  Gernsheim,  op.  21. 
Published  by  Schott  (Mainz,  1872).— Mus. 
Wochenblatt  (1872),  227. 

NOIIDISCHE  SUITEN,  five  Northern 
Suites,  for  orchestra,  by  Asger  Hamerik, 
first  performed  at  the  Peabody  Concerts, 
Baltimore,  Maryland,  under  the  comjjoser's 
direction.  No.  1,  op.  22,  iu  C :  I.  Im 
Walde  (Adagio,  Allegro  molto)  ;  H.  Volks- 
lied  (Andante  sosteuuto) ;  HI.  Springtauz 
(Allegro  vivace) ;  IV.  Meuuet  (Andante)  ; 
V.  Brautmarsch  (Allegro  maestoso,  Allegro 
vivace).  Published  by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel 
(Leipsic,  1871-72).  No.  2,  op.  23,  iu  G 
minor  :  I.  Heldeulied  (Andante  sostenuto) ; 
II.  Sage  (AUegro  molto) ;  IH.  Drapa  (Mode- 
rate) ;  IV.  Springtauz  (Moderate,  Allegro 
molto  vivace).  Published  by  Andre  (Offen- 
bach am  Main,  1872-73).  No.  3,  op.  24, 
in  A  minor  :  I.  Des  Bardeu  Lied  (Andante 
con  mote) ;  H.  Hallingtauz  (Allegro  vivace) ; 
in.  Sage  (Andante)  ;  TV.  Springtauz  (Alle- 
gro). Published  by  Andre  (Offenbach  am 
Main,  1873-74).  No.  4,  op.  25,  in  D,  dedi- 
cated to  Theodore  Thomas  :  I.  Auf  dem 
Meere  (Andante  tranquillo,  Allegro  molto 
vivace)  ;  II.  Im  Volksteu  (Andante  sostenu- 
to) ;  in.  Meermaidstanz  (Allegro  molto  vi- 


vace) ;  rV.  LiebesHed  (Andante) ;  V.  Zur 
Kiisto  (Allegro  maestoso).  Published  by 
Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel  (Leipsic,  1875-76).  No. 
5,  op.  26,  in  A,  dedicated  to  Niels  W.  Gade  : 
I.  Auf  dem  Meere  (Allegro)  ;  II.  Serenade 
(i\jidante  con  mote) ;  IH.  Scherzo  (Allegro) ; 
IV.  Im  Volksten  (Andautiuo  con  mote) ;  V. 
Lob  des  Meeres  (Allegro).  Published  by 
Andre  (Offenbach  am  Main,  1877-78).— 
Mus.  Wochenblatt  (1880),  505. 

NOlvMA,  Itahau  opera  in  two  acts,  text 
by  Eomani,  music  by  Bellini,  first  repre- 
sented iu  Milan,  Dec.  26,  1831.  The  libretto 
is  taken  from  a  tragedy  of  the  same  title,  by 
Soumet  and  Belmontet.  The  first  act  is 
laid  iu  Cambria,  in  the  sacred  forest  of  the 
Druids,  the  second  in  their  temple  of  Ir- 
minsul.  The  Gauls,  having  subjugated  the 
Romans  iu  Whales,  have  placed  Pollione,  a 
proconsul  of  Home,  in  government.  He 
loves  Norma,  the  daughter  of  the  High 
Priest,  Orovese,  and  is  secretlj'  married  to 
her.  Afterwards  he  gives  his  affection  to 
Adalgisa,  a  young  priestess,  who  conseuta 
to  fly  with  him  to  Home  ;  but,  conscience 
smitten,  she  reveals  the  plan  to  Norma,  who 
resolves  upon  revenge,  and  determines  to 
murder  her  two  children  by  Pollione.  In- 
stead of  this,  she  impeaches  herself  in  the 
assembly  of  the  Druids,  who  condemn  her  to 
be  burned.  Her  faithless  husband  is  sen- 
tenced also,  his  love  for  Norma  returns, 
and  he  shai-es  Ler  fate  on  the  funeral  pyre. 
Among  the  best  numbers  are :  Norma's 
prayer  to  the  moon,  "  Casta  Diva  ; "  her 
cavatina,  "Ah!  bello  a  me  ritorua  ;  "  the 
duet  between  Adalgisa  and  Polhone,  "Va 
crudele  ;"  "Sola,  furtiva,  al  tempio,"  sung 
by  Norma  and  Adalgisa ;  the  grand  duet 
between  Norma  and  Adalgisa  "  Deh  !  con 
te  li  prendi,"  "  Mira,  O  Norma  ;  "  Norma's 
war  hymn,  "Guerra,  guerra  ;"  and  her  final 
duet  with  Pollione,  "  Qual  cor  ti-adisti." 
Original  cast : 

Norma  (S.) Mme  Pasta. 

Adalgisa  (A.) Mme  Grisi. 

PoUione  (T.) Signer  Donzelli. 

Oroveso  (B.) Signor  Negrini. 


NORMAN 


The  role  of  Norma,  one  of  the  most  perfect 
on  the  operatic  stage,  has  been  worthily  filled 
by  some  of  the  greatest  of  prime  donne, 


Giuiia  Grist. 

among  them  Pasta,  Grisi,  and  IMalibran. 
Grisi,  who  sang  the  part  of  Adalgisa  to 
Pasta's  Norma  in  the  first  representation  in 
Milan,  expressed  to  Bollini  a  desire  to  sing 
Norma.  "Wait  twenty  yeai-s,"  replied  he, 
"and  we  shall  see."  "I  will  play  Norma 
in  sjsite  of  you,  and  in  less  than  twenty 
years,"  she  retorted.  She  kept  her  word, 
for  in  183-1  she  apjieared  as  Norma  in  Lou- 
don, and  made  it  her  greatest  character,  in 
which  she  has  never  been  surpassed.  Mile 
Tietjens  was  also  successful  in  this  part. 
The  character  of  Pollioue  was  a  favorite  one 
with  Rubiiii,  and  that  of  Oroveso  with  La- 
blache.  This  was  the  composer's  favorite  of 
aU  his  operas,  and  Wagner  called  Norma  "the 
most  melodious  "  of  Bellini's  works.  It  was 
first  given  in  Loudon,  at  the  King's  Theatre, 
in  Italian,  June  20,  1833,  with  this  cast : 

Norma Mme  Pasta. 

Adalgisa Mme  de  M6ric. 

Pollione Signer  Douzelli. 

Oroveso Siguor  V.  Galli. 

It  was  first  represented  in  Paris  at  the  Ita- 
liens,  in  1833  ;  in  Vienna  in  1833  ;  in  Ber- 


lin in  1834 ;  in  Leipsic  in  1835  ;  at  Drury 
Lane,  London,  in  English,  June  2-1,  1837  ; 
and  in  New  York,  Sept.  20,  1843,  with 
Signora  Corsini  as  Norma,  and  Signor  Pe- 
rozzi  as  Pollione.  It  was  given  in  New  York, 
Sept.  11,  1854,  with  Grisi,  Mario,  and 
Susini  in  the  cast.  Published  by  Ricordi 
(IMilan),  and  by  Diabelli  (Vienna). — Clement 
at  Larousse,  482 ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg., 
xxsiv.  199  ;  xxxv.  529,  752 ;  xxxvi.  315  ; 
Grove,  i.  213;  Athenfcum  (1833),  420; 
(1837),  485  ;  Upton,  Standard  Operas,  48. 

NORMAN  BARON,  cantata,  text  from 
Longfellow,  music  by  Thomas  Anderton, 
%vritten  for  and  dedicated  to  the  Middles- 
borough  Musical  Union  of  England  in  1884. 

NORMANN,  LUDWIG,  born  in  Stock- 
holm, Sweden,  Aug.  28,  1831,  died  there, 
March  28,  1885.  Pupil  of  Lindblad,  and 
afterwards  at  the  Conservatorium  at  Leip- 
sic. In  1857  he  became  professor  of  com- 
position at  the  Royal  Academy  of  Stockholm, 
and  in  18G1  Kapellmiistaro  at  the  opera 
there.  In  18G4  he  married  the  violin  vir- 
tuoso Wilhelmine  Neruda.  Works  :  Quartet 
for  pianoforte  and  strings  ;  Trio  for  do.  ; 
Sonata  for  violin  ;  Pianoforte  music  for  two 
and  four  hands. — Riemann. 

NOltMANNENZUG,  cantata  for  baritone 
solo  and  male  chorus,  with  orchestra,  text 
from  "  Ekkehard,"  by  J.  V.  Scheffel,  music 
by  Jlax  Bruch,  op.  32.  Published  by  Breit- 
kopf  &  Hiirtel  (Leipsic,  1873). 

NORWEGISCHE  RHAPSODIEN  (Nor- 
wegian Rhapsodies),  for  orchestra,  by  Johan 
Severin  Sveusden,  op.  17,  op.  19,  op.  21,  op. 
22.  No.  1,  op.  17,  in  B  minor,  dedicated 
to  M  Lindeman  (j\jidautino.  Allegro,  An- 
dante, Allegro).  No.  2,  op.  19,  in  A  (Alle- 
gro, Andantino,  Lento)  ;  No.  8,  op.  21,  in 
C,  dedicated  to  Edvard  Grieg  (Allegro  mol- 
to,  AUegi'O  moderato.  Andante,  Allegi-o, 
Stretto)  ;  No.  4,  op.  22,  in  D  minor,  dedi- 
cated to  Karl  Hals  (Andante,  Allegro  mo- 
derato, Allegretto  quasi  moderato.  Andante, 
Allegi-o,  Presto).  Published  by  Warmuth 
(Christiania,  1877-81).  Arranged  for  piano- 
foi'te,  four  hands. — Neue  Zeitschr.  (1881),  3. 


NOTIIUNG 


NOTHUNG  !  N  0  T  H  U  N  G  !  NEID- 
LICHES  SCHWEET.     See  Siegfried. 

NOTKER  (Notkerus),  BALBULUS, 
called  St.  Notker,  born  in  840,  died  at  St. 


S"   .     hlorXzBys' 


Gall,  Switzerland,  April  6,  912.  Ho  was  a 
ruoiik  of  the  Monastery  of  St.  Gall,  and 
probably  received  Lis  name  (Balbulus,  the 
Stammerer)  from  a  physical  infirmity.  He 
was  one  of  the  earliest  and  most  noted  com- 
posers of  Sequences,  Ms  celebrated  Media 
vita  in  morte  sunms,  a  chant  which  owed 
much  of  its  popularity  to  its  subsequent 
adoption  by  Christian  wamors  as  their  bat- 
tle-song, being  still  in  iise.  Others  also  by 
him  (he  wrote  thirty-five)  are  used  at  Pen- 
tecost, Easter,  and  Christmas.  A  codex 
preserved  at  St.  Gall  contains  forty-four  of 
his  chants,  which  influenced  both  French 
and  Italian  song.  The  portrait  is  a  fac- 
simile of  a  drawing  in  this  MS.  He  must 
not  be  confounded  with  Notker  the  younger, 
known  as  Notker  Labeo  or  Teutonicus,  also 
a  monk  of  St.  Gall,  who  died  in  1022,  re- 
nowned as  the  writer  of  the  first  German 
MS.   on   the   theory   of  music. — Naumann 


(Ouseley),  i.  187,  202 ;  Reissmann,  31  ; 
Schubiger,  Die  Siingerschule  von  St.  Gallen 
(1858). 

NOTTE  E  GIORNO  FATICAR.  See 
Don   Giovanni. 

NOTTEBOHM,  MARTIN  GUSTAV. 
born  at  Liidenscheid,  Westphalia,  Nov.  12, 
1817,  died  at  Gratz,  Nov.  1,  1882.  While 
serving  in  Berlin,  in  1838-39,  as  a  volunteer 
soldier,  he  studied  pianoforte  and  composi- 
tion under  Berger  and  Dehn.  In  1840  he 
went  to  Leipsic,  where  he  was  the  friend  of 
Schumann  and  Mendelssohn,  a  testimonial 
from  the  latter  as  to  his  musical  ability  se- 
curing his  discharge  from  the  army.  Set- 
tled in  Vienna  in  1846,  he  took  a  course  of 
counterpoint  under  Sechter,  and  became 
active  as  a  teacher  and  writer.  He  was  one 
of  the  most  thorough  investigators  of  Beet- 
hoven's sketch-books.  Works  :  Quartet  for 
pianoforte  and  strings  ;  Trios  for  do.  ;  Va- 
riations on  a  theme  by  Bach  for  pianoforte 
(4  hands)  ;  Other  music  for  pianoforte.  Lit- 
erary works  :  Ein  Skizzenbuch  von  Beetho- 
ven (Leipsic,  18C5)  ;  Thematisches  Verzeich- 
niss  der  im  Druck  erschieneuen  Werke 
von  Beethoven  (ib.,  18G8)  ;  Beethoveniana 
(1872)  ;  Beethoven's  Studien,  containing 
Beethoven's  lessons  from  Haydn,  Albrechts- 
berger,  and  Salieri  (1873)  ;  Thematisches 
Verzeichniss  der  im  Druck  erschieneuen 
Werke  von  Franz  Schubert  (Vienna,  1874)  ; 
Mozartiana  (Leipsic,  1880) ;  Ein  Skizzen- 
buch von  Beethoven  aus  dem  Jahre  1803 
(ib.,  1881).— Mendel,  Erganz.,  314  ;  Ric- 
mann. 

NOUVEAU  SEIGNEUR  DU  VILLAGE, 
LE  (The  new  Lord  of  the  Village),  opera- 
comique  in  one  act,  text  by  Creuze  de  Les- 
sor and  Faviores,  music  by  Boicldieu,  first 
represented  at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris, 
June  29,  1813.  This  work,  which  is  dedi- 
cated to  Martin,  was  very  popular  and  kept 
the  stage  for  thirty  years.  It  was  given  in 
Vienna,  June  24,  1814,  as  "Dor  neue  Guts- 
lierr,"  translation  by  J.  F.  Castelli.  It  was 
revived  in  Paris  in  1867.  Published  by 
Simrock  (Bonn,  1814). — Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg. 


NOUVELLES 


xvi.  669 ;  Pougin,  Boieklieu,  146  ;  Rufu- 
veille,  Boieldieu,  sa  vie  et  ses  oeuvres  (Koii- 
en,  1851) ;  Hoguet,  Boieldieu,  sa  vie  et  ses 
oeuvres  (Paris,  1864). 

NOIA'ELLES  SOIEfiES  DE  \TENNE, 
valses  caprices  for  the  pianoforte  after 
Strauss,  by  Cai-1  Tausig.  They  may  be  re- 
garded as  pendants  to  Liszt's  Soirees  de  Vi- 
euue,  after  Schubert.  Cahiers  I.,  11.,  and 
in.,  dedicated  to  Franz  Liszt  and  published 
by  Schuberth  (Leipsic  and  New  York).  Ca- 
Lier  IV.,  dedicated  to  Franz  Liszt,  and  V., 
to  the  friends  of  the  dead  composer,  pub- 
lished posthumously  by  Erler  (Berlin)  and 
by  Hermann  (Leipsic). 

NOVELLETTEN  f iir  das  Pianoforte,  by 
Schumann,  op.  21,  composed  in  1838,  and 
dedicated  to  Adolph  Heuselt.  They  have 
no  titles  to  explain  them,  but  Schumann 
calls  them  "long  and  connected  romantic 
stories."  PubUshed  by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel 
(Leipsic,  1839)  ;  ib.,  Schumann  Werke, 
Serie  vii..  No.  21.  Schumann  wrote  another 
Novellette  in  the  same  year-,  which  is  in- 
cluded in  his  Bunte  Bliitter,  op.  99,  No.  9. 
Same  title,  Orchesterstxlcke  by  Niels  W. 
Gade,  op.  53,  first  performed  in  Leipsit;, 
Oct.  12,  1876.— Grove,  ii.  480;  iii.  409; 
Maitland,  Schumaim,  59. 

NOVELLO,  VINCENT,  born  in  London, 
Sept.  6,  1781,  died  at 
Nice,  Aug.  9,  18G1. 
Sou  of  an  Italian 
father  and  an  Eng- 
hsh  mother,  he  be- 
gan his  musical  ca- 
reer as  a  choir-boy 
and  deputy  organist ; 
was  organist  of  the 
Portuguese  Chapel 
in  London  in  1797- 
1822  ;  acted  as  jnan- 
ist  of  the  Italian  Opei-a  in  1812  ;  was  an 
original  member  of  the  Philharmonic  So- 
ciety, and  sometimes  conducted  its  concerts. 
In  1840-43  he  was  organist  of  the  Eoman 
Catholic  Chapel  in  Moorfields  ;  was  one  of 
the  founders  and  conductors  of  the  Classi- 


cal Harmonists  and  Choral  Harmonists  So- 
cieties ;  in  1849  he  settled  permanently  in 
Nice.  He  composed  good  though  not  very 
original  music,  but  was  best  known  as  an 
editor  and  arranger.  He  founded  in  London 
in  1811  the  music  publishing  house  of  No- 
vello.  Ewer  &  Co.  Works  :  Kosalba,  canta- 
ta ;  Old  May  Morning,  a  glee ;  The  Lifant's 
Prayer,  recitative  and  air ;  Masses,  motets, 
and  sacred  music  to  Latin  words.  He  ed- 
ited also  many  collections  of  sacred  music. 
— Grove  ;  Kiemann  ;  Mendel ;  Futis. 

NOWM^OWSia,  J(')ZEF,  born  at 
Muiszek,  near  Ratlomsk,  Poland,  in  1805, 
died  at  Warsaw  in  1865.  Pianist,  Ih'st  in- 
structed in  a  monastery  at  Wonchak,  then 
pupil  at  the  Conservatorium  iu  Warsaw  of 
Wiirfel  in  harmony,  and  of  Eisner  in  comjJO- 
sition.  In  1833  he  made  his  first  concert 
tour,  visiting  Germany,  Italy,  and  stopping 
for  some  time  in  Paris.  He  was  then  cousid- 
ei-ed  one  of  the  best  composers  of  Poland, 
and  after  his  return  became  jjrofessor  at 
the  Alexander  Institute,  Warsaw.  In  1838 
and  1841  he  again  visited  Paris.  W'orks  : 
2  symphonies  for  orchestra  ;  4  overtures 
for  do.  ;  2  masses  and  other  church  music  ; 
About  20  polonaises  for  pianoforte  and 
orchestra ;  2  quintets  for  j)ianoforte  and 
strings ;  Quartet  for  strings ;  Polonaises, 
fantaisies,  nocturnes,  airs  varies,  rondeaux, 
etc.,  for  pianoforte  ;  12  grandcs  etudes  for 
do.  ;  Method  for  do. ;  Many  songs. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

NOW'  HEAVEN  IN  FULLEST  GLORY. 
See  Nun  scheint  in  vollem  Glanzo. 

NOW  THE  EVENING  WATCH  IS  SET. 
See  Oberon. 

NOW  VANISH  BEFORE  THE  HOLY 
BE.-VMS.  See  Nun  schwanden  vor  dem 
heUigen  Strahle. 

NOZZE  D'  AEIANA  E  DI  BACCO,  LE. 
See  Ariadne. 

NOZZE  DI  DORINA,  LE  (Dorina's  Wed- 
ding), Italian  opera,  music  by  Sarti,  first 
represented  in  Venice  in  1782.  It  was 
given  in  Paris,  Sept.  14,  1789.  The  score, 
which  is  in  Lhe  library  of  the  Paris  Con- 


NOZZE 


servatoire,  1ms  been  published  in  Paris  ; 
also  by  Ricordi  (Milan).  An  opera  of  this 
title  was  written  by  Cocehi,  London,  17G2. 
NOZZE  DI  ENEA  CON  LAVINIA,  LE 
(The  Wedding  of  iEneas  and  Lavinia),  Ital- 
ian opera  by  Monteverde,  first  represented 
in  Venice  in  1641.  Subject,  the  marriage 
of  ^neas  with  Lavinia,  daughter  of  Latiiuis, 
King  of  Latiuni,  to  win  whom  J^neas  fought 
against  her  betrothed  lover  Turuus  and 
killed  him.  Other  operas  on  the  same 
story,  in  Italian  :  Enea  e  Lavinia,  by  Sac- 
chini,  London,  1779  ;  by  Guglielmi,  Naples, 

1785.  Enea  in  Italia,  by  Pallavicino,  Ven- 
ice, 1675 ;  by  Di'aghi,  Vienna,  1678  ;  and 
Perez,  Lisbon,  1759.  Enea  nel  Lazio,  by 
Jommelli,  Stuttgart,  1755  ;  by  Gardi,  Mod- 
ena,  1786  ;  and  Eighini,  Berlin,  1793.  Tur- 
no  Aricino,  by  M.  A.  Bononciui,  about  1710  ; 
by  Alessaudro  Scarlatti,  Rome,  1720  ;  and 
Vinci,  Naples,  1724  In  French,  Enee  et 
Lavinie,  text  by  Fontenelle,  music  by  Co- 
lasse,  Paris,  1690. 

NOZZE  DI  FIGARO,  LE  (The  Marriage 
of  Figaro),  Italian  opera  buffa  in  four  acts, 
text  by  Lorenzo  da  Ponte,  music  by  Mo- 
zart, first  represented  at  the  Burgtheater, 
Vienna,  May  1,  1786.  The  libretto  is  taken 
from  Beaumarchais'  comedy,  "  Le  mariago 
de  Figaro,"  first  jjlayed  in  Paris,  April  27, 
1784.     The  music  was  composed  in  April, 

1786,  and  was  finished  on  the  28th  of  that 
month.  Mozart  wrote  the  finale  to  the  sec- 
ond act  in  two  nights  and  a  day  without  in- 
termission. The  scene  is  in  Sixain.  Count 
Almaviva,  wlio  has  won  his  wife  through  the 
aid  of  Figaro,  the  barber  of  Seville,  falls  in 
love  with  her  maid,  Susanna,  who  is  be- 
trothed to  Figaro.  They  make  him  jealous 
of  the  attentions  paid  to  the  Countess  by 
the  page,  Cherubiuo,  and  Figaro  becomes 
jealous  of  the  Count's  affection  for  Susanna. 
After  conspiracies,  disguises,  meetings  at 
cross-purposes,  and  playful  surprises,  the 
characters  reveal  themselves,  the  Count  and 
Countess  are  reconciled,  and  Figaro  and 
Susanna  are  married.  Among  the  princi- 
pal numbers  are  :  "  Se  vuol  ballare,  Siguor 


contino,"  sung  by  Figaro  to  a  guitar-like 
accomijaniment  ;  Bartolo's  song,  "  La  ven- 
detta ; "  Cherubino's  aria,  "  Non  so  piti  cosa 
son  ;  "  the  trio,  "  Cosa  sento  !  tosto  andate," 
sung  by  the  Count,  Basilio,  and  Susanna  ; 
the  chorus,  "Giovanni  lieti,"  and  Figaro's 
celebrated  aria,  "Non  i^iti  andrai,"  which 
closes  the  first  act ;  the  aria,  "Porgi  amor," 
sung  by  the  Countess  ;  Cherubino's  ro- 
manza,  "  Voi,  che  sapete  ;  "  "  Venite,  ingi- 
nocchiatevi,"  sung  by  Susanna ;  the  elab- 
orate finale  to  the  second  act,  begun  by  the 
Count,  "  Esci  omai,  garzon  mal  nato  ; " 
"  Crudel !  percho  finora,"  duet  between  the 
Coimt  and  Countess  ;  the  sextet,  "  Riconosci 
in  questo  amplesso  ; "  the  Countess's  aria, 
''Dove  sono,"  and  the  "Zephyr  Duet," 
"  Canzouetta  sul'  aria  :  Che  soave  zeffiretto," 
sung  by  the  Countess  and  Susanna  ;  Basilio'a 
aria,  "  In  quegli  anni ;  "Figaro's song,  "  Ecco 
la  marcia;"  and  Susanna's  song,  "Deb, 
vieni,  non  tardar."     Original  cast  : 

Figaro  (B.) Signor  Benueci. 

Count  (B.) Signor  Mandiiii. 

Countess  (S.) Signora  Laschi. 

Susanna  (S.) Signora  Storace. 

Cherubino  (S.) Signora  Bussani. 

Marcellina  (S.) Signora  Mandini. 

Basilio 

Don  Curzio 

Bartolo 

Antonio  . 

Barberina  (S.). . .  .Signora  Nanina Gottlieb. 

Mozart  conducted.  After  nine  representa- 
tions in  Vienna,  this  oj)era  was  laid  aside 
through  the  influence  of  Mozart's  rivals. 
In  the  following  year  it  was  received  in 
Prague  with  great  enthusiasm,  and,  owing  to 
its  wealth  of  melody,  charm  and  grace  of 
style,  perfection  of  concerted  music,  and  re- 
flection of  Mozart's  genial  nature,  it  has 
kept  the  stage  uninterruptedly.  It  was  first 
given  in  Paris  at  the  Academic  Royale  de 
Musique,  translation  by  Notaris,  March  20, 
1793,  without  success  ;  and  at  the  Theatre 
Italien  in  1838,  with  Lablache  as  Figaro, 
Tamburiui  as  the  count,  Mme  Persiani  as  the 


(T.) Mr.  Michael  KeUy. 


](B.). 


.  Siprnor  Bussani. 


KOZZE 


countess  ;  Mine  Giulia  Grisi  as  Susanna; 
and  Mine  Albeitazzi  as  Clieiubiuo.  It  was 
represented  at  the  Theatre  Ljrique,  adapt- 
ed by  Barbier  and  Cai-re,  May  8,  1858,  when 
Mine  Carvalho  achieved  great  success  as 
Cherubino.  Figaro  was  first  represent- 
ed in  Beilin,  May  22,  1803  ;  in  Leipsic  in 
1808  ;  in  Munich  in  1813  ;  in  Dresden  in 
1816  ;  and  in  Strasburg  in  1823,  adapted 


55  I 


Angelica  Catalan!, 

for  the  stage  by  Castil-Blaze.  Tlie  opera 
was  first  given  in  London,  King's  Theatre, 
June  18,  1812,  with  Mine  Catalani  as  Susan- 
na, a  cliaracter  in  which  she  excelled,  though 
she  did  not  like  Mozart's  music.  It  was 
again  given,  Feb.  1,  1817,  with  Naldi  as  Fi- 
garo, Ambrogetti  as  the  count,  Fodor  as  the 
countess,  Caiuporese  as  Susanna,  and  Pasta 
as  Cherubino.  It  was  first  given  in  New 
York  in  English,  May  3, 1823,  with  Bishop's 
arrangement  (Loudon,  1819),  and  it  was 
first  sung  in  ItaUan,  Nov.  2.3,  18.58,  with 
Carl  Formes  as  Figaro,  Piccolomini  as  Su- 
sanna, and  Mme  von  Berkel  as  Cherubino. 
Miss  Paton  made  her  first  a23pearance  on 
the  oj»eratic  stage  as  Susanna  at  the  Hay- 
mai-ket,  London,  Aug.  3,  1822,  and  Mine 
Caradori-Allan  made  hers  at  the  King's 
Theatre,  Jan.  12,  1822,  as  Cherubino,  one  of 
Mozart's  most  charming  characters,  which 
has  been  played  with  gi'eat  success  also  by 


Mme  Pasta,  Mme  Vestris,  Pauline  Lucca, 
and  Christine  Nilsson.  Full  score  pubhshed 
by  Simrock  (Bonn,  1821)  ;  by  J.  Frey 
(Paris,  1823) ;  and  by  Breitkopf  &  Hartel, 
Mozart  Werke,  Serie  v.,  No.  17. — KOchel, 
No.  492  ;  Jahn,  Mozart,  iv.  191-275  ;  Nohl, 
Mozart  (Lady  Wallace),  ii.  133  ;  Oulibi- 
cheff,  Mozart,  iii.  28  ;  do.,  Mozart  Operu, 
309  ;  Holmes,  Mozart,  279  ;  Nisseu,  Mozart, 
ii.  80  ;  Gehring,  Mozai-t,  108 ;  Kelly,  Rem- 
iniscences (London,  182G),  188  ;  Pohl,  Mo- 
zart and  Haydn  in  London,  i.  147  ;  Berliner 
mus.  Zeitg."(1793),  77,  138  ;  Allgem.  mus. 
Zeitg.,  iii.  594  ;  v.  572  ;  sxiv.  270  ;  xlii.  589  ; 
Revue  des  deux  Mondes,  xvii.  841 ;  Revue 
et  Gaz.  mus.  de  Pirns  (1858),  IGl,  294  ; 
Neue  Zeitschr.,  xli.  113  ;  Grove,  ii.  390  ; 
Clement  et  Larousse,  485 ;  Hogarth,  ii. 
238-246  ;  Upton,  Standard  Operas,  169. 

NOZZE  DI  TETI  E  DI  PELEO,  LE 
(The  "Wedding  of  Thetis  and  Peleus),  Ital- 
ian opera  in  three  acts,  text  by  Orazio  Per- 
siani,  music  by  Francesco  Cavalli,  first 
represented  at  the  Teatro  San  Cassiano, 
Venice,  in  1639.  It  was  given  at  Versailles, 
Jan.  26,  1654,  after  which  a  ballet  of  the 
same  title,  of  ten  entrees,  by  Benserade  was 
danced  by  Louis  XTV.  and  the  ladies  of 
his  court. — Schletterer,  Studien  zur  Ge- 
schichte  der  franzOsischen  Musik,  ii.  189  ; 
Ambros,  Geschichte  der  Musik,  iv.  372. 

NIJCEUS,  ALARD,  born  at  Lille  about 
the  end  of  the  15th  century.  Church  com- 
poser, and  maitre  de  chapelle  to  Ai-chduke 
Jlathias  of  Austiia.  His  name  seems  to  be 
simply  a  translation  of  the  French  Noyer  or 
Du  Noyer.  Works  :  Quatuor  Missaj  quin- 
que,  sex  et  octo  vocum  (Antwerp,  1539). 
— Fetis;  Mendel. 

NUCIUS,  FRIEDRICH  JOHANTSf,  born 
at  GorUtz,  Silesia,  in  1556,  died  (?).  Church 
composer,  pupil  of  Johann  Winkler  at  ^litt- 
weida,  Saxony.  He  was  at  first  a  monk  at 
Rauden,  Silesia,  then  abbot  at  Hiinmelwitz. 
Works  :  Modulationes  sacrse  modis  musicis 
(Prague,  1591)  ;  Cantionum  sacrarum  (Lieg- 
nitz,  1609)  ;  Hymns.  —  Futis  ;  HoiTinann, 
Lexikon  schlesischcr  Tonkiinstler  ;  Mendel. 


JMIIIT 


NUIT  A  LISBONNE,  ITNE  (A  Night  in 
Lisbon),  barcarolle,  for  orchestra,  by  Saint- 
Saeus,  op.  G3,  dedicated  to  Ha,  Majestu  Dom 
Luiz,  Koi  de  Portugal.  Published  by  Du- 
rand,  Schoeoewerk  &  Cie  (Paris).  Tran- 
scription for  the  pianoforte  for  foiu-  hands, 
by  the  composer. 

NUIT  DE  CLEOPATEE,  UNE  (A  Night 
of  Cleopatra),  opera-comique,  text  by  Jules 
Barbier,  music  by  Victor  Masse,  first  given 
at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris,  April  25, 1885. 
The  libretto  is  founded  on  a  romance  by 
Gautier.  A  great  success ;  called  by  the 
critics  the  composer's  masterj^iece. 

NUIT  DE  WALPUEGIS,  LA  (Walpurgis 
Night),  symphonic  poem  for  orchestra,  by 
Charles  Mario  Widor,  first  performed  at  the 
Chatelet,  Paris,  Feb.  8,  1880.  It  is  a  de- 
scriptive poem  in  tkree  divisions :  Overture, 
Andante,  and  Devil's  Dance. — Musical  Re- 
view (New  York,  1880),  i.  296. 

NLIT  DTV'RESSE.     See  Africaine. 

NUITS  BLANCHES  (Restless  Nights), 
eighteen  morceaux  lyriques  for  the  piano- 
forte, by  Stei^hen  Heller,  op.  82.  I.  Vivace 
(in  C) ;  II.  Impetuoso  (in  A  minor)  ;  HI. 
Lento  con  tenerezza  (in  G) ;  TV.  Molto 
animato  (in  E  minor)  ;  V.  Andante  quasi 
allegretto  (in  D)  ;  VI.  Allegro  deciso  (in 
B  minor)  ;  VH.  Pin  lento  (in  A) ;  VHI.  Al- 
legro ai^passionato  (in  F-sharp  minor) ;  IX. 
Allegretto  con  grazia  (in  E) ;  X.  Allegro 
caratteristico  (in  C-sharp  minor)  ;  XI.  An- 
dante con  moto  (in  G-flat)  ;  XH.  Molto 
agitato  (in  B-flat  minor)  ;  XHI.  Allegretto 
gi-azioso  (in  D-flat) ;  XIV.  Piii  moderate  e 
jjlintivo  (in  F  minor) ;  XV.  Andante  pla- 
cido  (in  F) ;  XVI.  Allegi-o  risoluto  (in  D 
minor) ;  XVII.  Allegretto  pastorale  (in  B- 
flat) ;  XVni.  Allegro  non  troppo  (in  G 
minor).  Published  by  Litolff  (Brunswick, 
1877).  —  Barbedette  (Brown  -  Borthwick), 
Heller,  70. 

NUITS  D'ET:fi,  LES  (Summer  Nights), 
six  songs  for  one  voice  with  pianoforte 
accompaniment,  from  Theophile  Gautier, 
music  by  Berlioz,  op.  7.  They  were  com- 
posed in  1834,  dedicated  to  Mllo  Louise 


Bortin,  and  published  by  Richault  (Paris, 
1811).  I.  Villanelle,  for  mezzo-soprano,  or 
tenor ;  II.  Le  spectre  de  la  rose,  for  con- 
tralto; in.  Sur  les  lagunes,  for  baritone, 
contralto,  or  mezzo-soprano  ;  IV.  Absence, 
for  mezzo-soprano  or  tenor ;  V.  Au  cimc- 
tiere,  for  tenor ;  VI.  L'ile  inconnue,  for 
mezzo-soprano  or  tenor.  No.  IV.  was  or- 
chestrated in  1813  ;  the  others,  about  185G. 
They  were  translated  into  German  by  P. 
Cornelius,  and  rededicated  respectively  to 
Jllle  Wolff,  Mle  Falconi,  M.  Milde,  Mile 
Nottcs,  M.  Caspari,  and  Mile  Milde.  Pub- 
lished by  Rieter-Biedermaim  (Leipsic  and 
Winterthur,  1856)  and  by  Hofmeister  (Leip- 
sic). Liszt  also  wrote  Nuits  d  eto  a  Pausi- 
lippe,  trois  amusements  sur  des  motifs  de 
I'Album  de  Donizetti  (Ricordi,  Milan,  1839  ; 
and  Schott,  Mainz,  1839).— Neue  Zeitschr., 
xlvii.  77. 

NUN  BEUT  DIE  FLUR,  soprano  aria  of 
Gabriel,  in  B-flat  major-,  in  Haydn's  Die 
Scho'pfung,  Part  I.,  No.  8. 

NUN  DANKET  ALLE  GOTT,  choral  by 
Johanu  Criiger.  It  is  one  of  Criiger's  best 
known  works.  Published  in  the  "Praxis 
pietatis  melica,"  for  four  voices  and  two  in- 
struments (Leipsic,  1619  ;  30th  ed.,  Berlin, 
1703).  It  was  used  by  Mendelssohn  in  No. 
8  of  his  Lobfjesang,  o-p.  52  (1810). 

NUN  LIEBES  WEIBCHEN,  ZIEHST 
MT  MIR,  duet  for  soprano  and  bass  with 
orchestra,  in  F,  composed  by  Mozart  about 
1790.  Breitkopf  &  Hartel,  Mozart  Werke, 
Serie  vi..  No.  47. — Kochel,  Verzeichniss, 
No.  625. 

NUN  LIEGET  ALLES  UNTER  DIR, 
choral  in  D  major,  for  four-part  chorus, 
with  accompaniment  of  two  flutes,  two 
oboes,  strings  complete,  and  continue,  in 
Johann  Sebastian  Bach's  cantata  (Orato- 
rium)  Lohel  Gott  in  seinen  Reichen.  The 
melody  is  Ermunt're  dich,  mein  schwacher 
Geist,  written  by  Johann  Schopp  (1641). 

NUN  OF  NIDAEOS,  THE,  song  for 
tenor  solo,  male  chorus,  and  orchestra,  with 
pianoforte  obligato  accompaniment,  and 
reed  organ  ad  libitum,    music   by  Dudley 


NUN 


Buck,  op.  83,  written  in  1878,  and  dedi- 
cated to  W.  B.  Leonard.  Published  by  G. 
Schirmer  (New  York,  1879). 

NUN  SCHEINT  IN  VOLLEM  GLANZE, 
bass  aria  of  Eapbael,  in  D  major,  in  Hay- 
dn's Die  SchOpfung,  Part  11.,  No.  22. 

NUN  SCHWANDEN  VOK  DEM  HEILI- 
GEN,  tenor  aria  of  Uriel,  and  chorus,  in  A 
major,  in  Haydn's  Die  Schi'ypfung,  Part  L, 
No.  2. 

NUN  SEI  GEDANKT,  ]VIEIN  LffiBER 
SCHU'AN.     See  Lohengrin. 

NUOVE  MUSICHE,  LE,  a  collection  of 
madrigals  and  canzone  for  one  voice,  by 
Giulio  Caccini.  The  first  edition  was  pub- 
lished by  Marescotti  (Florence,  lGOl-2)  ; 
the  second  hy  Alessaudro  Itaverii  (Venice, 
1607)  ;  the  third  (ib.,  1615).— Fetis,  ii.  141 ; 
Ambros,  iv.  173. 

NUBAL4.HAL,  oder  das  Rosenfest  von 
Caschmir,  German  opera  in  two  acts,  text 
by  Herklots,  from  Moore's  "  Lalla  Eookli," 
music  by  Spontini,  first  represented  in  Ber- 
lin, ^lay  27,  1822,  in  honour  of  the  betrotli- 
al  of  tlie  Princess  Alexandrina  of  Prussia 
to  the  Grand  Duko  of  Meckleuburg-Schwer- 
in.     Original  cast : 

Nurmahal Mme  Seidler. 

Zelia Mme   Scliulz. 

Namouna Mme  Jlilder. 

Sultan  Dschohangir HeiT  Bader. 

]5ahar Herr  Devrient. 

Atar Hcrr  Blume. 

Genie lilllo  Euuike. 

The  work  was  dedicated  to  the  Emperor 
and  published  by  Schlesinger  (Berhn,  1828). 
Spontini  had  previously  written  music  for 
an  arrangement  of  "Lalla  Eookh,"  repre- 
sented at  the  Royal  Palace,  Jan.  27,  1821,  to 
entertain  the  Grand  Duke  Nicholas  of  Rus- 
sia, during  his  visit  to  the  German  court. 
Weber  wrote  music  to  Nurmahal's  song, 
"  From  Chindara's  warbling  fount  I  come," 
from  "LaUa  Rookh,"  for  soprano  with  pi- 
anoforte accompaniment ;  his  last  compo- 
sition, it  was  left  incomplete,  and  finished 
by  :Moschelcs.— Grove,    iii.  673,  675  ;  All- 


gem,  mus.  Zeitg.,  xxiv.  402  ;  Berliner  mus. 
Zeitg.,  V.  471,  477  ;  Ciicilia,  vii.  135  ;  Jahn, 
Weber  Verzeichniss,  409. 


0 


AKELEY,  Sir  HERBERT  STANLEY, 

born  at  Ealing,  IMiddlesex,  England, 
July  22,  1830,  still  living,  1890.     He 
was    educated   at 
^^  "^^^\  Kugby   and    Ox- 

I  ^  ford  (B.A.,  1853; 

1'/^  '^     Vr  M.A.,  185G)  ;  pu- 

pil of  Dr.  Stephen 
El  vey  in  harmony, 
in  Leipsic  of  Mo- 
schelesand  Plaidy 
on  the  jjianoforte, 
in  Bonn  of  Brci- 
densteiu,  and  in 
Dresden  of  Dr.  Johann  Schneider,  on  the 
organ.  After  residing  in  London  as  a  mu- 
sical critic  he  became  professor  of  music 
in  Edinburgh  University  in  1865  ;  received 
the  degi'ce  of  Mus.  Doc,  Cambridge,  1871  ; 
Oxford,  1879  ;  knighted  in  1876  in  recog- 
nition of  his  musical  services,  and  in  1881 
made  composer  to  Her  Majesty  in  Scot- 
land ;  LL.D.,  Aberdeen,  1881  ;  D.C.L.,  To- 
ronto, 1886  ;  Mus.  Doc,  Dublin,  1887  ;  hon- 
orary member  of  Aecademia  Filarmonica, 
Bologna,  1888.  Works  :  Edinburgh  Festal 
March,  for  orchestra,  Liveiijool  Musical 
Festival,  op.  22,  1874 ;  Funeral  March,  for 
do.,  oji.  23  ;  Minuet  in  old  style,  do.,  Ches- 
ter Festival,  1885  ;  Anthems  ;  4  quartets, 
op.  7  ;  3  do.,  op.  16  ;  6  part-songs  for  men's 
voices,  op.  17  ;  4  choral  songs  for  do.  ;  Stu- 
dent's song.  Alma  Mater,  for  do.  ;  National 
Scottish  ]Melodies,  arranged  for  do.,  op.  18  ; 
3  duets,  op.  8  ;  English,  French,  and  Ger- 
man songs  ;  Pianoforte  music — Grove  ; 
Men  of  the  Time  (1884),  840. 

OAIvEY,  GEORGE,  born  in  London, 
Oct.  14, 1841,  still  living,  1890.  Vocal  com- 
poser, pupil  of  Hullah  and  MacfaiTen  ;  won 
first  prizes  in  Society  of  Arts  Examinations 
in  1869  and  1873.  He  became  examiner  in 
harmony  and  composition   to  Tonic  Sol-fa 


OBERIIOFFER 


College  ill  1877,  lecturer  on  harmony  in 
1877,  and  on  counterpoint  in  1878  ;  pro- 
fessor of  liarmony  and 


couuter23oint  in  City 
of  London  College 
in  1883.  Mas.  Bac, 
Cambridge,  18  77. 
Works :  Blessed  be 
the  Lord  God,  and 
other  anthems; 
Hymns  and  chants ; 
Stars  of  the  Summer 
Night,  and  other  part- 
songs  ;  Songs  and  glees.  He  has  published, 
also:  Exercises  in  Harmony  (London,  1877); 
Text-Book  of  Counterpoint  (ib.,  1878) ;  Do. 
of  Harmony  (ib.,  1884). 

O  !  A  TE  B.VDA,     See  Lucrczia  Borgia. 

OBBLIGATO,  AH!  SI  OBBLIGATO. 
See  Elim-e  d'  Amore. 

O  BEAU  PAYS  DE  LA  TOURAINE. 
See  Huguenots. 

OBERHOFEER,  HEINRICH,  born  at 
Pfalzel,  near  Treves,  Rhenish  Prussia,  Dec. 
9,  1824,  still  Hving,  1890.  Church  compos- 
er, first  instructed  by  his  fatliei',  an  organ- 
ist, then  pupil  of  W.  Hermann  at  Treves  ; 
became  instructor  of  music  at  the  teach- 
ers' seminary  at  Luxemburg  in  185G,  and 
professor  in  18G1.  He  has  done  much  for 
the  elevation  of  church  music,  and  in  18G2 
founded  the  periodical  "Ciicilia,"  with  that 
object  in  view.  In  the  same  year  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  Aecademia  di  Santa 
Cecilia  in  Rome.  Works :  Sacred  four-part 
songs ;  Choruses  for  male  voices  ;  Songs  ; 
Organ  music. — Mendel. 

OBERON,  or  the  Elf  -  King's  Oath,  ro- 
mantic English  opera  in  three  acts,  text 
by  James  R.  Planche,  music  by  Carl  Maria 
von  Weber,  first  represented  at  Covent 
Garden,  London,  April  12,  182G.  It  was 
written  in  1825-2G,  and  is  the  composer's 
last  dramatic  work.  The  libretto  is  taken 
from  Villeneuve's  romance,  "  Huon  de 
Bordeaux,"  and  from  Sotheby's  translation 
of  Wieland's  poem,  "  Oberon."  Oberon, 
having  quarrelled  with  Titauia,  vows  that 


he  will  not  be  reconciled  to  her  until  ho 
shall  find  two  lovers  who  will  kGej)  their 
troth  inviolate.  Puck,  wishing  to  reunite 
them,  sets  to  work.  He  discovers  in 
France  the  chevaUer  Huon  de  Bordeaux, 
who  has  killed  the  son  of  Charlemagne  in  a 
combat,  and  is  ordered  to  Bagdad.  Puck 
brings  him  with  his  squire,  Sherasmin, 
asleep  to  Oberon,  who  shows  him  a  vision 
of  Rezia,  daughter  of  the  Caliph.  Sir 
Huon  falls  in  love  with  her,  and  on  waking 
Oberon  promises  that  he  may  possess  her, 
and  gives  him  a  magic  horn  that  will  sum- 
mon him  at  Huou's  need.  He  gives  to 
Sherasmin  a  golden  cup  that  tests  charac- 
ter by  filling  with  wine,  or  flame,  to  the  one 
who  holds  it  to  his  lips.  Huon  is  trans- 
ported to  Bagdad,  where  he  learns  that 
Rezia  is  to  be  married  on  the  morrow. 
Rezia,  who  also  has  seen  Sir  Huon  in  a 
vision,  declares  to  her  attendant,  Fatima, 
that  she  will  die  by  her  own  hand  if  Sir 
Huon  does  not  come  to  her  rescue.  He 
ajipears,  and,  with  the  aid  of  the  magic 
horn,  can-ies  her  away,  and  they  embark 
with  Fatima  and  Sherasmin.  A  storm  is 
raised  by  Oberon,  and  they  are  shipwrecked 
on  a  desert  island.  Rezia  is  captured  by 
pirates,  and  sold  to  the  Emir  of  Tunis,  who 
becomes  enamoured  of  her.  Fatima  and 
Sherasmin  are  made  slaves.  Sir  Huon, 
conveyed  to  Tunis  by  Oberon,  enters  the 
harem  to  find  Rezia.  He  undergoes  trials 
from  the  emir's  wife,  and,  resisting  her, 
she  accuses  him  to  her  husband,  who  or- 
ders Sir  Huon  and  Rezia  to  be  burned  on 
the  same  jjile.  Sherasmin  blows  upon  the 
fairy  horn,  and  Oberon  appears  with  Ti- 
tania,  saves  the  lovers,  and  bears  them  to 
the  court  of  Charlemagne,  where  Huon  is 
pardoned.  The  chief  numbers  are :  The 
opening  chorus,  "Light  as  fairy  feet  can 
fall,"  sung  by  fairies  and  genii  ;  Oberon's 
solo,  "Fatal  oath;"  Rezia's  song,  "Oh! 
why  art  thou  sleeping  ?  "  leading  to  the  en- 
semble, "  Honour  and  joy  to  the  true  and 
the  brave  ; "  "  Oh  !  'tis  a  glorious  sight," 
sung  by  Huon  ;  and  the  finale  to  Act  I., 


31 


OBERON 


"Yes,  my  lord,"  begun  by  Eezia,  extend- 
ing into  a  duet  with  Fatima,  and  closing 
with  the  chorus,  "  Now  the  evening  watch 
is  set ; "  the  chorus,  "  Glory  to  the  Caliph  ; " 
Fatima's  ai-ietta,  "  A  lovely  Ai-ab  maid  ;  " 
the  quartet,  "  Over  the  dark  blue  waters  ;  " 
Huon's  prayer,  "  Euler  of  this  awful 
hour;"  Eezia's  grand  aria,  "Ocean,  thou 
mighty  monster,"  which  is  often   sung  at 


Eugenia  Pappenheim. 

concerts  ;  tlic  mermaids'  song,  "  Oh  !  'tis 
pleasant ;  "  Fatima's  song,  "  Oh  !  Araby, 
dear  Araby ;  "  the  duet,  "  On  the  banks  of 
the  sweet  Garonne,"  between  Fatima  and 
Shei'asmin  ;  Kczia's  cavatina,  "  Mourn  thou, 
poor  heart ; "  Sir  Huon's  rondo,  "  I  revel 
in  hope  ;"  and  his  aria,  "Yes!  even  love  to 
fame  must  yield,"  which  was  composed 
especially  for  Braham,  at  his  request.  The 
opera  is  a  combination  of  chivalry,  Orient- 
alism, and  delicate  fancy,  blended  with  art 
and  grace.  The  melody,  colour,  and  rich- 
ness of  the  orchestration  were  greatly  ad- 
mired by  BorUoz.     Original  cast : 


Oberon  (T.) Mr.  Bland. 

Huon  (T.) iVIi-.  Braham. 

Sherasmin  (Bar.) ilr.  Fawcett. 

Rezia  (S.) Miss  Paton. 

Fatima  (M.-S.) Mme  Vestris. 

Puck  (C.) Miss  Cawse. 

Mermaid  (S.) Miss  Gownell. 

The  opera  was  translated  into  German  by 
Theodor  Hell,  and  given  in  Leipsic  in  De- 
cember, 1826  ;  in  Vienna,  March  20,  1827  ; 
and  in  Berlin,  July  2,  1828.  It  was  first 
represented  in  Paris  in  German,  in  1830, 
without  success,  and  again  at  the  Theatre 
Lyrique,  translation  by  Nuitter,  Beaumont, 
and  Chazot,  with  success,  Feb.  27,  1857. 
It  was  first  sung  in  New  York,  Oct.  9,  1829. 
It  was  first  given  in  Italian  at  Her  Majes- 
ty's, London,  July  3,  18G0,  with  recitatives 
by  Su*  Julius  Benedict,  and  this  version  was 
given  in  Philadelphia,  March  9, 1870.  Obe- 
ron was  revived  in  London,  December  7, 
1878.  The  last  German  edition  by  Franz 
Grandaur,  with  recitatives  by  Franz  Wiill- 
ner,  was  given  in  Leipsic,  Sept  30,  1883. 
The  original  autograph,  in  the  Royal  Li- 
braiy  in  St.  Petersburg,  was  presented  in 
1855  by  Max  von  Weber  to  Alexander  H. 
Kezia  is  a  favourite  role  of  Mme  Pappen- 
heim. Pubhshed  by  Welsh  &  Hawes  (Lon- 
don, 182C)  ;  by  Schlesinger  (Berlin,  1827) ; 
by  Sinirock  (Bonn  and  Berlin) ;  by  Litolff 
(Brunswick) ;  by  Lose  (Copenhagen) ;  by 
Hirsch  (Stockholm)  ;  by  Brandus  &  Du- 
four,  by  Choudens,  and  by  Richault  (Paris) ; 
and  by  Novello  &  Co.  and  Cramer  &  Co. 
(London). — Jiihus,  Verzeichniss,  383  ;  Web- 
er, Weber,  ii.,  58G,  G67,  680;  Palgrave, 
Weber,  ii.,  377,  455  ;  Benedict,  Weber,  120  ; 
Harmonicou  (1826),  107,  HI  ;  Edward's 
Hist.  Opera,  ii.  299 ;  Hanslick,  Moderne 
Oper,  75  ;  Berlioz,  A  travers  chants,  234  ; 
Berliner  mus.  Zeitg.,  iv.  19  ;  v.  456,  463, 
473,  481  ;  AUgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xxviii.  43G, 
530  ;  xxix.  109,  245,  265  ;  Cacilia,  vii.  174  ; 
Clement  et  Larousse,  488  ;  Revue  et  Gaz. 
mus.  de  Paris  (1857).  66,  77  ;  Echo,  i.  209  ; 
Grove,    iv.    420  ;    Quarterly    Mus.    Review 


OBEIlTIltJR 


(London),  viii. ;  Signale  (1883),  865  ;  (1886) 
1153 ;  Atbenaium  (1878),  ii.  771  ;  Upton, 
Standard  Operas,  333. 

OBERTHUK,  KARL,  born  in  Munich, 
March  -1,  1819,  still  liv- 
ing, 1890.  Virtuoso  on 
the  harp,  i)upil  of  Elise 
Brauchle  and  G.  V. 
IiOder  ;  was  attached  to 
the  theatre  of  Zi'u-ich  iu 
1837-39,  then  engaged 
in  Wiesbaden,  lived  iu 
Mannheim  iu  1812-41:, 
aud  went  to  Euglaud  iu 
1811:,  where  he  held  a  brief  engagement  at 
the  Italian  Opera  iu  London,  aud  then  de- 
voted himself  to  teaching,  composition,  aud 
playing  in  concerts  iu  Euglaud  aud  abroad. 
Works:  Floris  von  Namur,  opera,  Wies- 
baden, about  1810  ;  Der  Berggeist  des  Har- 
zes,  do.,  about  1850  ;  The  Pilgrim  Queen, 
cantata  for  treble  voices  ;  The  Eed  Cross 
Knight,  do.  for  female  voices  ;  Lady  Jane 
Grey,  cantata;  Overtures  to  Macbeth  and 
to  Eiibezahl ;  St.  Philip  de  Neri,  mass  with 
harp  ;  Concertino  for  harp  aud  orchestra  ; 
Loreley,  a  legend,  for  do.  ;  Quartet  for  4 
harps  ;  Noctiu'ue  for  3  harps ;  Trios  for  harp, 
violiu,  and  violoncello  ;  Many  solo  pieces  for 
harp  ;  Pianoforte  music,  and  sougs. — Futis, 
Supplement,  ii.  282  ;  Mendel. 

OBIOLS,  MARIANO,  born  at  Barcelona, 
Nov.  26,  1809,  died  there,  Dec.  10,  1888. 
Violinist,  pupil  of  one  Juan  Vilauova,  and 
in  harmony  of  Arbos  and  Saldoni,  aud  iu 
composition  of  Ramon  Vilauova  ;  went  to 
Italy  iu  1831,  aud  studied  under  Mercadaute, 
with  whom  he  travelled  through  Italy, 
France,  and  Germany.  In  1837  he  returned 
to  Spain  and  soon  after  was  made  director 
of  the  newly  created  musical  Lyceum  at 
Barcelona,  where  he  organized  and  con- 
ducted regular  concerts,  and  finally  became 
director  general  of  music,  and  orchestra  con- 
ductor of  the  grand  theatre  of  the  Lyceum. 
Works :  Odio  ed  amore,  opera,  given  at 
Milan,  Scala,  1837  ;  Editta  di  Belcoui't,  do., 
Barcelona,  1874  ;  II  regio  Imeneo,  cantata  ; 


Many  dramatic  scenes  for  the  Lyceum  Thea- 
tre, Barcelona ;  Mass  ;  Psalms ;  3  Salve 
Regina  ;  Motets  ;  3  concert  overtures  ;  Sere- 
nade ;  Concerto  for  English  horn ;  Album 
religieux  ;  2  vocal  albums,  etc. — Futis,  Sup- 
plement, ii.  282  ;  Mendel,  Ergilnz.,  316. 

OBRECHT.     See  Hobrecht. 

OCA  DEL  CMRO,  L'  (The  Goose  of 
Cairo),  Italian  oj^era  buffa  in  two  acts,  text 
by  Varesco,  music  by  Mozart,  written  in 
Salzburg  in  July,  1783.  Only  the  first  act 
was  finished,  for  Mozart  was  dissatisfied  with 
the  libretto.  The  autograph  and  sketches 
are  in  the  possession  of  Jules  Andre,  Frank- 
fort. The  scene  is  iu  Ripasecca.  Charac- 
ters represented  :  Don  Pijjpo,  Marquis  of 
Ripasecca  (B.)  ;  Donna  Pautea,  his  wife  (S.)  ; 
Celidora,  their  daughter  (S.)  ;  Bioudello,  a 
wealthy  citizen  of  Ripasecca  (T.)  ;  Calan- 
drino,  nephew  of  Donua  Pautea  (T.) ;  Lavina, 
companion  of  Celidora  (S.)  ;  Chichibos,  stew- 
ard iu  Don  Pippo's  house  (B.)  ;  and  Aunetta, 
Donna  Pantea's  maid  (S.).  The  opera  was 
first  published  by  Andre.  The  sketches 
were  fiuished  by  Charles  Coustautiu,  who 
added  numbers  from  Mozart's  Lo  sposo 
deluso  and  Zaide,  translated  into  French  by 
Victor  Wilder,  aud  first  represented  at  the 
Theatre  des  Fantaisies  Parisiennes,  Paris, 
June  6,  1867  ;  in  Vienna,  in  1868  ;  aud  at 
Drury  Lane,  London,  in  Italian,  May  12, 
1870.  Pubhshed  by  Andre  (Ofteubach, 
1855)  ;  by  Breitkopf  &  Hilrtel,  Mozart 
W'erke,  Serie  v..  No.  37  (Supplement). — 
KiJchel,  Verzeichniss,  No.  422  ;  Andre,  Ver- 
zeichniss,  No.  47  ;  Jahn,  Mozart,  iv.  163  ; 
Clement  et  Larousse,  489  ;  Athenaum  (1870), 
i.  685 ;  Hanshck,  Moderne  Oper,  49  ;  Neue 
Zeitschr.,  liii.  80. 

OCCASIONAL  ORATORIO,  iu  three 
parts,  by  Handel,  first  performed  at  Covent 
Garden,  Loudon,  Feb.  14,  19,  and  26,  1746. 
It  is  supposed  that  this  work  was  written  to 
be  performed  at  three  free  concerts  which 
Handel  gave  to  pay  his  debt  to  his  former 
subscribers,  who  had  lost  eight  concerts  in 
the  season  of  1744-45.  Another  theory  is 
that  it  was  composed  to  celebrate  the  first 


33 


OCCIDENT 


victories  over  Charles  Stuart  in  Scotland. 
The  onlj-  date  on  the  autograph  score,  in 
Buckingham  Palace,  heads  the  overture,  one 
of  Handel's   best,    Anno    17i5    (or   1746). 
The  conducting  score  is  inscribed  with  the 
names  of  the  soprano  Gambarini  and  the 
tenor  Beard.     The  first  two  parts  are  orig- 
inal compositions,  the  words  of  which  are 
from  Milton's  "Psalms."    The  soprano  air, 
"  Oh,  liberty,  thou  choicest  treasure,"  in  B- 
flat,  was  subsequently  transposed  to  A  for 
Judas  Maccabseus,    where    it    appears    as 
"  Come,    ever-smiling    liberty."      Part   II. 
closes  with  a  fine  Hallelujah  chorus.     Part 
HI.  opens  with  a  siufonia  put  together  from 
two  movements  of  the  first  and  sixth  of  the 
twelve  Concerti  grossi.     It  contains  several 
numbers  from  Israel  in  Egypt,  including  the 
choruses,  "  I  will  sing  unto  the  Lord  "  and 
"  He  gave  them  hailstones  for  rain,"  and 
the  tenor  aria,  "  The  enemy  said,  I  will  pur- 
sue ; "  and  many  new  jiieces  which  refer  to 
the  mihtary  events  of  the  time.     The  words 
of    these   were    probably   written    by   Dr. 
Thomas  Morell.     The  strophe,  "  War  shall 
cease,"  in  the  air,   "  Prophetic  visions,"  is 
identical  with  Dr.  Arne's  "Rule.  Britannia," 
from  which  Handel  took  his  subject.     The 
oratorio  closes  with  "  God  save  the  King," 
from  the  Coronation  Anthem.     It  was  per- 
formed only  three  times.     First  published 
by  Walsh  (London) ;  edition  by  Chrysander 
for    the   HiindelgeseUschaft,   Breitkopf    & 
Hartel  (Leipsic,  1885). — Schcelcher,  Handel, 
295  ;  Kockstro,  Handel,  283. 

OCCIDENT  ET  ORIENT  (West  and 
East),  march  for  military  band  and  orches- 
tra, in  C,  by  Saint-Saons,  op.  25,  first  per- 
formed at  the  distribution  of  prizes  at  the 
Exposition  Universelle,  Paris,  1878.  Dedi- 
cated to  M.  Th.  Biais,  and  published  by 
Durand,  Schoenewerk  &  Cie  (Paris,  1879). 
Ai-ranged  for  the  isianoforte  for  four  hands 
by  the  composer. 

OCEAN  SYMPHONY,  in  C,  for  orches- 
tra, by  Anton  Rubinstein,  op.  42,  first  per- 
formed in  Kijnigsberg  in  1857.  It  was 
given  in  Leipsic,  at  the  Gewandhaus,  Feb. 


9,  1860  ;  by  the  Musical  Art  Union,  Lon- 
don, May  31,  1861  ;  in  Vienna  in  1863,  and 
by  the  New  York  Philharmonic  in  1871. 
This,  Rubinstein's  second  symphony  and 
greatest  orchestral  work,  is  full  of  rich 
melody  and  solemn  grandeur.  It  is  dedi- 
cated to  Franz  Liszt.  I.  Allegro  maestoso  ; 
n.  Adagio  non  tanto  ;  HI.  Scherzo  ;  IV. 
Finale  :  Allegro  con  fuoco.  Subsequently 
Rubinstein  composed  two  new  movements, 
an  Adagio  and  Scherzo  ;  and  the  entire 
symphony  was  given  at  the  Crystal  Pal- 
ace, London,  April  12,  1877 ;  by  the  New 
Philharmonic,  April  28,  1877  ;  by  the  Phil- 
harmonic, Juno  11,  1879  ;  at  the  Chate- 
let,  Paris,  Feb.  4,  1877 ;  and  in  Berlin  in 
1884  A  new  movement,  "The  Storm," 
Lento  assai,  con  moto  moderato,  was  given 
at  the  Crystal  Palace,  London,  May  13, 
1882.  PubHshed  by  Senff  (Leipsic,  1857  ; 
new  ed.,  1876). — Concertwesen  in  Wien,  ii. 
291 ;  Athena3um  (1877),  i.  554 ;  (1879),  i. 
Upton,  Standard  Symphonies,  220  ;  Signale 
(1858),  193 ;  (1876),  353  ;  La  Mara,  Mus. 
Studienkopf,  iii.  204  ;  Neue  Zeitschr.,  liii. 
11,  18. 

OCEAN,  THOU  INHGHTY  MONSTER. 
See  Oheron. 

O  CIELI  AZZURRL  See  Aida. 
OCKENHEIM  See  Okeghem. 
OCON  Y  EIV.LS,  EDUARDO,  born  at 
Malaga,  Jan.  12,  1834,  still  living,  1890. 
Organist  and  pianist,  studied  music  at  the 
cathedral  of  his  native  city,  where  he  was  a 
choir-boy,  and  in  1853  was  made  assistant 
organist.  In  1858  he  went  to  Paris,  where 
Gounod  is  said  to  have  advised  him,  and 
remained  in  France  several  years.  Works  : 
Masses,  motets,  psalms,  litanies,  hymns, 
etc.  ;  Spanish,  Italian,  and  French  melo- 
dies ;  Pianoforte  music.  He  published  also 
a  collection  entitled  :  Cantes  espanoles,  co- 
leccion  de  aires  nacionales  y  populares,  etc. 
(Malaga,  1874).— Fetis,  Supplement,  ii.  283  ; 
Mendel,  Ergilnz.,  318. 

O    DASS    ICH    DOCH.       See    Zauher- 
flole. 

ODE  A  SAINTE-CfiCILE  (Ode  to  St, 


34 


O   DEATH 


Cecilia),  for  solo,  chorus,  aud  orchestra,  by 
Saiut-SaOns. 

O  DEATH,  WHERE  IS  THY  STING, 
duet  for  alto  aud  tenor,  iu  E-dat  major, 
with  accoiupauimeut  of  coutinuo,  iu  Hau- 
del's  3Ie)<siah,  Part  III,  No.  48  ;  it  leads 
immediately  to  the  chorus,  "  But  thanks  be 
to  God." 

ODE  FOR  SAINT  CECILIA'S  DAY, 
music  to  Dryden's,  for  solo,  chorus,  and  or- 
chestra, by  Handel,  first  performed  at  Lin- 
coln's luu  Fields,  London,  on  Saint  Cecilia's 
Day,  Nov.  22,  1739.  The  programme  in- 
cluded Alexander's  Feast,  two  new  con- 
certos for  several  instruments  and  one  for 
the  organ.  The  autograph,  in  Buckingham 
Palace,  is  the  first  one  dated  with  astrologi- 
cal signs,  a  custom  which  Handel  contin- 
ued the  rest  of  his  life.  The  work  was 
written  between  Sept.  15  and  Se^Dt.  2-1, 
1739.  It  is  the  shortest  of  Handel's  vocal 
compositions,  but  contains  several  fine  cho- 
ruses. It  was  given  six  times  during  the 
season.  Mozart  wrote  additional  accom- 
paniments in  1789.  It  was  first  jjerformed 
by  the  Handel  and  Haydn  Society,  Boston, 
Nov.  28,  18G3.  Published  by  Walsh  (Lon- 
don, 1739)  ;  and  by  Simrock  (Berlin,  18G0- 
67).  Chrysander's  edition  for  the  Hilndel- 
gesellschaft,  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel  (Leijisic, 
18G5).  This  ode  had  previously  been  set 
to  music  by  Giovanni  Baptista  Draghi  in 
1687.  Same  title,  ode  by  Christopher  Fish- 
burn,  music  by  Purcell,  1683  ;  ode  by 
Thomas  d'Urfey,  music  by  Dr.  Blow,  1691 ; 
ode  by  Joseph  Addison,  music  by  Pui'cell, 
1699  ;  ode  by  Pope  (1708),  music  by  Will- 
iam Walond,  1757 ;  ode  by  Christopher 
Smart,  music  by  William  Russell,  1800  ; 
aud  a  cantata,  test  by  Chorley,  music  by 
Julius  Benedict,  first  performed  at  the  Nor- 
Avich  (England)  Festival,  in  1866,  Sacred 
Harmonic  Society,  London,  1867. — Chry- 
sauder,  Handel,  ii.  430  ;  Rockstro,  Handel, 
211  ;  Hawkins,  v.  328  ;  Upton,  Standard 
Cantatas,  57,  177;  Harmonicou  (1831),  289. 

O  DIEU  PUISSANT,  DIEU  TUTfi- 
LAIRE.     See  Muetle  de  Portici. 


ODIN'S  MEERESRITT  (Odin's  Ride 
over  the  Sea),  cantata  for  baritone  solo, 
male  chorus,  and  orchestra,  on  a  poem  of 
the  same  title,  music  by  Friedrich  Gerns- 
heim,  op.  48,  first  given  iu  New  York  by 
the  Arion  Society,  Dec.  14,  1884.  It  is 
dedicated  to  the  Grossherzog  Ludwig  von 
Hessen  und  bei  Rhein.  Published  by  Ries 
&  Erler  (BcrHu). 

ODI  TU.     See  Ballo  in  Maschera. 

O  DOLCEZZE  PERDUTE.  See  Ballo  in 
Maschera. 

0,  DU  MEIN  HOLDER  ABEND- 
STERN.     See  Tannhduaer. 

ODYSSEUS,  cantata  in  two  parts,  for 
soli,  chorus,  and  orchestra,  text  by  William 
Paul  Graff,  from  the  Odyssey,  music  by 
Max  Bruch,  op.  41,  first  performed  in 
Bremen  in  June,  1872.  Characters  repre- 
sented :  Odysseus  (Bar.) ;  Penelope  (C.)  ; 
Alcinoos,  King  of  the  Pheaces  (B.)  ;  Arete, 
his  consort  (C.)  ;  Nausicaa,  their  daughter 
(S.)  ;  Pallas  Athene  (S.)  ;  Leucothea  (S.)  ; 
the  Helmsman  (B.)  ;  Hermes  (T.)  ;  Spirit  of 
Tiresias  (B.)  ;  Spirit  of  Anticlea,  mother  of 
Odysseus  (C.)  ;  Chorus  of  Companions  of 
Odysseus,  Spirits  of  the  Departed,  Sirens, 
Tritons,  Sea-Nymphs,  Pheaces,  Rhapsodes, 
Boatmen  and  Peojjle  of  Ithaca.  Published 
by  Simrock  (Berlin,  1871). — Mus.  Wochen- 
blatt  (1873),  703,  726;  Upton,  Standard 
Cantatas,  95. 

CEDIPE  A  COLONE,  tragedie-opera,  in 
three  acts,  text  by  Guillard,  after  Ducis's 
tragedy,  music  by  Sacchiui,  first  repre- 
sented at  the  Academic  Royale  de  Musique, 
Paris,  Feb.  1,  1787.  This  is  Sacchini's  mas- 
terpiece. The  choruses  are  the  most  strik- 
ing features  of  the  work,  and  the  recitatives 
are  vigorous  and  sustained.  It  is  dedi- 
cated to  Marie  Antoinette.  DisapiDoiutment 
caused  by  the  Queen's  failure  to  keep  her 
promise  to  have  this  opera  performed  at 
Fontaiuebleau  was  the  occasion  of  the  com- 
poser's death.  Q5dipe  was  given  continu- 
ally at  the  Academic  from  1787  till  1830, 
receiving  five  hundred  and  eighty-three  rep- 
resentations.    It  was  revived  in  July,  1843, 


OEDIPUS 


and  given  six  times,  and  once  again  in  May, 
1844     Original  cast,  Paris,  1787  : 

Antigone  (S.) Mme  Chcron. 

Poliuice  (T.) M.  Laine. 

CEdipe  (T.) M.   Cheron. 

Tliesee  (B.) M.  Chardiny. 

In  later  yeai's  Mme  Dabadie  and  Mme 
Donis-Gras  appeared  as  Antigone  ;  M. 
Adolphe  Noun-it  and  M.  Massol,  as  Polinice  ; 
and  M.  Dabadie  and  Levasseur,  as  Thesee. 
Pianoforte  arrangement  published  by 
Troupenas  (Paris)  ;  in  German,  translation 
by  Herklots,  edition  by  Carl  Klage  (Berlin, 
1818).  Same  title  Italian  opera,  text  by 
Lalli,  music  by  Pietro  Torri,  was  given  in 
Munich  in  1729. — Clumeut  et  Larousse, 
491  ;  Grove,  iii.  208  ;  Fetis,  vii.  3G2  ;  La- 
jarte,  i.  354  ;  Berliner  mus.  Zeitg.,  ii.  45  ; 
Hogarth,  ii.  148. 

OEDIPUS  IN  KOLONOS,  music  to  Soph- 
ocles's  tragedj-,  by  Mendelssohn,  op.  93,  first 
performed  at  Potsdam,  Nov.  1,  1845.  Frl. 
Sticb  sang  the  part  of  Antigone,  and  Frau 
Liihmanu,  Herr  Hcndrichs,  Herr  Stawiusky, 
HeiT  Bethge,  and  Herr  Franz  the  other 
parts.  It  was  written  at  the  command  of 
the  King  of  Prussia,  who  ordered  Mendels- 
sohn to  compose  music  to  Antigone  and  to 
CEdipus  Tyrannus.  On  March  12,  1845, 
Mendelssohn  announced  that  the  music  to 
CEdipus  at  Kolonus  was  ready  for  perform- 
ance and  the  sketch  of  QSilipus  Tyran- 
nus finished ;  but  the  latter  was  never 
given,  and  the  MS.  has  been  lost.  QSdipus 
at  Kolonus  was  given  in  Berlin,  Nov.  10, 
184G,  and  first  in  London  at  the  Crystal 
Palace,  June  13,  1876.  It  contains  an  in- 
troduction and  nine  numbers.  Published 
in  1851.  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Mendelssohn 
Werke,  Serie  xv.,  No.  IIG.  Music  to  So- 
phocles's  tragedy  by  Eduai'd  Lassen,  Wei- 
mai",  Feb.  7,  1874  ;  and  a  dramatic  cantata 
for  chorus,  soli,  and  orchestra,  by  Theodore 
Gouvy,  op.  75,  Berlin,  1887. — Grove  ;  Musi- 
cal World  (1854) ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg., 
xlviii.  178 ;  Mendelssohn's  Letters  from 
1833  to  1847,  346  ;  Athenaeum  (1876),  i. 


CEDIPUS  TYRANNUS,  incidental  mu- 
sic to  the  tragedy  of  Sophocles,  by  John 
K.  Paine,  first  performed  under  the  compo- 
ser's direction,  at  the  first  representation  of 
that  play  in  Greek,  at  Sanders  Theatre, 
Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass.,  May 
17,  1881.  This  is  the  most  scholarly  work 
written  by  an  American  composer.  The 
prelude  has  beeu  frequently  played  at  con- 
certs. The  music  consists  of  an  orchestral 
introduction,  choruses,  six  odes,  and  a 
postlude.  Music  to  this  play  has  been 
written  also  hy  Charles  Villiers  Stanford, 
for  a  performance  at  Cambridge,  England, 
Nov.  22-26,  1887.— Upton,  Standard  Can- 
tatas, 281. 

O  ELSA !  NUE  EEST  JAHR  AN  DEINER 
SEITE.     See  Lohengrin. 

OELSCHLEGEL,  JOHANN  LOHE- 
LTUS,  born  at  Loschau,  near  Dux,  Bohemia, 
Dec.  31,  1724,  died  at  Prague,  Feb.  22, 
1788.  Organist  and  church  composer  ;  en- 
tered the  order  of  Premonstrants  at  Prague 
in  1747,  and  was  ordained  a  priest  in  1755. 
He  then  studied  harmony  and  composition 
under  Sehling  and  Habcrmann,  and  for  many 
years  had  charge  of  the  music  in  his  mon- 
astery, which  he  enriched  with  one  of  the 
best  organs  in  Boh(!mia,  after  devoting 
years  of  study  to  the  principles  of  organ 
building.  Works  :  Iniiocentia  et  pietas  bo- 
nam  causam,  etc.,  oratorio,  Strahow,  1760  ; 
5  other  oratorios,  ib.,  1756,  1758,  1759  ; 
Operetta  natalitia,  a  mystery,  ib.,  1761 ; 
do.,  1762  ;  Pastoral  mass  ;  Slissa  brevis  ; 
Requiem  ;  11  Rorato  coeli ;  49  motets  ;  18 
Stationes  Theophorica; ;  16  offertories  ;  12 
hymns  of  St.  Norbert,  for  2  voices  and  or- 
gan ;  Hymn,  do.,  for  4  voices,  4  violins,  2 
trumpets,  and  organ  ;  3  Te  Deum  ;  2  Salve 
Regina  ;  Responses  for  4  voices  and  small 
orchestra  ;  Cantata  for  the  jubilee  of  an  ab- 
bot.— Dlabacz  ;  Fetis  ;  Meusel,  Lexikon,  x. 
186  ;  Wurzbach. 

OESTEN,  THEODOR,  bom  in  Berlin, 
Dec.  31,  1813,  died  there,  March  16,  1870. 
Pianist ;  learned  to  jjlay  on  string  and  wind 
instruments  from   the   town-musician   Po- 


se 


O  EWIGES 


litzki  at  Fiirstenwakle  and  the  pianoforte 
from  a  scboolmastei-,  and  made  many  j'outh- 
fiil  attem23ts  at  composition.  On  returning 
to  Berlin  lie  studied  composition  under 
Bohmer,  the  pianoforte  and  singing  under 
Dresclike,  and  clarinet  under  Taune  ;  then 
entered  the  Academy  of  Arts,  where  lie  was 
the  pupil  of  Rungenhagen,  G.  A.  Schneider, 
and  A.  W.  Bach,  and  settled  in  Berlin  as  a 
teacher.  His  music  is  sentimental,  brill- 
iant, eas}-,  and  exceedingly  popular.  He 
had  many  imitators,  including  his  sou  JLix. 
Works  :  Symphonies,  masses,  quartets, 
motets,  fugues,  and  about  400  pianoforte 
pieces. — Mendel  ;  Fetis  ;  do.,  Supplement, 
ii.  284. 

O  EWIGES  FEUER,  O  URSPEUNG 
DER  LIEBE,  Cantata  Festo  Pentecostes, 
for  soli  and  chorus,  with  accompaniment  of 
three  trumpets,  drums,  two  oboes  (two 
flutes),  strings  complete,  and  continuo,  by 
Johann  Sebastian  Bach  (Bachgesellschaft, 
No.  34)  ;  published,  with  additional  accom- 
j)auiments  bj'  Robert  Franz,  in  full  and  pi- 
anoforte score  (Breslau,  Leuckart). — Sjiitta, 
ii.  5.57. 

OFFENBACH,  JACQUES,  born  in  Co- 
logne, June  21, 
1819,  died  in 
Paris,  Oct.  5, 
1880.  The  son 
of  a  Jewish  can- 
tor, he  went  early 
to  Paris,  and  stud- 
ied the  violon- 
cello a  year  at  the 
Conservatoire  un- 
der Vaslin  ;  then  played  in  the  orchestra 
of  the  Opera  Comique,  and  wrote  music  to 
parodies  on  La  Fontaine's  jsoems.  After 
appearing  as  violoncellist  in  concerts  with 
little  success,  he  was  appointed  chef  d'or- 
chestre  at  the  Theatre  Fran5ais,  where  his 
composition  of  the  Chanson  de  Fortunio  in 
Alfred  de  Musset's  "Chandelier  "  was  well 
received.  He  used  every  means  of  keeping 
his  name  before  the  public,  and  at  last,  in 
1855,  had  a  theatre  of  his  own,  the  Boufifes 


Parisiens,  which  was  situated  at  first  in  the 
Salle  Lacazes  of  the  Champs  Elysees,  and 
soon  removed  to  the  Theatre  Comte  in  the 
Passage  Choiseul,  where  many  of  his  most 
popular  productions  were  brought  out.  In 
18GG  he  gave  up  this  theatre,  and  had  his 
works  performed  at  different  houses ;  in 
1872  he  took  the  Theatre  de  la  Gaite,  but 
resigned  it  to  Vizentini  in  1870,  and  then 
made  an  unsuccessful  American  tour,  which 
he  described  in  his  "Notes  d'un  musicien 
en  voyage  "  (Paris,  1877).  On  his  return 
home  he  devoted  himself  to  composition, 
and  suffered  much  from  the  gout.  His  nu- 
merous works  have  enjoyed  an  immense 
jjopularity.  He  was  the  founder  of  that 
species  of  operetta  known  as  opera-bouffe, 
and,  although  he  has  had  many  imitators, 
none  of  them  have  equalled  him  in  comic 
verve  or  fertility  of  melodic  invention.  In- 
deed, he  has  been  the  only  writer  of  opera- 
bouffe  to  whom  the  term  "  man  of  genius  " 
can  properly  be  applied.  Works — Operet- 
tas :  Les  alcoves,  Paris,  1847  ;  Mai'ietta,  Co- 
logne, 1849  ;  Pepito,  Paris,  1853  ;  Oyayaye, 
Entrez,  messieurs,  mesdames,  Une  nuit 
blanche,  Les  deux  aveugles,  Le  reve  d'une 
nuit  d  etc,  Le  violoneux,  INIadamc  Papillon, 
Perinette,  i^a-Ta-Clau,  1855  ;  Un  jjostillon 
en  gage,  Troiub-al-Cazar,  La  rose  de  Saint- 
Flour,  Les  dragces  du  bapteme,  Le  soixante- 
six,  Le  financier  et  le  savetier.  La  bonne 
d'enfants,  1856  ;  Les  trois  baisers  du  diable, 
Croquefer  ou  le  dernier  des  j)aladins,  Dra- 
gonette.  Vent  du  soir  ou  I'horrible  festin, 
Une  demoiselle  en  loterie,  Le  mariage  aux 
lanternes,  Les  deux  pecheurs,  Les  petits 
prodiges  (with  Jonas),  1857  ;  Mesdames  de 
la  Halle,  La  chatte  metamorphosee  en 
femme,  Orphee  aux  enfers,  1858  ;  Un  mari 
a  la  porte,  Les  vivandieres  de  la  graude 
armee,  Geneuieve  de  Brabant,  1859  ;  Le 
Carnaval  des  revues,  Daphnis  et  Chloe, 
Barkouf,  Le  papillon,  ballet,  18G0 ;  La 
Chanson  de  Fortunio,  Le  pont  des  soupirs. 
Monsieur  Choufleury  restera  chez  lui  (with 
M.  de  Saint-Remy — Due  de  Morny),  Apo- 
thicaire  et  perruquier,  Le  roman  comique, 


37 


OFT  ON 


1861  ;  Monsieur  et  madame  Denis,  Le 
voyage  de  MM  Duuanan  pcre  et  fils,  1862  ; 
Les  Bauards,  1863  ;  Liscben  et  Fritzcben, 
L'amour  cbauteur,  II  signor  Fagotto,  Les 
Georgiennes,  La  fee  du  Rbin,  Le  fifre  en- 
cbante,  Jeanne  qui  pleure  et  Jean  qui  rit, 
La  belle  HeK'ne,  1864 ;  Coscoletto,  Les  Bei-- 
ge)-s,  1865  ;  Harbe-lilene,  La  vie  parisienne. 


'  B-flat  major,  witb  accompaniment  of  strings 
complete,  in  Handel's  L'  Allegro,  il  Pensie- 
roso,  ed  il  Moderate,  Part  I.,  No.  20. 

OGGI  AERIVA  UN  REGGI]\IENTO. 
See  Barber  of  Seville. 

OGINSKI,  Prince  ISHCHAL  KLEOFAS, 
born  at  Guzow,  near  Warsaw,  SejDt.  25, 
1765,  died  in  Florence,  Oct.  31,  1833.     Pu- 


1866  ;  La  grande  ducbesse  de  Gcrolstein,  La  pil  of  Kozlowski ;  was  grand  treasurer  of 
permission  de  dix  beures.  La  leyou  de  cbant,  I  Litbuania  and  senator  of  tbe  Russian  Em- 


Robinson  Crusoi-,  1867  ;  L'ile  de  Tuliisatan, 
Le  cbateau  a  Toto,  La  Perichole,  1868  ;  La 
princesse  de  Trebizonde,  Fert-Vert,  La  rfiua, 
Les  bi'igands,  La  i-omance  de  la  rose,  1869  ; 
Boule  de  neige,  1871  ;  Le  roi  Garotte,  Fleu- 
rette,  Fantmtio,  Le  corsaire  noir,  1872  ;  Les 
braconniers,  Pomme  d'api.  La  jolie  parfu- 
meuse,  1873  ;  Bagatelle,  Madame  I'Ai'cbi- 
duc,  1874  ;  Wittington  et  son  cbat,  Les 
bannetous.  La  boulangure  a  des  ecus,  Le 
voyage  dans  la  lune,  La  Creole,  1875  ;  Pi- 


pire.  During  bis  sojourn  in  Paris,  in  1823, 
tbe  great  violinist  Baillot  played  witb  bim 
in  quartets.  Works :  14  polonaises  ;  Songs 
witb  Frencb  and  Italian  words. — Fetis ;  So- 
wifiski ;  Mendel  ;  Scbilling. 

0  GRAND  SAINT-DOMFSriQUE.  See 
Africaine. 

OH!  ARABY,  DEAR  ARABY.  See 
Oberon. 

0  HAUPT  TOLL  BLUT  UND  WUN- 
DEN,  cboral  in  F  major,  for  Core  I.  and 


^^^t-w^. 


errette  et  Jacquot,  La  boite  au  lait,  1876 ;  H.,  with  accompaniment  of  two  flutes,  two 
Le  docteur  Ox,  La  Foire  Saint-Laurent,  oboes,  strings  complete,  organ,  and  con- 
1877  ;  Maitre  Peronilla,  1878  ;  La  Maro-  tiuuo,  in  Jobann  Sebastian  Bacb's  Passion 
caine,  Madame  Favart,  187'J  ;  Belle  Lu- '  uacb  Mattbilus,  Part  U.,  No.  63.  Tbe  mel- 
ody is  by  Hans  Leo  Hass- 
ler,  and  was  first  pub- 
lished in  1601,  as  a  sec- 
ular song,  Mein  G'miitb 
ist  mir  verwirret. 

OH!    COME    DA 
QUEL    Dl.     See    Semi- 
ramide. 
OH,  GIOJA  CHE  SI  SENTE.   See  Lucia. 
OH !   HAD  I  JUBALS  LYRE,  soprano 
aria  of  Acbsab,  in  A  major,  witb  accompani- 
ment of  violins  in  unison  and  bass,  in  Han- 
del's Joshua,  Act  m..  Scene  3.     Published 
also   separately,    with   the    accompaniment 
filled  out  by  Otto  Dresel   (Leipsic,  Breit- 
kopf  &  Hartel). 

O  HIMJIEL  !  LASS"  DICH  JETZT  ER- 
See  Tannhiiuser. 


rette,  1880 ;  Mademoiselle  Moucboron,  1881 ; 
Les  conies  d'Hoifmann,  comic  opera,  1881. 
— Fetis  ;  do.,  Supplement,  il  284 ;  La- 
rousse  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann  ;  Wurzbach  ; 
Ambros,  Bunte  Blatter,  Serie  H.,  Die  mu- 
sLkalische  Wasserpest ;  Atlantic  Monthly, 
xxix.  508  ;  International  Review,  x.  286. 

OF  GIRLHOOD'S  HAPPY  DAYS.  See 
Rose  of  Castile. 

O  FORTUNE,  A  TON  CAPRICE.     See  '  FLEHEN 


lioberl  le  Diable. 

6  FRANCE,  O  MA  PATRIE  !  See  Dm 
d'Olonne. 

OFT  ON  A  PLAT  OF  RISING 
GROUND,  soprano  aria  of  11  Pensieroso,  in 


OH,  JOYOUS,  HAPPY  DAY.  See  Rose 
of  Castile. 

OH,  LOVELY  PEACE,  soprano  aria  of 
An  Israelitish  Woman,  in  G  major,  with 
accompaniment  of  two  flutes,  strings  com- 


OH,  SLEEP 


plete,  ami  continue,  in  Handel's  Judas 
MaccabiBUS,  Act  III. 

OH  !  QU'IL  EST  BEAU.  See  Postilion 
de  Lonjumeau. 

OH,  SLEEP,  WHY  DOST  THOU 
LEAVE  ME  ?,  soprano  aria  of  Semele,  in  E 
major,  with  accompaniment  of  continuo,  in 
Handel's  Semele,  Act  H.,  sc.  2.  Published 
also  separately,  with  the  accompaniment 
filled  out  by  Otto  Dresel  (Leipsic,  Breit- 
ko2:)f  &  Hiirtel). 

OH !  'TIS  A  GLOEIOUS  SIGHT.  See 
Obei'oyi. 

OH  !  'TIS  PLEASANT.     See  Oberon. 

OH!  WHY  ART  THOU  SLEEPING? 
See  Oberon. 

OH,  WOULD  THAT  I.  See  Puritan's 
Daughter. 

O  ISIS  UND  OSmiS.     See  ZauberJlOte. 

OIvEGHEM,  JOANNES  (Okenghem, 
Okekam,  Oekenheim,  etc.),  born  at  Ter- 
moude  {?),  East  Flanders,  about  1-115-20, 
died  at  Tours  (?)  in  1513.  He  is  supposed 
to  have  got  his  musical  education  at  the 
Maitrise  of  the  Antwerp  Cathedral,  where, 
in  1443,  he  was  a  singer.  Tlie  story  that 
he  was  a  pupil  of  Binchois  is  probably  un- 
true. In  1444  he  gave  up  his  position  at 
Antwerp.  In  14G1  he  was  the  head  of  the 
chapel  of  Charles  VII.  of  France.  Louis  XI. 
made  liim  treasurer  of  Saint-Martin  at  Tours. 
He  was  also  in  the  service  of  Charles  VIII. 
In  1484  he  made  a  trip  to  Flanders,  accom- 
panied by  several  pupils,  and  was  honoured 
with  a  splendid  banquet  at  Bruges.  He 
retired  from  service  shortly  before  the  ac- 
cession of  Louis  Xn.,  1498,  and  probably 
spent  the  rest  of  his  days  in  Tours.  Oke- 
ghem  was  the  founder  and  head  of  the 
second,  or  great,  Netherlandish  school  ;  he 
was  long  considered  the  inventor  of  canonic 
and  contrapuntal  art,  and  was  called  the 
Father  of  Music.  He,  however,  was  not 
the  inventor,  but  one  of  the  great  early  de- 
velopers of  counterpoint  and  canon.  He 
gave  life  and  vigor  to  the  older,  more  stiff 
and  awkward  counterpoint  of  Dufay,  Bin- 
chois, and  other  masters  of  the  first  Nether- 


landish school ;  he  counted  among  his  pu- 
jsils  many  of  the  greatest  names  of  the  next 
generation,  Josquin  Despres,  de  la  Rue,  and 
others,  and  his  was  the  most  potent  and 
widely  exerted  musical  influence  of  the 
period.  His  reputation  during  his  life 
was  universal,  and  at  his  death  composers 
like  Josquin,  Lujji,  and  others  honoured 
his  memory  with  commemorative  works. 
Works  :  Missa  cujusve  toni,  in  Liber  XV. 
missarum  (Petrejus,  Louvain,  1538) ;  Six 
motets,  3-4  voc,  and  a  seqvience.  Miles 
miraj  probitatis,  in  Canti  C  (Petrucci,  Ven- 
ice, 1503)  ;  An  enigmatic  canon  in  S.  Hey- 
den's  Ars  canendi,  Glarean's  Dodekachor- 
don,  etc.  (solutions  in  Burney,  Hawkins, 
Forkel,  Fetis,  Kiesewetter's  Verdienste  der 
Niederlilnder,  Riemann's  Notenschrift,  etc.); 
Fragments  of  Missa  prolationum,  in  Hey- 
den's  Ars  canendi  and  Bellermann's  Kontra- 
punkt  ;  do.  of  Missa  cujusve  toni  (ad  om- 
nem  tonum)  in  Glarean's  Dodekachordon  ; 
Mass,  De  plus  en  plus,  MS.  in  Pontifical 
Chapel,  Rome  ;  2  do.,  Pour  quelque  peine, 
and  Ecce  ancilla  Domini,  MS.  in  Brussels 
Library  ;  Motets  in  MS.  in  Rome,  Florence, 
and  Dijon  ;  6  masses,  an  Ave,  and  some 
motets  in  Van  der  Straeten ;  Kj'rie  and 
Christe,  4  voc,  from  Missa  cujusve  toni,  in 
Rochlitz. — Ambros,  iii.  170  ;  Fetis  ;  Grovo  ; 
Riemann. 

O'KELLY,  JOSEPH,  born,  of  Irish  par- 
entage (?),  at  Boulogne-sur-Mer,  France,  in 
1829,  died  in  Paris,  January,  1885.  Pian- 
ist, pupil  of  Osborne  and  Kalkbrenner,  and 
in  composition  of  Dourlen  and  Halevy,  in 
Paris.  Works :  Le  lutin  de  Galwaj',  opera, 
Boulogne,  1878  ;  La  zingarella,  do.,  Paris, 
1879  ;  Paraguassii,  poeme  lyrique,  1855  ; 
Ruse  contre  ruse,  ojDeretta  ;  Cantata,  Ami- 
ens, 1867  ;  Cantata  for  the  Centenary  of 
O'Connell,  Dublin,  1878  ;  Justice  et  charite, 
sacred  cantata,  Versailles,  1878  ;  Songs  and 
pianoforte  music. — Fetis,  Supplement,  ii. 
28G. 

OLD  HUNDREDTH  TUNE,  THE,  a 
hymn-tune  popular  in  England  and  Amer- 
ica, the  authorship  of  which   is  unknown. 


39 


OLD 


It  was  the  melody  adapted  to  Beza's  version 
of  Psalm  CXXXr\\,  iucluded  by  bim  in 
the  Psalms  which  he  added  to  the  Genevan 
Psalter  in  1551.  The  earliest  copy  of  the 
Psalter  with  the  tunes  is  dated  1554 
Louis  Bourgeois,  the  musical  editor  of  that 
book,  arranged  the  tune  in  its  present  form. 
It  is  probably  an  adaptation  of  a  poj)ular 
tune  of  the  15th  century.  It  resembles  the 
tune  sung  in  France  at  that  period  to  the 
words,  "  II 11  y  a  icy  celluy  qui  n'ai  sa  belle  ;" 
and  in  Holland  to,  "Ik  had  een  boelken 
uitercoren,  die  ik  met  Hai'ten  minne."  It 
is  found  with  different  endings  in  the 
earhest  Flemish  Psalter,  "  Souter  Liedekeus 
ghemalct  ter  eeren  Gods  "  (Antwerjj,  1540)  ; 
in  Utenhoves  Dutch  Psalter,  "Hondert 
Psalmeu  Davids,"  printed  by  John  Daj-e 
(London,  1561)  ;  in  a  French  translation  of 
the  Psalms  with  music  by  Marot  and  Beza 
(Lyons,  1563)  ;  in  Claude  Goudimel's  fa- 
mous collection  of  tunes  (Paris,  1565) ;  in 
Este's  Psalter  (1592) ;  and  the  same  melody 
is  in  several  English  and  German  tune- 
books,  with  variations  regarding  the  value 
of  the  notes.  The  Genevan  tune  was  first 
sung  in  England  to  Kethe's  version  of  Psalm 
C,  "All  people  that  on  earth  do  dwell," 
and  it  was  first  called  the  "  Hundredth " 
tune.  The  word  "  Old  "  was  added  when 
Brady  and  Tate's  new  version  of  the  Psalter 
appeared  in  1696.  In  America  it  is  com- 
monly called  "  Old  Hundred."  The  name 
"  Savoy  "  has  been  given  to  it,  from  its  use 
by  the  French  congi-egation  established  in 
the  Savoy,  London,  in  the  reign  of  Charles 
n.  A  monograph  on  this  tune,  with  an  ap- 
pendix of  28  specimens  of  the  melody  as 
sung  from  1563  to  18i7,  was  jiublished  by 
the  Eev.  W.  H.  Haveigal  in  1854.— Grove, 
ii.  495  ;  Bovet,  Histoire  du  Psautier  des 
eglises  reformees  (Neufchatel  and  Paris, 
1872) ;  Douen,  Clement  Marot  et  le  Psautier 
Huguenot  (2  vols.,  Paris,  1878-79). 

OLD,  JOHN,  born  at  Totness,  South 
Devon,  England,  in  1829,  still  bring,  1890. 
Pupil  of  John  and  Edward  Loder,  and  at 
the  Royal  Academy  of  Music  of  Bennett ; 


afterwards  studied  under  Thalberg  and 
Molique.  Conductor  of  Torquay  Choral 
Society,  1852-55.  Works:  The  Seventh 
Seal,  sacred  drama,  1853  ;  Heme  the  Hunter, 
opera,  1879  ;  The  Battle,  dramatic  solo  and 
chorus,  185'4  ;  Tenth  of  March,  Overture 
for  orchestra  (on  marriage  of  Prince  of 
Wales)  ;  Anthems,  songs,  and  part-songs  ; 
Pianoforte  music. 

O'LEARY,  ARTHUR,  born  near  Kil- 
larne^-,  Ireland,  March  15,  1834,  still  living, 
1890.  Pianist,  pupU  at  the  Conservatoiium, 
Leipsie,  of  Moscheles,  Hauptmann,  Richter, 
Rietz,  and  Plaidy,  and  at  the  Royal  Acad- 
emy, London,  of  Bennett  and  Potter.  Pro- 
fessor at  the  latter,  1856.  Works :  Overture 
and  incidental  music  to  Longfellow's  "  Span- 
ish Student "  (with  Potter)  ;  Symphony  in 
C  ;  Concerto  in  E  minor,  for  pianoforte  and 
orchestra ;  Pianoforte  music  and  songs. 
His  wife,  Rosetta  (Vinning)  O'Leary,  was 
King's  scholar  at  the  Royal  Academy  in 
1852,  conjointly  with  J.  F.  Barnett.  She 
has  published  songs. 

OLIMPIADE,  L',  opera  seria  in  three 
acts,  text  by  Metastasio,  music  bj'  Cimarosa, 
first  represented  iu  Naples  in  1784.  The 
libretto,  IMetastasio's  masterpiece,  was  writ- 
ten in  1733.  Characters  represented  :  Clis- 
tene.  King  of  Scione  ;  Ai-istea,  his  daugh- 
ter ;  Megacle,  her  lover ;  Alcandro,  Clis- 
tene's  confidant  ;  Licida,  supposed  son  of 
the  King  of  Crete  ;  Amiuta,  preceptor  of 
Licida ;  and  Argene,  a  Cretan  in  love  with 
Licida.  The  scene  is  at  Olympia.  Clisteue, 
warned  by  the  oracle  of  Deljjhi  that  he  will 
be  killed  by  his  son,  abandons  him,  but  real's 
the  twin-sister,  Aristea,  who  becomes  a 
beautiful  woman.  She  is  loved  by  Megacle, 
whose  suit  is  refused  by  Clistene.  Megacle 
goes  to  Crete,  where  he  is  rescued  from 
brigands  by  Licida,  with  whom  he  forms  a 
strong  friendship.  Licida  is  mourning  the 
loss  of  his  mistress,  Ai-gene,  who  has  been 
banished  to  Elide  as  a  shepherdess  under 
the  name  of  Lycori.  Licida  goes  to  Elide 
with  Megacle  to  take  part  in  the  Olj'iupian 
games,  over  which  Clistene,  who  has  prom- 


40 


OLIMPIADE 


ised  the  hand  of  his  daughter  to  the  victor, 
presides.  Licida  falls  in  love  with  Aristea, 
and,  unpractised  in  athletic  sports,  begs  Me- 
gacle  to  win  her  for  him  under  his  name. 
Megacle,  not  knowing  who  is  to  be  the  re- 
ward, promises,  and  on  entering  the  lists 
discovers  that  it  is  Ai'istea.  At  this  point 
Clistene  recognizes  Licida  as  his  sou  Phi- 
linte,  and  Megacle  and  Aristea  are  united. 
Megacle  is  one  of  Metastasio's  most  beau- 
tiful characters.  Cimarosa's  rondo,  "Nel 
lasciarti,  o  jsrence  amato,"  was  published 
by  M.  Gevaert  in  "  Les  gloires  de  I'ltalie." 
—Hogarth,  i.  340. 

OLIMPIADE,  L',  opera  seria  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Sletastasio,  music  by  Leo,  first  rej)- 
resented  in  Naples,  Nov.  4,  1737.  Two 
numbers,  the  duet,  "  Ne'  giorni  tuoi  felici," 
between  Aristea  and  Megacle,  and  Clistene's 
aria,  "  Non  so  donde  viene,"  are  among 
Leo's  best  compositions. 

OLIMPIADE,  L",  ojjera  seria  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Metastasio,  music  by  Pergolesi,  first 
represented  in  Eome  in  1735.  Although 
the  music  is  written  iu  the  composer's  best 
stj'le,  the  opera  was  received  with  inditt'er- 
ence  because  of  its  rival  opera  Nerone  by 
Duni.  After  Pergolesi's  death,  in  1727,  the 
opera  was  revived  in  Rome,  with  groat  suc- 
cess. It  was  first  sung  in  England  in  174;"2, 
when  the  part  of  Megacle  was  sung  by  Si- 
gnor  Monticelli. — Clement  et  Larousse,  193  ; 
Fiitis,  Mus.  ccdebres,  83  ;  Hogarth,  i.  385- 
388  ;  Burney,  iv.  448  ;  Waldersee,  Samm- 
lung  mus.  Vortriige,  ii.  153. 

OLKIPIADE,  L',  opera  seria  iu  three 
acts,  text  by  Metastasio,  music  by  Piecinni, 
first  represented  in  Eome  in  1701  ;  iu  Na- 
ples, with  new  music,  1771.  This  was  one 
of  Piecinui's  most  successful  operas,  and 
one  of  the  best  settings  of  this  libretto. 
— Hogarth,  ii.  13G. 

OLIMPLADE,  L',  ojjera  seria  in  three 
acts,  text  by  Metastasio,  music  by  Sacchini, 
first  represented  iu  Milan  in  17(57.  It  is 
said  that  this  opera  was  deprived  of  a  hear- 
ing in  Paris  through  the  jealousy  of  Gluck. 
Same  text,  music  by  Antonio  Caldara,  Vi- 


enna, Aug.  28,  1733  ;  by  Domenico  Alberti, 
Venice,  1739 ;  by  Duni,  about  1740  ;  by 
Giuseppe  Scolari,  about  1747  ;  by  Georg 
Christoph  Wagenseil,  Vienna,  1749  ;  by 
Gaetano  Latilla,  Venice,  1752  ;  by  David 
Perez,  Lisbon,  1754  ;  by  Giuseppe  Sarti, 
Florence,  about  1755  ;  by  Johann  Adam 
Hasse,  Dresden,  Feb.  IG,  1750  ;  by  Niccolo 
Jommelli,  Stuttgart,  17G1 ;  by  Viucenzo 
Manfredini,  Moscow,  17G2  ;  by  Andrea  Ber- 
nasconi,  Munich,  17G4  ;  by  Gassmaun,  Ven- 
ice, 1764  ;  by  Lampuguani,  about  17G5  ;  by 
Ferdinando  Giuseppe  Bertoui,  Naples,  17G5  ; 
by  Thomas  Augustine  Arne,  London,  April 
27,  17G5  ;  pasticcio  by  various  composers, 
arranged  by  Francesco  Puttini,  Cremoua, 
17G8  ;  by  Giovanni  Paisiello,  Naples,  17G8  ; 
by  Pasquale  Cesaro,  ib.,  1769  ;  by  Johann 
Christian  Bach,  London,  17G9  ;  by  Traetta, 
St.  Petersburg,  1770  ;  by  Pasquale  Aufossi, 
Venice,  December,  1774  ;  by  Baldassare 
Galuppi,  about  1775  ;  by  Joseph  Mysli- 
weczek,  Rome,  1778  ;  by  Gaetano  Andre- 
ozzi,  Leghorn,  1780  ;  by  Francesco  Bianchi, 
Milan,  1782  ;  by  Johann  Gottfried  Schwan- 
berg,  Brunswick,  1782  ;  by  Luigi  Gatti, 
Piacenza,  1784  ;  by  Giovanni  Battista  Bor- 
ghi,  Florence,  1785  ;  by  Alessio  Prati,  Na- 
ples, 178G  ;  by  Angelo  Tarchi,  Eome,  1790  ; 
by  Vincenzo  Federici,  Turin,  1790  ;  by  Jo- 
hann Friedrich  Eeichardt,  Berlin,  October, 
1791 ;  by  Marcello  Perrino,  Naples,  about 
1795  ;  by  Michael  Arditi,  ib.,  about  1800  ; 
and  by  Conti,  ib.,  Oct.  9,  182G. 

OLIVER,  HENRY  KEMBLE,  born  at 
Beverly,  Massachusetts,  Nov.  24,  1800,  died 
iu  Boston,  Aug.  10,  1885.  He  was  a  boy 
soj^rano  in  the  choir  of  the  Park  Street 
Church,  Boston,  in  1810,  was  graduated  at 
Dartmouth  College  in  1818,  and  taught  in 
Salem  until  1844  ;  in  1848-58  he  was  agent 
of  a  manufacturing  company  in  Lawrence, 
of  which  he  was  mayor  in  1859,  and  iu  18G1 
-65  was  treasurer  of  the  State  of  Blassachu- 
setts.  In  1865  he  returned  to  Salem,  of 
which  city  he  was  also  mayor,  aud  in  1880 
removed  to  Boston.  He  was  organist  and 
musical  director  of  several  churches  in  Law- 


OLIVETTE 


rence  and  Salem,  and  the  founder  of  a  glee 
club  (1823),  which  existed  twenty  years, 
and  of  a  Mozart  Association  (182G),  both  in 
the  latter  place.  In  1883  he  received  the 
degree  of  Mus.  Doc.  from  Dartmouth  Col- 
lege. Works  :  The  National  Lyre,  with 
Tuckerman  and  Bancroft  (Boston,  1848)  ; 
Collection  of  Church  Music  (ib.,  I860)  ; 
Original  Hymn  Tunes  (ib.,  1875).  Federal 
Street,  one  of  his  best  known  tunes,  written 
in  1832  (Mason's  Boston  Academy  Col- 
lection, 1835),  was  sung,  set  to  his  own 
words,  at  the  Boston  Peace  Jubilee  in  1872, 
under  his  own  direction.  Others  of  his 
hymns  are  Morning,  Harmony  Grove,  Bea- 
con Street,  Hudson,  Elkton,  and  Merton. 
He  left  also  motets,  chants,  and  a  Te  Deum, 
and  a  volume  of  educational  addresses 
(Salem,  1856). 

OLIVETTE.     See  Noces  d'Olivette. 

O  LORD,  HAVE  MERCY.  See  Golt  sei 
mir  gniidig. 

O  LORD,  WTIOM  WE  ADORE,  alto  aria 
of  Joad,  and  chorus,  in  C  minor,  with  ac- 
companiment of  strings  complete,  and  con- 
tinuo,  in  Handel's  Athalia,  Act  L,  Scene  2. 

O  LUCE  DI  QUEST'  ANIMA.  See 
Linda  di  Cliamounix. 

OLYilPIE,  tragedie-lyrique  in  three 
acts,  text  In'  Dieulafoj-  and  Briflault  after 
Voltaire,  music  by  Spontiui,  first  repre- 
sented at  the  Academic  Royale  de  Musique, 
Paris,  Dec.  22,  1819.  The  opera  was  not  a 
success  at  first,  and  in  the  following  year  it 
was  revised  by  Spontini,  a  happy  conclu- 
sion being  substituted  for  the  former  tragic 
ending.  Cassandre,  the  supposed  murderer 
of  Alexandre,  and  now  King  of  Macedonia, 
is  in  love  with  Olympic,  Alexandre's  daugh- 
ter, whose  life  he  has  saved.  They  go  to 
celebrate  their  nuptials  in  the  Temple  of 
Diana,  where  the  officiating  priestess  proves 
to  be  Statira,  Alexandre's  wife,  who  recog- 
nizes her  daughter,  whom  she  had  believed 
dead.  She  denounces  Cassandre  as  the 
murderer  of  her  husband,  and  joins  King 
Antigone,  who  is  trying  to  wrest  Cassan- 
dre's  throne  from  him  and  to  gain  the  hand 


of  Olympic ;  but,  soon  learning  that  Anti- 
gone is  the  true  murderer,  she  is  reconciled 
to  Cassandre,  and  consents  to  his  union 
with  Olympic.     Original  cast  : 

Statira  (S.) Mme  Branchu. 

Olympie  (C.) Mme  Albert. 

Cassandre  (T) M.  Nourrit. 

Antigone  (B.) M.  Dcrivis. 

The  revision  was  first  given  in  Berlin,  Ger- 
man translation  by  E.  A.  Hoffmann,  ]\Iay 
14,  1821,  with  enormous  success,  and  Spon- 
tiui was  accorded  a  supremacy  in  the  musi- 


Pauline  Milder-Hauptmann. 

cal  world  which  lasted  until  the  first  repre- 
sentation of  Der  Freischiitz,  five  weeks  later. 
Mme  Milder  sang  the  part  of  Statira  ;  Mme 
Schulz,  Olymjoia ;  Herr  Bader,  Cassander  ; 
and  Herr  Blume,  Antigonus.  In  1822  the 
opera  was  again  revised,  changes  being 
made  in  the  airs  for  Olympia  and  Cassan- 
der, and  in  their  duet  in  the  first  act,  and  a 
new  scene  with  terzetto  was  added  to  the 
third  act.  The  score  was  dedicated  to 
Friedrich  Wilhelm  HI.,  King  of  Prussia. 
Published  by  Brandus  &  Dufour  (Paris)  ; 
by  Erard  (Paris)  ;  and  by  Schlesinger  (Ber- 
lin, 1826).  Same  title,  tragedie-lyrique  in 
three  acts,  text  by  Guillard,  after  Voltaire, 


O  MAN 


music  by  Christian  Kalkbrenner,  previously 
giveu  at  the  Acadcmie  Royale  de  Musique, 
Paris,  Dec.  18,  1798.  Opera  ou  the  same 
text,  music  by  Franz  Horzizki,  Rheinsberg, 
about  1800. — Clument  et  Larousse,  495  ; 
Grove,  iii.  GG9,  G73  ;  Fotis,  viii.  94  ;  La- 
jarte,  ii.  94;  Berhner  mus.  Zeitg.,  i.  59, 
313,  322  ;  iii.  349,  357,  386,  393,  409,  417  ; 
Cilcilia,  ii.  1  ;  iii.  51  ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg., 
xxi.  212  ;  xxii.  101,  117  ;  xxiii.  439  ;  xxxi. 
532. 

O  MAN,  BEWAIL  THY  SIN.  See  0 
Mensch,  bewein'  deiu'  Siinde. 

6  MA  TENDRE  AMIE.  See  Pre  aux 
Clercs. 

OMBRA  FELICE,  aria  for  alto,  with  or- 
chestra, in  F,  text  from  Metastasio's  Didone 
abbandonata,  music  by  Mozart,  composed 
in  Salzburg  in  Sei^tember,  1776.  Breitkopf 
&  Hiirtel,  Mozart  Werke,  Serie  vi.,  No.  14. 
— Kochel,  Verzeichniss,  No.  255  ;  Jahn,  Mo- 
zart, i.  422. 

OMBRA  MAI  Ftr,  mezzo-soprano  arioso 
of  Serse,  in  F  major,  with  accompaniment 
of  strings  complete,  in  Handel's  Serse.  Act 
I.,  Scene  1.  A  grandiose  and  generally  con- 
demnable  transcription  of  this  little  pas- 
toral air,  for  violin,  hai-p,  and  full  modern 
orchestra,  by  Hellmesberger,  has  won  un- 
deserved i^opularity  in  concerts  as  the  "Han- 
del Largo." 

OMBRE,  L'  (The  Shade),  French  opera 
in  three  acts,  text  by  Saint-Georges,  music 
bj-  Flotow,  first  represented  at  the  Opera 
Comique,  Paris,  July  7,  1870.  Scene  in  Sa- 
voy, reign  of  Louis  XIV.,  during  the  per- 
secution of  the  Protestants.  The  Comte  de 
RoUecourt,  having  protected  a  family  of 
Protestants  from  massacre,  is  sentenced  to 
be  shot,  but  is  saved  by  a  friend,  who  ex- 
tracts the  balls  from  the  muskets.  He  then 
takes  refuge  in  a  village  as  a  wood-carver, 
under  the  name  of  Fabrice.  Jeanne,  a  young 
Protestant,  who  had  loved  him  and  had  seen 
him  fall,  flees  to  this  village,  and  becomes 
the  servant  of  Fabrice,  whom,  however,  she 
does  not  recognize  as  the  comte.  Fabrice, 
hearing  that  his  friend  is  to  suffer  death  for 


the  stratagem,  reveals  himself  to  Jeanne, 
marries  her,  and  is  about  to  surrender  when 
the  docteur  Mirouet  brings  his  pardon. 
Mme  AbeiUe,  a  widow,  also  loves  Fabrice, 
but  finally  consents  to  marry  the  good 
doctor.  There  are  only  four  characters  in 
the  opera,  and  there  is  no  chorus.  Original 
cast : 

Fabrice  (I'Ombre,  T.) M.  Monjauze. 

Docteur  Mirouet  (B.) M.  Meillet. 

Jeanne  (S.) Mile  JVIarie  Roze. 

Mme  Abeille  (C.) Mile  Priola. 

It  was  given  in  London  as  "  The  Phantom," 
at  Her  Majesty's,  Jan.  12,  1878.— Clement 
et  Larousse,  802  ;  Athenreum  (1870),  ii.  89  ; 
(1878),  i.  96. 

O  MENSCH,  BEWEIN'  DEIN'  SUNDE, 
figured  choral  in  E  major  for  Coro  I.  and 
n.,  accompanied  by  two  flutes,  two  oboi 
d'  amore,  strings  complete,  organ  and  con- 
tinue, in  Johann  Sebastian  Bach's  Passion 
nach  Matthilus,  Part  I.,  No.  35.  The  mel- 
ody is  by  Hans  Leo  Hassler  (1525). 

b  MENSCH,  ERRETTE  DEINE  SEELE, 
alto  aria  in  D  minor,  with  accompaniment 
of  strings  complete  and  continue,  in  Johann 
Sebastian  Bach's  cantata  Dom.  I.  post  Trin- 
it.,  O  Ewigkeit,  du  Donnerwort  (Bachge- 
sellschaft.  No.  20).  Published  also  separate- 
ly, with  the  accompaniment  transcribed  by 
Robert  Franz  (Leipsic,  Whistling). 

O  mO  DOLOR.     See  Sonnambula. 

O  NA:MENL0SE  FREUDE.    See  Fidelio. 

ONLY  BLEED,  THOU  DEAREST 
HEART  !     See  Blute  nur,  du  liebes  Herz  ! 

ON  S'ETONNERAIT  MOINS  QUE  LA 
SAISON  NOUVELLE.  See  Armide  et 
Renaud. 

ON  SHORE  AND  SEA,  cantata  for 
chorus,  soli,  and  orchestra,  text  by  Tom 
Taylor,  music  by  Arthur  S.  Sullivan,  writ- 
ten for  and  first  performed  at  the  opening 
of  the  Annual  International  Exhibition  at 
Albert  Hall,  London,  May  1,  1871.  The 
action  takes  place  in  the  16th  centurj',  at  a 
port  of  the  Riviera,  and  on  a  Genoese  and 
Moorish  galley  at  sea.     Characters  repre- 


ONSLOW 


sented  :  La  S^Josina,  a  Riviera  woman,  and 
II  Marinajo,  a  Genoese  sailor,  and  clioruses  of 
sailors  and  mothers  and  wives  of  the  seamen. 
It  was  given  at  tlie  Crystal  Palace,  London, 
Dec.  2,  187G.  Published  by  Boosey  (Lou- 
don, 1871). — Upton,  Standard  Cantatas,  334 
ONSLOW,  GEORGE,  born,  of  English 
parentage,  at  Clermont-Ferrand  (Puy-de- 
Dome),  July  27,  1784,  died  there,  Oct.  3, 
1852.  A  grandson  of  the  first  Lord  Ons- 
low, he  passed  some  years  while  a  child  in 


O  NUIT  D'AjVIOUR.    See  Faust,  Gounod. 
O,    PARDON  aiE,  aiY  GOD.     See  Er- 

barme  dich,  mein  Gott. 

OPFERLIED  (Offering  Song),  song  with 
orchestral  accompaniment  in  E,  by  Beet- 
hoven, op.  121b,  on  Matthisou's  song  of 
the  same  title.  It  was  written  in  1791,  and 
revised  in  1801  or  1802,  and  again  in  1803 
or  1807,  and  completed  in  1822-23  for  the 
tenor  Ehler's  benefit  concert  in  Presburg. 
The  sketches  are  preserved  in  a  note-book, 
London,  where  he  was  pupil  of  Hiillmandel, ',  in  the  KOnigliche  Bibliothek,  Berlin.  Pub- 
Dussek,  and  Cramer.  Returning  to  France, '  lished  by  Schott  (Mainz,  1825),  as  Chant  du 
Le  began  the  study  of  the  violoncello,  and  Sacrifice,  by  Schouenburg  (Paris) ;  by 
played  chamber  music  with  his  friends.    He  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Beethoven  Werke,  Se- 


Btudied  under  Reicha,  and  resided  a  while 
in  Vienna,  then  divided  his  time  between 
Clermont  and  Paris.  In  1812  he  succeeded 
Cherubini  as  member  of  the  lustitut.  He 
was  a  most  industrious  composer,  and  en- 
joyed a  great  reputation  during  his  lifetime. 
Works — Ojjeras  :  L'alcalde  de  la  Vega, 
Paris,  1824  ;  Le  colporteur,  ib.,  1827 ;  Le 
due  de  Guise,  ib.,  1837.  Four  symphonies, 
op.  41,  42,  G9,  71  ;  Nonet  for  flute,  oboe, 
clarinet,  horn,  bassoon,  and  string  quartet, 
op.  77  ;  Septet  for  pianoforte,  flute,  oboe, 
etc.,  op.  79 ;  sextet  for  do.,  op.  30 ;  34 
string  quintets  ;  3(5  string  quartets  ;  10 
trios  for  pianoforte  and  strings  ;  G  sonatas 
for  pianoforte  and  violin  ;  3  do.  for  piano- 


forte and  violoncello  ;  Sonatas,  variations, 
toccatas,  etc.,  for  pianoforte  ;  Abel's  Death, 
solo  scena  for  bass,  with  orchestra. — Grove  ; 
Riemann  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling  ;  Har- 
monicon  (1828),  263  ;  Riehl,  ]\[us.  Charak- 
terkiJpfe,  i.  293. 

ON   THE    BANKS    OF    S^^'EET   GA- 
RONNE.    See  Obcron. 


rie  xxii..  No.  212.  Another  song  on  the 
same  poem,  for  voice  with  pianoforte,  was 
written  by  Beethoven  in  1797.  Published 
without  opus  number  by  Breitkopf  &  Hiir- 
tel, Beethoven  Werke,  Serie  xxiii..  No.  233. 
— Thayer,  Verzeichniss,  144  ;  Nohl,  Beetho- 
ven, iii.  393,  577  ;  Nottebohm,  Beethoven- 
iana,  51  ;  Ciicilia,  viii.  GG  ;  AUgem.  mus. 
Zeitg.,  xxvii.  704. 

OPHELIA,  symphonic  poem  for  orches- 
tra, by  E.  A.  Macdowell,  op.  22,  first  per- 
formed in  Germany  in  1885  ;  at  Chickering 
Hall,  New  York,  Nov.  4,  188G.— Krehbiel, 
Review  (188G-S7),  IG. 

O  PUISSANTE  MAGIE.  See  Pardon  de 
Ploermel. 

ORATORIO,  FA- 
THER OF.  See  Aiii- 
muccia. 

ORATORIO  DE 
NOEL  (Christmas  Or- 
atorio), for  chorus  and 
soli,  with  accompani- 
ment of  strings,  harp, 
and  organ,  text  from 
'  the  Bible,  music  by  Saint-Saens,  op.  12. 
Published  by  Durand  SchcEnewerk  &  Cie. 
(Paris).  Messe  de  Noel,  oratorio,  by  Le- 
sueur,  first  performed  in  Paris,  Dec.  25, 
1786. 

ORAZJ  E  CURIAZJ,  GLI  (The  Horatii 
and  Curiatii),  Italian  opera  in  two  acts, 
text  by  Sogi'afi,   music   by   Cimarosa,  first 


OR 


represented  at  La  Fenice,  Venice,  in  1797. 
In  the  original  representation  the  part  of 
Orazia  was  sung  by  Giusejipa  Grassini,  af- 
terwards noted  for  her  relations  with  Napo- 
leon,who  made  in  it  an  extraordinary  success. 
She  sang  it  also  in  London,  in  1805,  where 
her  acting  in  this  piece  was  pronounced  al- 
most equal  to  that  of  Mi's.  Siddons.  It  was 
given  in  Paris  in  January,  1812,  and  on  June 
IC,  1813.  Pubhshed  by  Simrock  (Bonn). 
Same  title,  Italian  operas,  by  B.  Marcello, 
Venice,  about  1720  ;  by  F.  G.  Bertoni,  ib.. 


Giuseppa  Grassini. 

171G  ;  by  Zingarelli,  Turin,  1794  ;  by  Mar- 
cos Portugal,  Ferrara,  1799  ;  by  Capotorti, 
Naples,  1800  ;  and  by  Mercadante  on  Cam- 
marauo's  text,  Vienna,  1830  ;  Naples,  ISIB. 

OE  CHE  IL  CIELO  A  ME  TI  RENDE, 
aria  for  soprano  with  orchestra,  in  E-flat,  by 
Mozart,  composed  in  Vienna  in  1781.  Breit- 
kopf  &  Hilrtel,  Mozart  Werke,  Serie  vi..  No. 
22. — KOchel,  Verzeichniss,  No.  374: ;  Andre, 
No.  175  ;  Jahn,  IMozart,  iii.  8. 

OR  CHE  IL  DOVER,  recitative  and  aria 
(Tali  e  cotanti  sono  di  Sigismondo  i  merti) 
for  tenor  with  orchestra,  in  D,  text  from  an 
opera,  Licenza,  written  for  the  name-day  of 
the  Ai'chbishop  of  Salzburg,  music  by  Mo- 


zart, composed  in  1770.  Breitkopf  &  Har- 
tel,  Mozart  AVerke,  Serie  vi..  No.  3.— KOchel, 
Verzeichniss,  No.  36  ;  Jahn,  Mozart,  i.  228, 
414. 

ORDINAIEE,  RAOUL,  born  at  Besanjon 
in  1843,  still  living,  1890.  Instrumental 
and  vocal  composer,  pupil  of  Pierre  de 
Mol.  He  is  also  a  writer  on  music,  and  in 
1866-70  was  co-editor  of  "  L'art  musical." 
Works :  Morceaux  symphoniques  ;  Serenade 
for  quintet ;  Quartet  for  strings  ;  Trio  for  pi- 
anoforte and  strings  ;  Sonata  for  pianoforte 
and  violoncello  ;  Pianoforte  music,  choruses, 
and  songs. — Petis,  Supplement,  ii.  287. 

O  REST  IN  THE  LORD.  See  Sei  stiUe 
dem  Herru. 

ORFEO,  Italian  opera  in  five  acts,  music 
by  Monteverde,  first  represented  at  the 
court  of  Mantua,  in  1607.  The  libretto,  on 
the  story  of  Orpheus  and  Eurydice,  was 
thought  until  recently  to  have  been  writ- 
ten by  Rinuccini,  the  author  of  the  text 
of  Peri's  Euridice,  but  Alessandro  Striggio 
is  now  considered  the  true  author.  Char- 
acters represented  :  La  Musica,  Prolo- 
go  ;  Orfeo  ;  Euridice  ;  Speranza  ;  Caronte 
(Charon)  ;  Pluto  ;  Proserpine  ;  Apollo  ; 
Chorus  of  nymj)hs  and  shepherds,  and 
chorus  of  infernal  spirits.  The  oisera  be- 
gins with  a  prologue  of  five  recitatives,  the 
first  of  which  is  spoken  by  the  Genius  of 
Music  to  declare  the  argument  and  to  en- 
join silence  from  the  audience.  Thei-e  are 
no  solo  arias,  but  the  work  is  composed  of 
duets,  recitatives,  choruses,  and  trios,  and 
closes  with  the  Moresca,  or  Moorish  Dance, 
performed  by  shepherds.  The  score  shows 
many  remarkable  affinities  with  dramatic 
music  in  its  latest  development,  including 
the  constant  employment  of  mezzo-recita- 
tivo,  supi^orted  by  characteristic  instru- 
ments ;  and  the  great  variety  and  efl'ect  in 
the  orchestration.  The  introduction  to 
Wagner's  Eheingold  is  identical  in  construc- 
tion with  the  instrumental  prelude  to  this 
opera,  called  by  Monteverde  a  Toccata,  and 
consisting  of  eight  measures  on  the  chord  of 
C  with  a  single  and  sustained  note  in  the 


ORFEO 


bass.  It  is  directed  to  be  played  three  times 
before  the  rising  of  the  curtain.  For  Orfeo 
the  composer  emploj'ed  an  orchestra  of 
thirty-six  instruments,  at  tliat  time  an  un- 
usual number.  These  were  :  2  gravicem- 
bali  (supposed  to  be  clavicembali,  harpsi- 
chords) ;  2  contrabassi  di  viola ;  10  viole 
da  braccio  ;  1  ai-pa  doppia  ;  2  violini  pic- 
coli  alia  francese  ;  2  chitarroni  ;  2  organ  i  di 
legno  ;  3  bassi  da  gamba  ;  4  tromboni  ;  1 
regale  (a  small  organ)  ;  2  cornetti ;  1  flau- 
tino  alia  vigesima  seconda  ;  1  clarino,  con  3 
trombe  sordine.  The  entire  score  ^Yas  jjub- 
lished  in  Venice  in  IGOi),  reprinted  by  Ric- 
ciardo  Amadiuo  (ib.,  1G15).  A  copy  of  the 
second  edition,  formerly  owned  by  Sir  John 
Hawkins,  is  now  in  the  Royal  Library, 
Buckingham  Palace.  The  score  was  jjub- 
lished  by  Robert  Eitner  and  J.  J.  Maier,  in 
vol.  ix.  of  the  "  Publication  iilterer  praktisch- 
er  und  theoretischer  Musikwerke  "  (Traut- 
wein,  Berlin,  1880).  The  descent  of  Or- 
pheus into  Hades  was  the  first  profane  sub- 
ject used  for  an  opera  ;  and  the  first  Orfeo, 
text  by  Cardinal  Riario,  nephew  of  Sixtus 
IV.,  music  by  Angelo  Poliziauo,  was  first 
represented  in  Rome  in  1-480.  Other  Ital- 
ian operas  on  the  same  subject,  Orfeo  ed 
Euridice,  by  Fen-ari,  Mantua,  1G07  ;  Orfeo 
ed  Euridice,  supposed  to  be  by  Zarliuo,  or 
Monteverde,  given  at  the  Louvre,  Feb.  26, 
1647,  for  the  amusement  of  Louis  XTV.  at 
the  instance  of  Cardinal  Mazarin,  and  the 
first  opera  represented  in  Paris  ;  Orfeo  ed 
Euridice,  text  by  Am-elio  Aureli,  music  by 
Sartorio,  Venice,  1652  ;  La  lira  d'  Orfeo, 
text  by  Miuato,  music  by  Antonio  Draghi, 
Vienna,  May  13,  1683  ;  Orfeo  ed  Euridice, 
in  Italian,  text  by  Pariati,  music  by  J.  J. 
Fus,  Vienna,  Oct.  1,  1715  ;  I  lamenti  d' 
Orfeo,  text  by  Pasquini,  music  by  Georg 
Christian  Wagenseil,  ib.,  July  26,  1740; 
Orfeo,  by  Karl  Heinrich  Graun,  text  bj' 
ViUati,  Berlin,  Blarch  27,  1752  ;  Orfeo  ed 
Euridice,  by  Johann  Christian  Bach,  Lon- 
don, 1770  ;  do.,  by  Antonio  Tozzi,  Munich, 
1775  ;  do.,  by  Bertoni,  text  by  CaJzabigi, 
Venice,    1776  ;   Hanover,  1783  ;   Orfeo,  by 


Pietro  Guglielmi,  London,  1780  ;  Orfeo  ed 
Euridice,  by  Haydn,  begun  in  London  in 
1793-94  (unfinished)  ;  and  Orfeo,  by  Luigi 
Lamberti,  about  1800.  Operas  in  German, 
by  Heinrich  Schiitz,  text  by  Rinuccini,  Dres- 
den, Nov.  20,  1638  ;  Orpheus,  by  Rhein- 
hard  Keiser,  text  by  Bressand,  Brunswick, 
1699,  Hamburg,  17*02  ;  by  Georg  Benda, 
Berlin,  1788 ;  Der  Tod  des  Orpheus,  by 
Max  von  Droste-Hiilshoff,  text  by  Jacobi, 
1791  (not  given)  ;  same  text,  music  by  Gott- 
lob  Bachmann,  Brunswick,  1798  ;  Orpheus, 
by  Cannabich,  Munich,  about  1800  ;  by  F. 
A.  Kanne,  Vienna,  1810.  Operas  in  French, 
Orphee,  by  Jean  Baptiste  LuUy,  text  by 
du  Boullay,  Paris,  1690  ;  by  Antoine  Dau- 
vergne,  about  1770  (not  given).  Orpheus  in 
English,  by  J.  Hill,  London,  1740  ;  and  Or- 
pheus, in  Danish,  by  J.  G.  Naumaun,  Co- 
penhagen, 1785.  Ballets :  Orpheus  und 
Euridice,  hj  Heinrich  Schiitz,  for  the  be- 
trothal of  George  H.,  Elector  of  Saxony, 
Dresden,  1638  ;  Orpheus,  English  masque, 
by  Martin  Bladen,  London,  1705  ;  by  J. 
Dennis,  ib.,  1707  ;  and  John  Weaver,  ib., 
1717  ;  Oiishee,  in  French,  by  Blaise,  Paris, 
1738  ;  Orpheus  and  Euridice,  English  panto- 
mime, by  Rich,  London,  1741  ;  and  ballets, 
by  William  Reeve,  ib.,  1792  ;  and  by  Peter 
von  Winter,  ib.,  1805.  Ojjerettas  :  Le  petit 
Oi-phee,  parodie-operette  in  four  acts  (au- 
thor unknown),  Havre,  March  10,  1795 ; 
by  Prosper  Didier  Deshayes,  Paris,  1793  ; 
Orpheus  der  Zweite,  by  Ditters,  Vienna, 
1787  ;  Oi-pheus  und  Euridice,  in  two  acts, 
by  K.  Meisl,  ib.,  1813  ;  Orphee  aux  enfers, 
in  two  acts,  text  by  Hector  Cremieux,  mu- 
sic by  Ofl'enbach,  Paris,  Oct.  21,  1858  ;  and 
Orpheus  im  Dorfe,  text  by  Karl  Elmai", 
music  by  Karl  Ferdinand  Conradin,  Vienna, 
Jan.  27,  1867.— Grove,  ii.  358,  500;  Ho- 
garth, i.  17  ;  Burney,  iv.  27,  35  ;  Hawkins, 
iii.  430  ;  Edwards,  Hist.  Opera,  i.  7  ;  Mu- 
sical Times  (London),  March  and  April, 
1800  ;  Clement  et  Larousse,  500  ;  Schlet- 
terer,  Studien  zur  Geschichte  der  franzO- 
sischen  Musik,  iii.  183  ;  Choquet,  Histoire  do 
la  musique  dramatique  en  France,  76,  94 ; 


46 


ORFEO 


Bitter,  Eeform  der  Oper  durcli  Gluck,  123  ; 
Ambros,  Geschichte  der  Musik,  iv.  353  ; 
Reissmann,  Geschichte  der  Musik,  ii.  138  ; 
Mus.  Wochenblatt  (1874),  185  ;  Allgem. 
mus.  Zeitg.,  ix.  150  ;  Vierteljahrsscbrift  fiir 
Musikwissenschaft,  iii.  343. 

OEFEO  ED  EURIDICE,  ItaHau  opera 
in  tbree  acts,  text  by  Calzabigi,  music  by 
Gluck,  first  represented  at  tbe  Hof  Burg- 
theater,  Vienna,  Oct.  5,  1762.  The  author 
of  the  libretto  rehearsed  the  actors,  and 
Gluck  conducted  the  ojaera,  which  was  the 
first  work  written  in  his  new  dramatic 
style.  It  was  received  with  great  enthusi- 
asm. Among  the  best  numbers  are :  The 
chorus  of  the  Furies ;  the  ballet-music ; 
and  Orfeo's  tender  and  beautiful  aria  in  C 
major,  "Che  faro  senza  Euridice,"  accom- 
panied by  the  strings,  sung  after  he  has 
taken  the  forbidden  glance  at  Euridice  as 
she  follows  him  from  Hades.  She  is  re- 
stored by  Amore,  aud  the  opera  ends  haj)- 
pily.     Original  cast : 

Orf eo Signor  Gaetano  Guardini. 

Euridice Signora  Marianna  Bianchi. 

Amore Signora  Lucia  Clavarau. 

The  opera  was  given  in  Frankfort-on-the 
Main  in  1761,  in  Parma  at  the  marriage 
fute  of  the  infanta  in  1769,  in  London  in 
1770,  and  at  a  concert  in  the  Conservatory, 
Milan,  May  24,  1813.  It  was  represented 
in  Paris  as  Orpliee  et  Euridice,  Aug.  2, 1774, 
translation  by  Moline.  The  autograph  is 
in  the  Koj-al  Library,  Vienna.  The  full 
score  was  published  at  the  expense  of  Count 
Durazzo  at  a  cost  of  2,000  livres.  It  was 
sent  to  Favart,  who  gave  it  to  Moudouville, 
and  the  latter  had  it  printed  by  Chambon 
(Paris,  1764).  This  edition  is  very  rare. 
—Marx,  Gluck  und  die  Oper,  i.  294-329  ; 
Wiener  Diarium  (1762),  No.  80  ;  Bitter,  Ee- 
form der  Oper  durch  Gluck,  244  ;  Cramer, 
Magazin  der  Musik  (1784),  ii.  459  ;  Schmid, 
Gluck,  90  ;  Desnoiresterres,  Gluck  et  Pie- 
cinni,  48  ;  Hogarth,  ii.  194-204. 

ORFEO  E  EURIDICE,  cantata  for  one 
voice    with    orchestra,   by   Pergolesi,    fii'st 


performed  in  1736.  One  of  Pergolesi's 
best  works.  Published  in  Rome  (1738). 
It  is  included  in  Choron's  "  Principes  de 
composition  des  ecoles  d'ltalie "  (3  vols., 
Paris,  1808). 

ORGELBUCHLEIN  (The  Little  Organ- 
Book),  a  collection  of  forty-five  chorals,  by 
Johann  Sebastian  Bach,  for  beginners  in 
organ  playing.  It  was  compiled  in  CiJthen, 
and  was  intended  for  a  lesson-book  for  his 
son  Wilhelm  Friedemanu  and  others.  The 
chorals  are  treated  in  canon  form  and  in 
strict  counterpoint,  and  in  many  the  con- 
trapuntal elements  of  the  music  reflect  the 
emotional  meaning  of  the  words  with  great 
fervour.  The  autograph,  in  the  Konigliche 
Bibliothek,  Berlin,  bears  the  words  "  Dem 
hochsten  Gott  allein  zu  Ehren,  Dem  Nilch- 
sten  draus  sich  zu  belehren."  Mendelssohn 
owned  an  autograph  by  Bach  of  the  Orgel- 
biichlein,  containing  thirty-eight  chorals. 
This  was  in  the  possession  of  Herr  Ernst 
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy  in  1879,  and  it  is 
supposed  that  this  is  the  older  of  the  two 
MSS.,  for  there  is  a  slight  difference  in 
the  reading  of  several  of  these  chorals,  the 
most  of  which  are  supposed  to  have  been 
composed  while  Bach  was  organist  at  Wei- 
mar. Many  pages  of  the  Orgelbiichlein 
remain  blank,  inscribed  only  on  the  up- 
per staff  with  the  first  lines  of  the  chorals 
which  Bach  intended  to  elaborate.  The 
chorals  completed  are :  I.  Nun  komm'  der 
Heiden  Heiland  ;  II.  Gott,  durch  deiue 
Giite  ;  HI.  Herr  Christ,  der  einzige  Gottes 
Sohn  ;  IV.  Lob  sei  dem  allmiichtigen  Gott ; 
V.  Puer  natus  in  Bethlehem  ;  VI.  Gelobet 
seist  du,  Jesu  Christ ;  VH.  Der  Tag  der  ist 
so  freudenreich  ;  VHI.  Von  Himmel  hoch, 
da  komm'  ich  her ;  IX.  Vom  Himmel  kam 
der  Engel  Schaar  ;  X.  In  dulci  jubilo  ;  XI. 
Lobt  Gott,  ihr  Christen,  allzugleich  ;  XII. 
Jesu  meiue  Freude  ;  XJH.  Christum  wir 
sollen  loben  schon ;  XIV.  Wir  Christen- 
leut' ;  XV.  Helft  mir  Gottes  Giite  jireisen  ; 
XVI.  Das  alte  Jahr  vergangen  ist  ;  XVH. 
In  dir  ist  Freude ;  XVHI.  Mit  Fried'  imd 
Freud'  ich  fahr'  dahin  ;  XIX.  Herr  Gott, 


4T 


OEGIANI 


nun  scUeuss  den  Himmel  auf ;  XX.  O 
Lamm  Gottes  uuscbuldig ;  XXI.  Christe, 
du  Lamm  Gottes  ;  XXU.  Chiistus,  der  uns 
selig  macht  ;  XXHI.  Da  Jesus  an  dem 
Kveuze  stund  ;  XXIV.  O  Mensch,  bewein' 
dein  Sunde  gross  ;  XXV.  Wir  danken  dir, 
Herr  Jesu  Christ ;  XXVI.  Hilf  Gott,  dass 
mir's  gelinge  ;  XXVII.  Clu-ist  lag  in  Todes- 
banden ;  XXVIII.  Jesus  Christus,  uuser 
Heilaud ;  XXJX.  Christ  is  erstanden  ;  XXX. 
Erstanden  ist  der  beil'ge  Christ ;  XXXI. 
Erschienen  ist  der  herrliche  Tag  ;  XXXII. 
Heut'  triumphiret  Gottes  Sohu  ;  XXXIII. 
Komm,  Gott,  SchOpfer,  heiliger  Geist ; 
XXXrV.  Herr  Jesu  Christ,  dich  zu  uns 
wend ;  XXXV.  Liebster  Jesu,  wir  sind 
hier ;  XXX\T[.  Dies  siud  die  heil'gen  zehn 
Gebot ;  XXXM^I.  Vater  unser  im  Himmel- 
reich ;  XXXVIII.  Durcb  Adam's  Fall  ist 
ganz  verderbt ;  XXXIX.  Es  ist  das  Heil 
uns  kommen  her  ;  XL.  Ich  rnf  zu  dir,  Herr 
Jesu  Christ ;  XLI.  In  dich  hab"  ich  gehof- 
fet,  Herr  ;  XLCI.  Wenn  wir  in  hochsten 
Nothen  sein  ;  XLHI.  "Wer  nur  den  li<>ben 
•  Gott  li'isst  walten  ;  XLIV.  Alle  Menscheu 
mtissen  sterben ;  XLV.  Aeh  wie  nichtig, 
ach  wie  fliichtig.  Edited  by  Wilhelm  Rust 
for  the  Bach-Gesellschaft,  year  XXV.  (Leip- 
sic,  1875).— Spitta,  Bach,  i.  588-592  ;  601- 
601 ;  818  ;  Spitta,  Bach  (Bell),  i.  597-603  ; 
611-615  ;  647-652  ;  Winterfeld,  Der  Evan- 
geliche  Kirchengesang,  iii.  415. 

ORGL^I,  Don  TEOFILO,  Italian  com- 
poser of  the  second  half  of  the  17th  cen- 
tury, died  at  Udine  about  1714.  Dramatic 
and  church  composer,  maestro  di  cappella  of 
the  cathedral  at  Udine.  Works — Operas  : 
II  vizio  depresso,  e  la  virtti  coronata,  ovvero 
r  Eliogabale  riformato,  Venice,  1686  ;  Dio- 
clete,  ib.,  1687  ;  Le  gare  dell'  ingauno  e  del 
amore,  ib.,  1689  ;  II  tiranno  deluso,  Vicen- 
za,  1691  ;  L'  onor  al  cimeuto,  Venice,  1703  ; 
Armida  regina  di  Damasco,  Verona,  1711. 
Many  compositions  for  the  church. — Fetis. 
ORGITANO,  RAFAELLO,  born  in  Na- 
ples in  1780,  died  in  Paris,  in  1812.  Drama- 
tic composer,  son  of  Paolo  Orgitano  (1745- 
98  ?),  pupil  of  Sala.     Works  :  L'  iufermo  ad 


arte,  opera  buffa,  Naples,  1803  ;  Non  cre- 
dere alle  apparenze,  do.,  ib.,  1804  ;  Arsinoe, 
opera ;  Jefte,  oratorio  ;  La  Passione  di  N. 
S.,  cantata  for  3  voices  ;  Endimioue,  can- 
tata ;  Canzonette,  etc. — Fetis. 

ORIANA.     See  Amadigi  di  Gallia. 

ORLANDI,  FERNANDO,  born  at  Parma, 
Italy,  in  1777,  died  at  Munich  in  1840. 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Rugarti  at 
Colorno,  and  of  Ghiretti  at  Parma,  then  at 
the  Conservatorio  della  Pieta  de'  Turchini, 
in  Naples,  of  Sala  and  Tritto  in  counter- 
point. On  his  return  to  Parma  he  obtained 
employment  in  the  court  orchestra,  and 
soon  won  a  brilliant  rejjutation  through  his 
operas,  although  they  were  of  little  merit 
and  void  of  inspiration.  lu  1806  he  was 
called  to  Milan,  as  vocal  instructor  at  the 
pages'  institute,  and  acted  in  the  same  ca- 
jiacity  at  the  Conservatorio,  since  1809,  and 
in  Munich  since  1828.  Works  :  I  furbi 
alle  nozze,  Rome,  1802  ;  L'  amore  strava- 
gante,  Milan,  1802  ;  L'  amore  deluso,  Flor- 
ence, 1802  ;  H  liore,  Venice,  1803  ;  La 
sposa  contrastata,  Rome,  1804  ;  II  sartore 
declamatore,  Slilan,  1804 ;  Nino,  Brescia, 
1804  ;  La  villanella  fortunata,  Turin,  1804  ; 
Le  nozze  chimeriche,  Milan,  1805  ;  Le  nozze 
poetiche,  Genoa,  1805  ;  H  Corrado,  Turin, 
1806 ;  La  melodanza,  I  raggiri  anioi'osi, 
Milan,  1806  ;  II  balordo,  Venice,  1807 ;  La 
dama  soldato,  Genoa,  1808  ;  L'  uomo  bene- 
fico,  Tui'iu,  1808  ;  L'  amico  dell'  uomo, 
1809  ;  II  luatrimonio  per  svenimento,  1811  ; 
II  quiproquo,  II  cicisbeo  burlato,  Milan, 
1812  ;  Zulemo  e  Zelima,  1813  ;  Rodrigo  di 
Valeuza  ;  La  Fedra. — Fetis. 

ORKiNDINI,  GIUSEPPE  MARIA,  born 
in  Bologna,  Italy,  about  1690,  died  (?). 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Padre  Dome- 
nico  Scorpioni  ;  he  was  maestro  di  cajijDella 
to  the  Grand-duke  of  Tuscany,  and  became 
a  member  of  the  Accademia  Filarmonica, 
Bologna,  in  1719.  Works :  Farasmane, 
1710  ;  La  fede  tradita  e  vendicata,  Venice, 
1713 ;  Carlo,  re  d'  Allemagna,  ib.,  1714 ; 
L'  innocenza  giustificata  ;  Merope,  1717  ; 
Antigone,   Bologna,   1718  ;   Lucio   Papirio, 


ORLANDO 


Venice,  1718  ;  Ifigenia  in  Tauride,  1719 ; 
Paride,  Giiselda,  Bologna,  1720  ;  Nerone, 
Venice,  1721 ;  Orontea,  Milan,  1724  ;  Be- 
renice, Venice,  1725  ;  L'  Adelaide,  ib.,  1729  ; 
La  donna  nobile,  1730  ;  Massimiauo,  Ven- 
ice, 1730  ;  II  Temistocle,  Florence,  1737  ;  Lo 
scialacquatore,  1715.  Oratorios  :  Giuditta, 
Aucona,  1723  ;  Gioas,  re  diGiuda,  Florence, 
1746.— Futis. 

ORLANDO,  Italian  opera  in  tbree  acts, 
text  by  Braccioli,  music  by  Handel,  first 
represented  at  the  King's  Theatre,  London, 
Jan.  27,  1733.  The  autograph,  in  Buck- 
ingham Palace,  is  dated  at  the  end  of  the 
second  act,  Nov.  10,  1732,  at  the  end  of  the 
third,  Nov.  20,  1732.  It  contains  the  last 
songs  which  Handel  wrote  for  Seuesino. 
One  of  these,  "  Giil  1'  ebro  mio  ciglio,"  has 
an  accompaniment  for  two  violette  marine, 
which  were  played  by  the  brothers  Pietro 
and  Prospero  Castrucci,  who  introduced 
that  instrument  into  England  in  1732. 
The  aria,  "  Sorge  infausta,"  was  sung  by 
Siguor  Tasca  at  the  Handel  commemora- 
tion, May  27,  1784.  Original  cast :  Orlan- 
do, hero  (C),  Signor  Senesiuo  ;  Angelica, 
Queen  of  Catai,  in  love  with  Medoro  (S.), 
Signora  Strada ;  Medoro,  African  prince, 
Angelica's  lover  (A.),  Signor  BertoUi ;  Do- 
rlnda,  a  shepherdess  (S.),  Signora  Celeste 
(Gismondi) ;  and  Zoroastro,  a  Persian  ma- 
gician and  friend  of  Orlando  (B.),  Signor 
Montagnano.  Published  by  Walsh  (Lon- 
don, 1733) ;  edition  by  Chrysander,  for 
the  Handel  -  Gesellschaft  (Leipsic,  1881). 
—Chrysander,  Handel,  II.,  252  ;  Rockstro, 
Handel,  180  ;  Schoelcher,  Handel,  122  ; 
Marshall,  Handel,  87 ;  Burney,  iv.  362  ; 
id.,  Handel  Commemoration,  49  ;  Grove,  i. 
319  ;  iv.  267. 

ORLANDO  GENEROSO,  Italian  opera, 
text  by  Hortensio  Mauro,  music  by  Steffani, 
first  represented  in  Brunswick  in  1696. 
Other  Italian  operas  on  Tasso's  hero.  La  paz- 
zia  d'  Orlando,  by  Giacomo  Griffino,  Lodi, 
1692  ;  Orlando,  by  Steffani,  text  by  Mauro, 
Brunswick,  1696  ;  by  Domenico  Scarlatti, 
on  Sigismondo  Capeci's  text,  Rome,  1711 ; 


Orlando,  by  Maurizio  Cacciati,  about  1710  ; 
Orlando  furioso,  by  Ristori,  on  Braccioli's 
text,  Venice,  1713 ;  Same  text,  music  by 
Vivaldi,  ib.,  1714  ;  Same  text,  music  by  An- 
tonio Bioni,  Baden,  1725,  Breslau,  1725  ; 
by  Giacomo  Macari,  Venice,  1727  ;  II  nuovo 
Orlando,  by  Niccolo  Picciuui,  Naples,  1763; 
Le  pazzie  d'  Orlando,  by  Pietro  Gugliemi, 
London,  1771 ;  by  Pasquale  Anfossi  (?),  Vien- 
na, June  19, 1877  ;  Ritter  Roland,  by  Haydn, 
on  Nuuziato  Porta's  text,  Eszterhaz,  1782, 
Presburg,  1787,  Dresden,  1792  ;  Orlando 
furioso,  by  Agostino  Lofifredo,  Naples,  1831 ; 
and  Orlando,  German  opera,  by  Fr.  Adami, 
Schwerin,  Jan.  1,  1848.     See  Roland. 

OR  LET  THE  MERRY  BELLS,  aria  of 
L'  Allegro,  for  soprano  or  tenor,  in  D  ma- 
jor, with  accompaniment  of  two  violins  and 
bass,  in  Handel's  L'  AUegi'o,  il  Pensieroso, 
ed  il  Moderato,  Part  I,  No.  26. 

ORLOWSKI,  ANTONI,  born  in  Warsaw 
in  1811  (?),  still  Hving  (?),  1890.  Violinist, 
pupil  at  the  Conservatorium,  Warsaw,  of 
Bielawski,  and  in  composition  of  Eisner  ; 
won  in  1823  the  first  prizes  for  violin  and 
pianoforte.  After  1827  he  passed  some 
time  in  Germany,  and  in  1830  went  to 
Paris,  where  he  studied  under  Lesueur  ;  then 
settled  at  Rouen,  where  he  conducted  the 
theatre  orchestra  and  the  philharmonic  so- 
ciety. Works  :  Le  mari  de  circonstauce, 
opera,  Rouen,  1834  ;  The  Invasion  of  Sjjain 
by  the  Moors,  ballet,  Warsaw,  1827  ;  Quar- 
tet for  pianoforte  and  strings  ;  Trio  for  do.  ; 
Sonata  for  jiianoforte  and  violin  ;  Duo  for 
do.  ;  Polonaises,  rondos,  caprices,  etc.,  for 
pianoforte. — Fetis  ;  Sowiuski. 

ORPH^E  ET  EURIDICE,  French  opera 
in  three  acts,  text  by  Moline,  translated  from 
Calzabigi,  music  by  Gluck,  first  represented 
at  the  Acadcmie  Royale  de  Musique,  Paris, 
Aug.  2,  1774.  The  role  of  Orphee,  which 
had  been  written  for  a  contralto,  was  trans- 
posed for  a  high  tenor,  six  measures  were 
added  to  his  first  song  in  the  infernal  re- 
gions, three  to  his  second,  three  to  the  "Che 
faro  senza  Euridice,"  and  one  to  the  chorus 
of  the  happy  shades  ;  "  Torna  o  bella  al  tuo 


49 


orphEe 


consorte  ;  "  and  the  symphonic  description 
at  Orphee's  entrance  to  the  Elysian  Fields 
was  reinstrumented.  The  new  numbers  in- 
cluded :  Amour's  first  song,  "  Si  les  doux 
accords  de  ta  lyre  ;  "  that  of  Euridice  with 
chorus,  "  Get  asile  aimable  et  tranquille  ; " 
the  aria  di  bravura  inserted  for  Legros, 
"  L'esjjoir  renait  dans  mon  ame,"  taken 
from  Bertoni's  Tancredi  (Venice,  1778)  ; 
and  several  new  airs  for  the  ballet.  The 
French  edition,  which    was  played    many 


1       ^. \s(        y       :      ' 


^^ 


Hastreiter,  as  Orpheus. 

years  at  the  Acadumie,  was  engraved  with 
many  errors,  and  coiTections  by  an  unknown 
hand.  Act  I.  presents  Orphee's  lament 
over  Euridice's  tomb,  and  the  entrance  of 
Amour,  who  brings  to  Orphoe  permission 
from  the  gods  to  seek  her  in  Hades.  Act 
IL  Orphoe  in  Pluto's  realms,  where  he  re- 
covers Euridice.  Act  IH.  Their  journey 
to  the  upi^er  regions,  when  Orphee,  turn- 
ing to  see  if  Euridice  follows,  loses  her  ; 
Amour  appears  and  aids  Orphee  in  recov- 
ering her  a  second  time,  and  Eui-idice  re- 
turns to  the  world  amid  the  rejoicing  of 
nymphs  and  shepherds  assembled  in   the 


Temple  of  Love.  The  opera  ends  with  a 
chaconne.  The  second  act,  in  which  the 
plaintive  and  ethereal  songs  of  Orphi'e  are 
most  effectively  contrasted  with  the  gro- 
tesque and  wild  music  of  the  furies  and  de- 
mons, is  a  masterpiece.     Original  cast : 

Orphee M.  Legros. 

Euridice Mile  Sophie  Arnould. 

Amour Mile  Eosalie. 

This  opera  was  given  at  the  Acadt'mie 
nearly  every  year  from  1774  till  1833,  and 
again  in  1848,  receiving  297  representa- 
tions. When  Adolphe  Nourrit  sang  the 
part  of  Orphue  he  substituted  the  air,  "  O 
transport,  6  desordre  extreme,"  from  £cho 
et  Narcisse,  for  the  aria  di  bravura  in  Act 
L  This  opera  was  given  in  Berlin,  April 
20,  1808  ;  in  Stockholm  in  1815  ;  and  again 
in  Berlin,  German  translation  by  G.  D. 
Sander,  Oct.  15,  1818.  It  was  represented 
in  Weimar  under  Liszt's  direction,  on  the 
birthday  of  the  Grossfiirstin  Marie  Pau- 
lowna,  Feb.  16,  1854,  for  which  perform- 
ance Liszt,  who  admired  this  work  greatly, 
wrote  his  symphonic  poem,  Orpheus.  The 
opera  was  revived  at  the  Theatre  Lj'riquo, 
Paris,  Nov.  18,  1859,  with  the  score  revised 
by  Berlioz.  It  was  given  at  Covent  Garden, 
London,  in  Italian,  with  Mme  Viardot  as 
Orjiht'e  and  Mme  Sax  as  Euridice,  June  27, 
1860.  It  was  first  represented  in  New  York 
with  i\Ime  Vestvali  as  Orphee,  May  27,  1863  ; 
and  was  given  there  hj  the  American  Opera 
Company,  at  the  Academy  of  Jlusic,  in  Eng- 
lish, Jan.  8,  1886,  with  Mme  Helene  Hast- 
reiter as  Orpheus  and  Miss  Emma  Juch  as 
Euridice.  Gluck  dedicated  the  score  to  the 
Queen.  It  was  published  by  Pacini  (Paris, 
1774).  Editions  by  Mme  V.  Launer  (Vas- 
sal, Paris,  1774)  ;  by  Carl  Ivlage  (Schles- 
inger,  Berlin,  1818)  ;  by  Berlioz  (Paris, 
1859)  ;  by  Alfred  DOrffel  (Gustav  Heinze, 
Leipsic)  ;  by  F.  Brissler  (Peters,  Leip- 
sic)  ;  and  by  Sh"  Charles  Halle,  translation 
by  Henry  F.  Chorley  (Chappell  &  Co.,  Lon- 
don).— Clement  et  Larousse,  502  ;  Lajarte, 
i.  278  ;  Liszt,  Gesammelte  Schriften,  iii.  1  ; 


60 


ORPHEUS 


Berlioz,  A  travers  chants,  iii. ;  Schmid,  Bit- 
ter von  Gluck,  223  ;  Marx,  Gluck  uud  die 
Oper,  i.  291-329  ;  ii.  13i  ;  Eeissmann, 
Gluck,  106  ;  Bitter,  Reform  der  Oper  durcli 
Gluck,  214  ;  Desuoiresterres,  Gluck  et  Pic- 
ciuni,  iii.  ;  Naumann,  Deutsche  Toudichter, 
106  ;  Jahn,  Mozart,  ii.  232  ;  Hauslick,  Mo- 
derne  Oper,  3  ;  Fetis,  iv.  31  ;  Favart,  MC- 
moires  et  correspoudance  Utteraires  (Paris, 
1808),  ii.  113  ;  Revue  et  Gaz.  mus.  de  Paris 
(1859),  385  ;  "Waldersee,  Sammlung  mus. 
Vortriige,  iv.  272  ;  Naumann  (Ouseley),  ii. 
830  ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  x.  525  ;  xx.  675  ; 
Athenreum  (1860),  i.  58  ;  ii.  33  ;  Ki-ehbiel, 
Review  (1885-86),  105. 

ORPHEUS,  symphonic  poem  for  orches- 
tra, by  Liszt,  op.  4,  No.  4,  first  performed 
at  a  rein-esentation  of  Gluck's  Orphee,  in 
Weimar,  Feb.  16,  1854.  It  was  first  given 
at  a  concert  in  Weimar  in  November,  1854. 
Published  by  Breitkopf  &  Hartel  (Leipsic, 
1856),  also  by  Schuberth  (Leipsic).  Ar- 1 
ranged  for  two  pianofortes  by  the  composer, 
and  for  pianoforte,  violin,  and  violoncello  by 
Saint-SaOns,  Breitkopf  &  Hartel  (Leipsic, 
1887).— Pohl,  Liszt,  221  ;  Revue  et  Gaz.  \ 
mus.  de  Paris  (1855),  352. 

ORPHEUS'  SELF  MAY  HEAVE  HIS 
HEAD,  soprano  aria  of  L'  Allegro,  in  G 
major,  with  accompaniment  of  strings  com- 
plete, in  Handel's  L'  Allegro,  il  Pensieroso, 
ed  il  Moderato,  Part  H.,  No.  38. 

OESINI,  ALESSANDRO,  born  in  Rome, 
Jan.  24,  1842,  still  Uving,  1890.  Dramatic 
and  church  composer,  pupil  of  Mariano 
Astolfi,  Ricci,  Raimoudi,  and  Muti  Papaz- 
zurri.  After  having  conducted  various 
orchestras  in  Italy,  he  returned  to  Rome, 
was  elected  member  of  the  Accademia  di 
Sta.  Cecilia,  and  in  1870  became  its  libra- 
rian, and  in  1873  professor  of  vocal  music. 
Works :  5  operas,  not  performed  ;  La  mo- 
dista  alia  corte,  ballet,  Rome,  1865,  and  7 
other  ballets.  Lamberto  di  Pavia,  cantata, 
1864  ;  n  genio  di  Roma,  do.,  1870  ;  Can- 
tata for  the  inauguration  of  the  monument 
to  Cavour,  Turin,  1873  ;  Ave  Maria  alia 
Palestrina  ;  Benedictus  ;  Inuo  della  Pente- 


eoste,  chorus  for  female  voices  ;  Salve  del 
mar,  o  Stella,  with  various  instruments ; 
several  pieces  for  orchestra ;  12  Etudes 
d'harmonie  pratique. — Fetis,  Supplement, 
ii.  288. 

ORSINI,  ANTONIO,  born  at  Naples, 
June  13,  1843,  still  living,  1890.  Pianist, 
pupil  of  Autoine  Coop  and  in  theory  of 
Baron  Staifa  ;  appeared  with  success  as  a 
virtuoso  in  his  native  city,  in  Rome,  Paris, 
and  London.  Works :  Benvenuto  Cellini, 
opera,  Naples,  1875 ;  Fughe  per  quattro 
voci.  He  published  also  :  Norme  per  ap- 
prendere  la  composizione,  etc.,  and  Schema 
di  un  indirizzo  all'  arte  del  canto. — Futis, 
Sujjplement,  ii.  288. 

ORSUCCI,  POMPEO,  born  at  Lucca, 
May  21,  1665,  time  of  death  not  known. 
Church  composer,  dean  of  the  collegiate 
church  of  San  Michele  in  Foro,  Lucca.  He 
was  considered  one  of  the  most  able  and 
learned  composers  of  sacred  music  ;  his 
works  are  stUl  performed  and  admired  in 
the  churches  of  his  native  city.  Works  : 
Missa  in  pastorale  ;  2  Vexilla  for  2  choruses  ; 
Pater  noster  for  2  voices  ;  Hymn  to  the 
Trinity,  do.  ;  Te  Deums,  hymns,  motets, 
psalms,  litanies,  etc.— Futis,  Supplement,  ii. 
288. 

ORTLIEB,  EDUARD,  born  at  Stuttgart, 
drowned  near  there  in  1861.  Church  com- 
poser, pastor  at  Drakenstein.  Works :  Mass 
for  4  voices  with  organ  and  small  orchestra, 
op.  1 ;  2  masses  for  4  voices  and  orchestra, 
op.  5  and  8  ;  Mass  for  4  voices  and  organ, 
op.  G  ;  Requiem  for  3  voices  and  organ. 
—Mendel. 

ORTO,  GIOVANNI  DE  (Jean  Du  Jardin, 
de  Horto),  contrapuntist  of  the  IGth  cen- 
tury. Nothing  is  known  of  his  life,  but  he 
was  probably  a  Belgian  by  birth.  Works  : 
Misse  de  Orto,  containing  5  masses  ;  Domi- 
nicalis,  Jay  j)ris  amours,  Lomme  ai'me,  La 
'  belle  se  sied  ;  Petite  Camusette  (Venice, 
1505)  ;  Kyrie  of  a  mass  in  Fragmenta  mis- 
sarum(ib.,  1509);  Lamentation  of  Jeremiah 
(in  Lamentationum  Jeremia;  prophetic  liber 
primus,  ib.,  1506)  ;  Ave  Maria  for  4  voices, 


61 


OETOLAN 


and  11  cbausons  for  do.  (in  Harmonice  mu- 
sices  odhecaton,  Venice,  1500-1)  ;  Masses, 
8ongs,  and  motets  in  manuscript. — Fetis  ; 
Mendel  ;  Riemann. 

ORTOL.VN,  EUGf:NE,  born  in  Paris, 
April  1,  1824,  still  living,  1890.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil  of  Berton  and  Haluvy  at  the 
Conservatoire,  whUe  studying  law  at  tlio 
same  time  ;  won  tbe  second  grand  pris  in 
1845,  and  after  taking  bis  degree  as  doctor, 
entered  tbe  ministry  of  foreign  affairs.  L. 
of  Honour  ;  Orders  of  Leopold  and  Stanislas. 
"Works  :  Lisette,  opera-comique,  Tbeatre 
Lyrique,  1855  ;  La  momie  de  Eoscoco, 
oiseretta,  Boufifes  Parisiens,  1857 ;  Tobie, 
oratorio,  Versailles,  1867  ;  Sympbouic  mu- 
sic, and  vocal  melodies. — Futis,  Supplement, 
ii.  289. 

ORTOL.\NI,  AXGELO,  born  at  Siena, 
April  11,  1788,  died  tbere,  April  18,  1871. 
Pupil  of  Ritterfels,  Deifebo  Romagnoli,  and 
of  Ettore  Romagnoli,  wboni  be  succeeded 
as  maestro  di  cappella  at  Santa  Maria  di 
Proveuzauo,  in  1838.  Works :  R  giorno 
delle  nozze,  opera  (1835-3G  ?),  not  per- 
formed ;  L'  Arte  del  contrappunto,  etc., 
published  under  tbe  pseudonym  Lotario 
Gauleno  (Siena,  1828).  He  published  also 
7  volumes  of  comedies  and  dramas  (ib., 
1839),  and  Memoirs  on  tbe  history  of  Siena 
(ib.,  1842).— Fetis,  Supplement,  ii.  289. 

ORTOL.A.NI,  TERENZIO,  born  at  Pesaro, 
Ancona,  Sept.  4,  1799,  died  tbere,  April  7, 
1875.  Church  composer,  pupil  of  Ripini 
in  harmony  and  counterpoint,  then  at  tbe 
Liceo,  Bologna,  of  Padre  Mattel.  He  was 
maestro  di  cappella  successively  in  several 
cities  in  tbe  Marches  and  tbe  Romagna,  and 
then  at  the  cathedral  of  Pesaro.  "Works  : 
La  pastorella  delle  Alpi,  opera  buflfa,  Naples, 
1830  ;  Many  masses,  psahns,  and  other 
church  music  ;  10  fugues  for  8  voices  and 
figui-ed  bass  ;  100  fugues  for  2  to  4  voices  ; 
10  cuxular  canons. — Fetis,  Supplement,  ii. 
200. 

O  RUDDIER  THAN  THE  CHERRY, 
bass  aria  of  Polyphemus,  in  G  minor,  with 
accompaniment   of   flute,    two  violins,  and 


continue,  in  Handel's  Acts  and  Galatea,  Act 
H. 

O  SANCTISSniA,  O  PURISSBIA,  a 
hymn  to  tbe  Virgin  Mary,  set  to  a  melody 
called  tbe  Sicilian  Mariners'  hymn,  a  tune 
which  was  popular  in  Non-conformist  chap- 
els in  England.  It  is  still  sung  by  tbe  gon- 
doliers in  Venice,  especially  on  St.  Mary's 
Day.  The  air,  Sicilian  Mariners',  is  included 
in  Miller's  "  Dr.  "Watts's  Psalms  and  Hymns 
set  to  Music  "  (London,  1800). — Grove,  iii. 
491. 

OSBORNE,    GEORGE    ALEXANDER, 
-■:  born  at  Limerick,  Ire- 

land, Sept.  24,  1806, 
still  living,  1800.  Pi- 
anist, j^upd  in  Paris 
(1826)  of  Pixis  and 
Fetis  ;  later  studied 
under  Kalkbrenner, 
and  was  intimately  ac- 
quainted with  Chopin 
and  Berlioz.  In  1843 
be  settled  in  London  and  became  a  pojjular 
teacher.  "Works  :  Duets  for  pianoforte  and 
violiu  (with  de  Beriot)  ;  Violin  quartets ; 
Pluie  des  Perles  and  other  pianoforte  mu- 
sic including  rondos,  fantasias,  and  varia- 
tions.— Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Grove. 

OSGOOD,  GEORGE  LAURIE,  born  of 
American  parentage,  in  Chelsea,  Massa- 
chusetts, April  3,  1844,  still  Hving,  1890. 
Tenor  singer,  pupil  in  1800-62,  on  the  organ 
and  in  counterpoint,  of  J.  K.  Paine  in  Cam- 
bridge ;  in  1866  went  to  Europe  and  stud- 
ied, in  Berlin,  composition  under  Haupt  and 
singing  under  Ferdinand  Sieber  ;  in  Halle 
tbe  German  Lied  under  Robert  Franz ;  and 
in  Milan  Italian  vocal  methods  under  Lam- 
perti.  After  a  successful  concert  tour  in 
Germany,  he  returned  to  America  in  1872  ; 
he  made  a  concert  tour  with  Theodore 
Thomas  in  1872-73,  singing  with  success  in 
tbe  principal  cities  of  tbe  United  States. 
He  then  settled  in  Boston  as  a  teacher  of 
singing  and  tenor  singer.  Since  1875  be 
has  conducted  tbe  Boylston  Club,  and  since 
1882  be  has  been  choir  master  of  Emman- 


OSSIAN 


uel  Church,  Boston.  His  compositions  are 
mostly  songs,  some  of  which  have  had  a 
large  sale. 

O  SINK'  HEKNIEDER,  NACHT  DER 
LIEBE.     See  Tristan  und  Isolde. 

O  SOMMO  CARLO.     See  Ernmn. 

OSSIAN,  ou  les  bardes,  French  opera  in 
three  acts,  text  by  Dercy  and  Deschamps, 
music  by  Lesueur,  first  represented  at  the 
Academic  Royale  de  Musique,  Paris,  July 
10,  1804.  The  scene  is  in  Caledonia  ;  the 
story  that  of  Ossian,  the  warrior-bard,  son 
of  Fingal.  One  of  the  best  numbers  of  the 
opera  is  the  dream  in  which  Ossian  believes 
that  he  sees  the  future  heroes  of  his  race. 
Original  cast : 

Ossian M.  Lainez. 

Hydala M.  Lainez. 

Duntalmo M.  Cheron. 

Rosmala Mile  Armand. 

The  severe  and  plagal  harmonies  employed 
caused  one  critic  to  say  that  at  church  Le- 
sueur was  "un  musicien  de  theatre  et  au 
theatre  un  musicien  d'eglise."  It  was  the 
most  successful  opera  represented  at  the 
Academie  since  Sacchini's  OEdipe  a  Colone, 
and  it  was  jjlayed  from  1806  till  1811,  re- 
vived on  May  31,  1814  and  1815,  and  on 
Sept.  29,  1817,  receiving  G5  representations. 
This  work  gave  the  new  name.  Academic 
Imperiale,  to  the  Opera-house.  Napoleon, 
who  was  fond  of  Ossian 's  poems,  greatly 
admired  Les  bardes,  and  gave  to  its  com- 
poser the  order  of  the  Legion  of  Honour 
and  a  gold  snuflf-box.  The  score  was  dedi- 
cated to  Napoleon  and  published  by  Janet 
(Paris,  1805).  Same  subject,  Ossian's  Harfe, 
Danish  opera,  text  by  Baggesen,  music  by 
Kunzen,  Copenhagen,  1709. — Clement  et 
Larousse,  85  ;  Clement,  Mus.  cel^bres,  241  ; 
Lajarte,  ii.  34. 

OSTER-ORATORimi  (Easter  Oratorio), 
by  John  Sebastian  Bach.  The  author  of 
the  text,  which  is  very  meagre,  is  unknown. 
It  is  supposed  that  Bach  wrote  this  oratorio 
in  1736,  and  that  it  was  first  sung  on  Easter 
Sunday,  April  6,  1738.     It  describes  John, 


Peter,  and  the  two  Marj-s  at  the  tomb  of 
Christ  after  the  Resurrection,  expressing 
their  longing  to  their  Lord  and  rejoicing 
that  he  lives  again.  The  closing  chorus 
and  the  Sanetus  of  the  B  minor  mass  are 
similar  in  construction.  Both  are  written 
in  the  form  of  the  French  ouverture,  and 
both  are  of  two  sections  with  a  closing 
movement  in  three-eighth  time  following 
one  in  common  time,  with  the  change  ef- 
fected in  the  same  manner.  The  form  of 
the  numbers  in  this  work  shows  Bach's  ma- 
ture hand.  Characters  rejiresented  :  Maria 
Jacobi  (S.)  ;  Maria  Magdelena  (A.)  ;  Petrus 
(T.) ;  and  Johannes  (B.).  L  Sinfonia ;  II. 
Adagio  ;  HI.  Duetto,  tenor  and  bass  with 
chorus,  Kommt,  eilet  und  laufet  ;  IV.  Alto 
recitative,  O  kalter  Manner  Sinn  ;  V.  So- 
prano aria,  Seele,  deine  Specereien  ;  VI. 
Tenor,  bass,  and  alto  recitative  Hier  ist 
die  Gruft ;  VI.  Tenor  aria,  Sanfte  soil  mein 
Todeskummer  ;  VII.  Soprano  and  alto  rec- 
itative In  dessen  Seufzen  ;  VIII.  Alto  aria, 
Saget,  saget  mir  geschwinde ;  IX.  Bass  rec- 
itative, Wir  sind  erfreut  ;  X.  Chorus,  Preis 
und  Dank  bleibe,  Herr,  dein  Lobgesang. 
Edited  by  Wilhelm  Rust  for  the  Bach- 
gesellschaft  (year  XXII.,  Leipsic,  1871). 
— Spitta,  Bach,  ii.  421,  818  ;  Spitta,  Bach 
(Bell),  ii.  590,  714. 

O  StJSSE  NACHT!  EWGE  NACHT. 
See  Tristan  und  Isolde. 

OTELLO,  Italian  opera  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Berio,  after  Shakespeare,  music  by 
Rossini,  first  represented  at  the  Teatro  del 
Fondo,  Naples,  Dec.  4,  1816.  The  libretto 
is  very  inferior.  Many  of  the  best  scenes 
of  the  tragedy  are  omitted,  lago  is  a  subor- 
dinate character,  and  is  converted  into  a 
rejected  lover  of  Desdemona,  the  charac- 
ters of  Cassio  and  Roderigo  are  blended 
into  one,  and  the  nobility  of  Otello's  nature 
is  suppressed.  Desdemona  falls  by  Otello's 
dagger,  with  which  the  Moor  kills  himself 
afterwards.  In  this  work,  which  is  the  sec- 
ond of  his  serious  operas,  Rossini  continued 
the  reforms  begun  in  Tancredi.  The  or- 
chestration is  richer  than  in  any  of  his  pre- 


OTELLO 


vious  compositions,  and  the  liberal  treat- 
ment of  the  horns  and  clarinets  occasioned 
much  discussion.  The  recitatives  are  ac- 
companied by  the  orchestra  instead  of  the 
pianoforte,  as  was  the  custom  in  Italy  at 
that  time,  although  this  instrument  had 
been  banished  from  the  orchestra  in  France 
by  Gluck  in  1774,  and  stiU  earlier  in  Ger- 
many.    Original  cast : 

Otello  (T.) Signor  Davide. 

Eoderigo  (T.) Signor  Nozzare. 

lago  (T.) Signor  BenedettL 

Desdemona  (S.) illle  Colbran. 

This  opera  was  first  represented  in  Leijjsic 
in  1820,  in  Berlin,  Jan.  IG,  1821,  at  the 
Bang's  Theatre,  London,  with  Camporese 
as  Desdemona,  and  Cuiioni  as  OteUo,  May 
16,  1822  ;  and  in  Dresden  in  1834.  It  was 
first  given  in  New  York,  Feb.  27, 1825,  with 
Manuel  Garcia  as  Otello  ;  his  son,  Manuel, 
lago  ;  Signora  Garcia,  Desdemona  ;  Signor- 
ina  Marietta  Gar-cia  (Malibran),  Emilia;  and 
Mme  Barbieri,  Koderigo.  Otello  was  a 
favorite  role  of  Tamberlik  and  of  Garcia. 


with   great   success  by   Pasta,  Grisi,    and 
Patti,  OteUo  by  Kubini  and  Tamberlik,  and 


Garcia,  as  Otetlo. 


The  latter  acted  with  such  passion  that  his 
daughter,  who  sang  Desdemona  with  great 
eflfect,  was  afraid  that  he  would  actually 
kiU  her.     Desdemona  has  also  been   sung 


Pasia,  as  Desdemona. 

lago  by  Tamburini  and  Ronconi.  Otello 
was  translated  into  French  by  Rover  and 
Waez,  and  given  at  the  Academie  Royale 
de  Musique,  Paris,  Sept.  2,  1844,  with 
Mme  Stolz  as  Desdemona  and  Duprez  as 
Otello.  Published  by  Diabelli  (Vienna)  ; 
by  Schott  (Mainz) ;  and  by  Breitkopf  & 
Hiirtel  (Leipsic). — Edwards,  Rossini,  152  ; 
Escudier,  Rossini,  53,  69  ;  Clement  et  La- 
rousse,  505  ;  Edwards,  Lyrical  Drama,  ii. 
22  ;  Edwards,  Hist.  Opera,  ii.  157 ;  Vie  de 
Rossini  par  un  dilettante,  137  ;  Hanslick, 
Modeme  Oper,  107;  Grove,  iii.  167; 
Ebers,  Seven  Years  of  the  King's  Theatre, 
164 ;  Allgem.  Mus.  Zeitg.,  xxii.  252,  344, 
785,  801 ;  -triii.  121  ;  xxvi.  667  ;  Berliner 
Mus.  Zeitg.,  L  429  ;  u.  4,  13  ;  iii.  133 ; 
Harmonicon  (1823),  79. 

OTELLO,  Italian  opera  in  four  acts,  text 
by  Arrigo  Boito,  after  Shakespeare,  music 


54 


O   TEMERAIIIO 


by  Verdi,  first  represented  at  La  Scala, 
Milan,  Feb.  5,  1887,  with  great  success. 
Original  cast : 

Otello  (T.) Signor  Tamagno. 

lago  (Bar.) Signor  Maurel. 

Cassio  (T.) Signor  Paroli. 

Eoderigo  (T.) Signor  Fomari. 

Lodovico  (B.) Signor  Navanini. 

Desdemona  (S.) Signora  Pantaleoni. 

It  was  first  given  in  New  York  at  the  Acad- 
emy of  Music  under  Signor  Campanini's  di- 
rection, April  IG,  1888,  with  Signor  Marconi 
as  OteUo  ;  Signor  Galassi,  lago ;   Signoi-a 


Tamagno. 

Tetrazzini,  Desdemona ;  and  Signora  Scal- 
chi,  Emilia.  Otello  was  first  represented  in 
London,  May  18,  1889.  Published  by  Ri- 
cordi  (Milan,  1887).— Signale  (1887),  "225, 
257  ;  Mus.  Wochenblatt  (1887),  91 ;  Neue 
Zeitschr.  (1887),  71,  125  ;  Krehbiel,  Review 
(1887-88),  113  ;  Athensum  (1889),  i. 

O  TEMERARIO  ARBACE,  recitative  and 
aria  (Per  quel  paterno  amplesso)  for  so- 
prano with  orchestra,  in  B,  text  from  Me- 
tastasio's  Artaserse,  music  by  Mozart,  com- 
posed in  Milan  in  1770.  Breitkopf  & 
Hiirtel,  Mozart  Werke,  Serie  vi..  No.  7. 
— Kuchel,  Verzeichniss,  No.  79. 

O  TERRA,  ADDIO.     See  Aida. 

OTHMAYR  (Othmayer),  KASPAR,  born 
at  Amberg,  Palatinate,  about  1519,  died  at 
Nuremberg,  Feb.  4,  1553.     Vocal  composer, 


was  rector  at  the  convent  school  in  Heidel- 
berg, 1545,  canon  of  St.  Gumbert,  in  Ans- 
pach,  in  1547,  and  provost  at  Anspach  in 
1548.  Works :  1  book  of  Tricinia  ;  do.  of 
Bicinia  sacra ;  Ode  on  the  death  of  Luther ; 
2  Latin  motets  ;  Many  songs  in  Georg  For- 
ster's  collections. — Mendel  ;  Riemann  ;  Mo- 
natsh.  f.  Musikgesch.,  vii.  163  ;  viii.  10,  33. 

OTHO  \1SC0NTI,  grand  opera  in  three 
acts,  by  Frederic  Grant  Gleason,  op.  7. 
The  work  is  in  MS.,  but  selections  have 
been  published  by  W.  A  Pond  &  Co.  (New 
York). 

O  THOU  THAT  TELLEST,  alto  aria 
and  choms  in  D  major,  with  accompani- 
ment of  violins  in  unison,  and  continuo,  in 
Handel's  Messiah,  Nos.  8  and  9. 

6  TOI  QUI  M'ABANDONNE.  See 
Pro2)hHe. 

OTS,  CHARLES,  born  at  Brussels  about 
1775,  died  there  in  1845.  Violinist,  passed 
the  greater  part  of  his  life  at  Ghent,  teach- 
ing music,  and  returned  when  quite  old  to 
his  native  city.  Works  :  La  ruse  villageoise, 
opera-comique,  Ghent,  1796  ;  Jean  Second, 
ou  Charles-Quint  dans  les  murs  de  Gand, 
do.,  ib.,  1816  ;  David  Teniers,  do.,  ib.,  1818. 
Dixit  Dominus,  Laudate  pueri,  Tantum 
ergo,  O  salutaris,  with  orchestra,  and  other 
church  music. — Fetis. 

OTTANI,  BERNARDINO,  born  at  Bo- 
logna in  1735,  died  at  Turin,  April  (Oct.  ?) 
26,  1827.  Dramatic  and  church  composer, 
pujiil  of  Padre  Martini.  He  was  only 
twenty-two  when  appointed  maestro  di  cap- 
pella  at  S.  Giovanni  in  Monte  ;  three  years 
later  he  acted  in  the  same  capacity  at  the 
Hungarian  College,  and  in  1779  was  of- 
fered a  similar  position  at  the  cathedral  in 
Turin.  Works — Operas  :  Amor  senza  ma- 
lizia,  Venice,  1767 ;  H  maestro,  Munich, 
1768  ;  L'  isola  di  Calipso,  Turin,  1777  ;  Ca- 
tone  in  Utica,  Naples,  1777  ;  La  sprezzante 
abbandonata,  Rome,  1778  ;  Le  nozze  della 
citta,  Florence,  1778  ;  L'  industria  amorosa, 
Venice,  1778  ;  Fatima,  Turin,  1779 ;  Di- 
done,  ib.,  1780 ;  Arminio,  ib.,  1781 ;  Le 
Amazzoni,  ib.,  1784  ;  La  clemenza  di  Tito, 


65 


OTTO 


ib.,    1789.      Forty-sis    masses  ;     Vespers, 
psalms,  litanies,  etc. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 
OTTO,  (EKNST)  JULIUS,  born  at  KO- 
/'^     ■'^^v  nigsteiu,     S  a  x  o  n  j' , 

/  ^        Sept.   1,    1804,    died 

a"^*^  ^P.  at  Dresden,  March  5, 
1877.  Yocal  com- 
poser, pupil  of  Wein- 
lig  and  Uber,  at  the 
Kreuzscbule  in  Dres- 
den. He  was  in- 
structor several  years 
at  Bloebmann's  Music 
Institute,  and  in  1830-75  cantor  at  the 
Kreuzkirche,  also  for  a  long  time  music  di- 
rector of  the  i^riucipal  Lutheran  churches, 
and  conductor  of  the  Liedertafel.  Works  : 
Das  Schloss  am  Rhein,  opera,  Dresden, 
1838  ;  Der  Schlosser  von  Augsburg,  do., 
Augsburg.  Oratorios  :  Hiob,  Bitterfeld, 
18-10  ;  Des  Heilands  letzte  "Worte,  Dresden, 
1844  ;  Die  Feier  der  Erlosten  am  Grabe 
Jesu.  Masses  for  male  voices,  motets, 
hymns,  and  other  church  music  ;  Festival 
cantatas  ;  Cyclus  for  male  chorus ;  Many 
choruses  for  male  voices  in  the  collection 
"Ernst  und  Scherz."  His  brother  Franz 
(1809-41)  is  also  favourably  known  as  com- 
poser of  choruses  for  male  voices,  and  of 
songs.  He  published  12  dances  for  orches- 
tra.— Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann. 

OTTONE,  Italian  opera  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Nicola  Haym,  music  by  Handel,  first 
represented  at  the  King's  Theatre,  London, 
Jan.  12,  1723.  It  was  written  in  1722.  It 
contains  a  greater  number  of  beautiful  songs 
than  almost  any  opera  of  the  period.  The 
subject  is  Otho  I.  the  Great,  King  of  Ger- 
many (936-973)  and  Emperor  of  Rome 
(962).  Scene,  Rome.  Original  cast :  Ot- 
tone.  King  of  Germany  and  lover  of  Teo- 
fane  (C),  Signor  Senesino  ;  Teofane,  daugh- 
ter of  the  Roman  commander  of  the  Orient 
(S.),  Signora  Francesca  Cuzzoni,  her  first 
appearance  in  Loudon  ;  Emireno,  corsair, 
called  Basilio,  brother  of  Teofane  (B.),  Si- 
gnor Boschi ;  Gismonda,  widow  of  Beren- 
gario,  tyrant  of  Italy  (S.),  Signora  Duras- 


tanti ;  Adelberto,  sou  of  Gismonda  (A.), 
Signor  Berenstadt ;  and  Matilda,  Ottone's 
cousin,  betrothed  to  Adelberto  (S.),  Mi's. 
Anastasia  Robinson.  This  ojjera  became 
popular  at  once,  and  the  gavotte  at  the  end 
of  the  overture,  Burney  tells  us,  was  "  played 
throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the 
land  on  every  possible  instrument,  from  the 
organ  to  the  salt-box,"  an  instrument  used 
by  clowns  and  j  ugglers.  It  was  often  played 
for  a  hornpipe  or  country-dance.  In  the 
original  autograph,  in  Buckingham  Palace, 
the  overture  is  of  four  movements  :  An  in- 
troduction, and  two  fugues,  between  which 
is  the  gavotte  ;  but  Handel  afterwards  sub- 
stituted the  second  fugue  for  the  first, 
closing  with  the  gavotte,  in  which  form  the 
overture  was  first  printed  with  the  opera 
by  Walsh  (London,  1723).  The  first  fugue 
Handel  transposed  a  semitone  lower  and 
made  it  the  second  movement  in  the  over- 
ture to  Giulio  Cesare  (1724).  The  sinfonia 
in  Act  I.  was  afterward  used  by  Handel  for 
his  sixth  oboe  concerto.  The  aria,  "  Af- 
fanni  del  peusier,"  was  sung  by  Signor  Pac- 
chierotti  at  the  Handel  Commemoration, 
May  27,  1784.  Full  score  edited  by  Chry- 
sander  for  the  Hiindelgesellschaft  (Leipsic, 
1881).  Same  subject,  Italian  oijeras,  Ot- 
tone  in  Italia,  text  by  Diani,  music  by  Marco 
Rosetti,  Munich,  1670  ;  Ottone  il  Grande, 
text  by  Silvani,  music  by  Paolo  Biego,  Ven- 
ice, 1688  ;  Ottone,  text  by  Roberti,  music 
by  Pollarollo,  Venice,  1694  ;  Ottone  in  Italia, 
text  by  Lalli,  music  by  Vivaldi,  ib.,  1713  ; 
Ottone  amante,  text  by  Boccardi,  music  by 
Luigi  Tavelli,  ib.,  1726;  and  Ottone,  text 
by  Salvi,  music  by  Gennaro  d'  Alessandri, 
Naples,  1740. — Chrysander,  Handel,  ii.  88 ; 
Rockstro,  Handel,  138  ;  Schcclcher,  Handel, 
69  ;  MarshaU,  Handel,  71  ;  Burney,  iv.  286  ; 
Mainwaring,  Memoirs ;  Burney,  Handel 
Commemoration,  63. 

OUDRID  Y  SEGURA,  CRISTOBAL, 
born  at  Badajos,  Feb.  7,  1829,  died  at  Ma- 
drid, March  15, 1877.  Dramatic  composer  ; 
went  to  Madrid  in  1844,  and  began  to  pro- 
duce some  orchestral  compositions  in  1849  ; 


66 


OITI 


soon  won  reputation  as  an  orchestra  con- 
ductor in  several  theatres,  became  chorus- 
master  at  the  Italian  opera  in  1867,  maes- 
tro de  capilla  in  1872  at  the  Teatro  de  la 
Zarzuela,  and  later  at  the  Teatro  del  Ori- 
ente.  He  wrote  more  than  thirty  zarzue- 
las,  given  at  Madrid,  some  of  them  con- 
jointly with  Barbieri,  Gaztambide,  Eogel, 
Caballero,  and  others.  The  last  one,  El 
consejo  de  los  diez,  was  given  after  his 
death,  1884— Futis,  Sui^ploment,  ii.  290. 

OUI,  C'EST  MOI  QUI  VIENS  ICI.  See 
Ambasmdrice. 

OUI,  VOUS  L'AKRACHEZ  A  MON 
AME.     See  GuiUaume  Tell. 

OLT  JE  VAIS  ?     See  Huguenots. 

Oil  PEUT-ON  ETRE  MIEUX  QUAU 
SEIN  DE  SA  FAjMILLE?  (Where  can 
one  be  better  off  than  in  the  bosom  of  one's 
family  ?),  quartet  in  the  oj^era  of  Lucile,  by 
Gretry,  represented  at  the  Italiens,  Paris, 
Jan.  5,  17G9.  It  was  sung  at  Versailles, 
July  15,  1789  ;  at  Carlton  House,  at  the  iirst 
visit  of  George  III.  and  Queen  Charlotte  to 
the  Prince  of  Wales,  Feb.  3,  1795  ;  and  at 
Korythnia,  on  the  retreat  from  Moscow, 
Nov.  15,  1812.  It  was  adopted  by  the 
Bourbons  after  the  Restoration  as  a  na- 
tional air. — Grove,  ii.  61G  ;  Clement  et  La- 
rousse,  412 ;  Larousse  ;  Masson,  La  lyre 
franjaise. 

OURS,  L'  (The  Bear),  symphony  for  or- 
chestra in  C,  by  Haydn,  written  in  1786  for 
the  society  of  the  "  Loge  Olympique,"  in 
Paris.  It  got  its  name  from  the  finale, 
which  begins  with  a  motive  :i  la  cornemuse 
(bagpijies),  resembling  a  bear-dance.  I. 
Vivace  assai ;  II.  Allegretto ;  HI.  Menu- 
etto  ;  IV.  Finale  :  Vivace  assai.  Published 
by  Andre,  Haydn  Sinfonien,  No.  2  (Offen- 
bach am  Main). — Grove  ;  Reissmann,  Haydn, 
168. 

OUSELEY,  Rev.  Sir  FREDERICK  AR- 
THUR GORE,  Bart.,  born  in  London  Aug. 
12,  1825,  died  at  Hereford,  April  6,  1889. 
Pianist  and  organist,  son  of  Sir  William 
Ouseley,  Bart.,  to  whose  title  he  succeeded 
in  18i-l.     He  early  showed  musical  ability, 


and  composed  an  opera  when  only  eight 
years  old  ;  was  educated  at  Chi-ist  Church, 
Oxford  (B.A.,  1846; 
M.A.,  1849) ;  was  or- 
dained in  1849,  and 
in  1849-51  was  curate 
at  St.  Paul's,  Knights- 
bridge.  In  1855  he 
succeeded  Sir  Henry 
R.  Bishop  as  profes- 
sor there,  and  in  the 
same  year  was  ap- 
pointed in-ecentor  of  Hereford  Cathedral; 
in  1856  he  became  vicar  of  St.  Michael's, 
and  warden  of  St.  Michael's  College, 
Tenbury.  He  induced  Oxford  to  confer 
degrees  in  music,  which  the  university  had 
not  done  before  1879.  Mus.  Bac,  Oxford, 
1850;  Mus.  Doc,  ib.,  1854;  Mus.  Doc, 
Cambridge,  1862  ;  Hon.  LL.D.,  ib.,  1883  ; 
do.,  Edinburgh,  1885.  Works  :  L'  isola  di- 
sabitata,  opera  ;  St.  Polycarp,  oratorio,  1855  ; 
Hagar,  do.,  1873  ;  The  Lord  is  the  true 
God,  cantata;  11  sei-vices  ;  70  anthems; 
About  35  preludes  and  fugues  for  the 
organ ;  Andantes ;  Sonatas  ;  Glees  and  part- 
songs  ;  Songs  with  pianoforte  accompani- 
ment ;  Sestet  and  two  quartets  for  strings  ; 
Pianoforte  music.  He  was  author  also  of 
treatises  on  harmony,  on  counterpoint  and 
fugue,  and  on  form  and  general  composi- 
tion ;  edited  Orlando  Gibbons's  sacred 
works  ;  Cathedral  services  (1853) ;  Aughcan 
Psalter  Chants  (1872),  with  E.  G.  Monk ;  con- 
tributed articles  to  Grove's  Dictionary  of 
Music  and  Musicians  ;  and  edited  Naumann's 
History  of  Music  (English  translation  by  F. 
Praeger). — Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  do..  Supplement, 
ii.  291 ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  322  ;  Riemann. 

OU  VAS-TU,  PAUTRE  GONDOLIER? 
See  Zampa. 

OUVERTUEA  DI  BALLO  (Overture  to 
the  Ball),  for  orchestra,  iu  E-flat,  by  Arthur 
S.  Sullivan,  first  performed  at  the  Birming- 
ham (England)  Festival,  Aug.  29,  1870.  It 
is  written  in  graceful  and  melodious  dance- 
rhythms.  Published  by  Stanley  Lucas  (Lon- 
don, 1869).— Athenfeum  (1870),  ii.  315. 


OUYERTURE 


OUVEETUEE  FUE  HAEMONIE-inj- 
SIK  (Overture  for  Wind-instruments),  in  C, 
by  Mendelssohn,  op.  24.  It  was  written  in 
1826.  Andante  con  moto,  Allegro  vivace. 
Published  by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Mendels- 
sohn Werke,  Serie  vii.,  No.  29. — Hanslick, 
Concertwesen  in  Wien,  ii.  419. 

OmTSKTURE,  SCHERZO,  UND  FI- 
NALE, for  orchestra,  by  Schumann,  op.  52, 
first  performed  at  the  Gewandhaus,  Leipsic, 
Dec.  G,  1841.  I.  Ouvertiire,  Andante  con 
moto  in  E  minor,  Allegro  in  E ;  II.  Scher- 
zo, Vivo  in  C-sharp  minor  ;  HI.  Finale,  Al- 
legro molto  vivace  in  E.  The  work  is  in  the 
form  of  a  symi>hony,  but  Schumann  would 
not  give  it  this  name  because  it  had  no 
slow  movement.  He  revised  the  finale  in 
1845.  This  work  was  first  given  in  Dres- 
den, Dec.  4,  1845  ;  by  the  Philharmonic  of 
London,  April  4,  1853  ;  and  by  that  of  New 
York  in  the  season  of  1857-58.  Published 
by  Kistner  (Leipsic,  1854).  Breitkopf  & 
Hiirtel,  Schumann  W'erke,  Serie  ii.,  No. 
1. — AUgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xliii.  1100  ;  xlvii. 
928  ;  Maitland,  Schumann,  78. 

OLTERTUKE  TRIOMPHALE,  for  or- 
chestra, by  Tschaikow.ski,  op.  15.  Its  sub- 
ject is  the  national  hymn  of  Denmark.  Pub- 
lished by  Jiirgenson  (Moscow,  between  1874- 
79).    AiTangeel  for  pianoforte  for  four  hands. 

OMUERO  Y  RAMOS,  IGNACIO,  born 
at  Madrid,  Feb.  1,  1828,  still  Hving,  1890. 
Organist,  jsupil  of  one  Gimeno,  and  of  Lo- 
desma  ;  in  1858  he  was  appointed  assistant 
professor  at  the  Conservatorio.  Works : 
Fernando  Cortcz,  lyric  drama,  Madrid, 
1848 ;  La  Cabana,  zarzucla,  ib.,  1848  ; 
About  200  compositions  for  the  church. 
— Fetis,  Sujjplement,  ii.  291. 

OVER  THE  DARK  BLUE  WATERS. 
See  Oberon. 

O  WEINT  UM  SIE  (Oh  !  weep  for  those), 
cantata  for  soprano  solo,  chorus,  and  orches- 
tra, text  from  Byron's  "Hebrew  Melodies," 
music  by  Ferdinand  Hiller,  op.  49.  Pub- 
lished by  Simrock  (Bonn,  between  1841-44). 

OXFORD  SYMPHONY,  for  orchestra,  in 
G,  by  Haydu,  written   for   and   first   per- 


formed under  the  composer's  direction, 
July  7,  1791,  at  Oxford,  where  he  received 
the  degree  of  Mus.  Doc.  on  the  following 
day.  This  symphony  is  j)ublished  in  the 
London  Philharmonic  Catalogue  as  "  Letter 
Q  ; "  in  Rieter-Biedermanu's  as  No.  2  ;  and 
in  Peters's  as  No.  9. — Townsend,  Haydn,  94 ; 
Pohl,  Mozart  und  Haydn  in  London,  ii.  148. 

OX  HHNUET,  THE  (Die  Ochsen-Meuu- 
ette),  Singspiel  in  one  act,  text  from  Hoff- 
mann's "  Le  menuet  du  bceuf,"  music  select- 
ed by  Ignaz  Seyfried  from  Haj'dn's  works, 
first  rei^reseuted  in  Vienna,  Dec.  13,  1823. 
The  play  is  based  on  a  story  without  founda- 
tion, regarding  a  minuet  that  Haydu  is  said 
to  have  written  at  the  request  of  an  Hun- 
garian butcher  for  the  wedding  of  his  daugh- 
ter, in  acknowledgment  of  which  the  com- 
poser was  presented  with  a  living  ox. 
Characters  represented :  Joseph  Haydn  ;  his 
niece,  Therese  ;  Frau  Barbara,  the  house- 
keeper ;  Istock,  the  butcher ;  Jantschi, 
Haydn's  scholar ;  and  Eduard.  Anvanged 
for  the  i^ianoforte  by  C.  Burchard  (Bauer, 
Dresden,  18G3). —  Grove  ;  Allgem.  mus. 
Zeitg.,  xxvi.  41  ;  xxxi.  791. 

OZI,  fiTIENNE,  born  at  Nimes,  France, 
Dec.  9,  1754,  died  in  Paris,  Oct.  3,  1813. 
Virtuoso  on  the  bassoon,  went  to  Paris  in 
1777,  appeared  in  the  Concerts  Spirituels 
two  years  later,  was  first  bassoon  player  in 
the  royal,  afterwards  the  imperial  orchestra, 
also  in  the  Opera  orchestra,  and  professor 
at  the  Consei-vatoire.  Works  :  7  concertos 
for  bassoon,  with  orchestra  ;  3  symphonies 
concertantcs  for  clarinet  and  bassoon  ;  24 
duos  for  bassoons  ;  6  do.  for  do.  or  violon- 
cellos ;  Airs  varies  for  do. ;  Slethod  for  bas- 
soon (Paris,  1800).— Fetis  ;  Schilling. 

O  ZITTRE  NICHT,  METN  LIEBEE 
SOHN.     See  Zauherflbte. 


PABST,  AUGUST,  born  at  Elberfeld, 
Prussia,  May  30,  1811,  died  at  Riga, 
July  21,  1885.  Dramatic  composer, 
cantor  and  organist  at  Konigsberg,  where 
he  was  made  royal  music  director  in  1857. 


58 


PACCIIIONI 


He  became  afterwards  director  of  the  Con- 
servatorium  at  Riga.  Works — Operas  :  Der 
Kastellan  von  Krakau,  given  at  Konigsberg, 
1846  ;  Unser  Jobanu,  ib.,  1848  ;  Die  letzten 
Tage  von  Pompeji,  Dresden,  1851 ;  Die 
Longobarden  (18C0,  not  given). 

PACCHIONI,  ANTONIO  MAEIA,  born 
at  Modena,  July  5,  10.54,  died  there,  July 
15,  1738.  Church  composer,  pupil  of  Mur- 
zio  Erculeo  d'  Otricoli  in  singing,  and  of 
Giovanni  Maria  Bononcini  in  counterpoint  ; 
perfected  his  musical  knowledge  by  the 
study  of  Palestrina's  works.  In  1G94  he 
became  maestro  di  cajjpella  at  the  cathe- 
dral, and  in  1722  to  the  Duke  of  Modena. 
Works  :  Le  porjjore  trionfali  di  S.  Iguazio, 
oratorio  {1G78)  ;  La  gran  Matilda,  do., 
Modena,  1G82  ;  Motets  for  4  voices  (Venice, 
1687)  ;  Cantatas,  motets  for  8  voices,  and 
other  church  music  in  MS.,  iu  the  ducal 
library,  Modena. — Fetis  ;  Schilling. 

PACELLI,  ASPIKILIO,  born  at  Varci- 
ano,  Italy,  in  1570,  died  iu  Warsaw,  May  4, 
1623.  Church  composer  ;  was  at  first  maes- 
tro di  cajipella  at  the  German  college  in 
Rome,  then  in  the  Vatican,  1602-3,  and 
was  called  to  Warsaw,  in  the  same  capacity, 
by  Sigismuud  III.,  King  of  Poland  and 
Sweden,  who  caused  a  monument  to  be 
erected  to  his  memory  in  the  Cathedral  of 
Warsaw.  Works  :  Cantiones  sacrte,  for  5- 
10  voices  (Frankfort,  1604)  ;  do.  for  5  to  20 
voices  (ib.,  1608)  ;  Psalmi  et  motetti  octo 
vocum  (ib.,  1607)  ;  Psalmi,  motetti  et  Mag- 
nificat quatuor  vocibus  (ib.,  1608)  ;  Madri- 
gali,  etc. — Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

PACHELBEL,  JOHANN,  born  in  Nu- 
remberg, Sept.  1,  1653,  died  there,  March 
3,  1706.  Organist,  with  Buxtehude  one  of 
the  immediate  precursors  of  Bach  ;  pupil 
of  Heinrich  Schwemmer,  then  studied  at 
Altdorf  and  Ratisbon,  and  in  1674  went 
to  Vienna,  where  he  became  assistant  or- 
ganist, at  St.  Stephen's,  to  Kaspar  Kerl, 
which  gi-eat  artist  naturally  influenced  him 
very  much.  In  1677  he  was  court  organist 
at  Eisenach  and  in  1678  organist  of  the 
Predigerkirche    iu  Erfurt,    whence  he  was 


called  to  Stuttgart  in  1690.  The  invasion 
by  the  French  army,  in  1692,  caused  him 
to  take  refuge  at  Gotha,  where  he  was  city 
organist  until  1695,  when  the  post  of  or- 
ganist, at  St.  Sebaldus,  Nuremberg,  was 
given  him,  in  succession  to  Wecker.  Works  : 
Musikalische  Sterbensgedanken,  aus  4  va- 
riirten  Choriilen  bestehend  (Erfurt,  1683)  ; 
Musikalische  Ergotzung,  aus  6  verstimmten 
Parthien  von  2  Violinen,  2  Geigen  und 
Generalbass  (Nuremberg,  1691)  ;  78  Cho- 
rale zum  Prilambuliren  (ib.,  1693)  ;  Hexa- 
chordum  Apolliuis,  aus  6mal  variirten  Arien 
(ib.,  1699)  ;  Tabulaturbuch  geisthcher  Ge- 
siinge  D.  Martini  Lutheri,  etc.,  160  Choral- 
Melodien  mit  Generalbass  und  kurze  fu- 
gierte  Vorspiele  (MS.,  grand-ducal  librarj-, 
Weimar)  ;  Many  other  vocal  and  instru- 
mental pieces  in  Franz  Commer's  "  Musica 
sacra,"  and  other  collections.  His  sou  and 
pupil,  Wilhelm  Hierouymus  (born  at  Erfurt 
in  1685),  who  was  organist  at  Wehrd,  and 
from  1706  of  the  Jakobskirche  at  Nurem- 
berg, published  :  Musikalisches  Vergniigen, 
bestehend  in  eiuem  Praeludio,  Fuga,  und 
Fantasia,  etc.  ;  Fuga  in  F-dur  fiirs  Klavier 
(Nuremberg,  1725)  ;  Praeludium  fiir  die 
Orgel  (Berlin,  1726). — Doppelmeier,  Von 
Niirnberger  Kiiustlern,  257  ;  Fetis  ;  Ger- 
ber  ;  Mattheson,  Ehrenpforte  ;  Reissmann, 
Gesch.,  ii.  241  ;  Riemann  ;  Schilling  ;  Win- 
terfeld,  Kircheugesang,  ii.  589,  626. 

PACKER,  JOSEPH  ADALBERT,  born 
at  Daubrawitz,  Moravia,  March  29, 1818,  died 
at  Gmiinden,  Upper  Austria,  Sept.  3,  1871. 
Pianist,  mostly  self-taught,  afterwards  in 
Vienna  pupil  of  Preyer  in  harmony  and 
countei-point ;  made  successful  concert  tours 
through  Austria  and  Germany,  and  taught 
in  Vienna  several  years.  His  compositions 
for  the  pianoforte,  consisting  of  nocturnes, 
caprices,  etudes,  variations,  etc.,  number 
more  than  seventy  works. — Wurzbach. 

PACINI,  GIOVANNI,  born  in  Catania, 
Sicily,  Feb.  19,  1796,  died  at  Pescia,  Dec. 
6,  1867.  Dramatic  composer,  son  of  a  fa- 
mous tenor,  who  took  him  while  a  child  to 
Rome,    where  his   musical   education   was 


PACINI 


beguu ;  then  studied  at  Bologna  under 
Marches!  and  Mattel,  and  in  1808-12  at 
Venice  under  Furlanetto.  Educated  to  oc- 
cupy a  position  in  some  church  choir,  his 
first  compositions  were  church  music,  but 
when  eighteen  he  wrote  an  opera,  Anuetta  e 
Lucindo,  which  had  some  success  at  Venice  ; 
and  uj)  to  1834  he  had  produced  forty-two 
operas  in  the  principal  Italian  cities  with 
varying  success.  In  1825  he  married  Ade- 
laide Castelli,  of  Naples,  and  became  maestro 
di  cappella  to  the  Empress  Marie  Louise, 
widow  of  Napoleon  I.  The  total  failure  of 
his  ojiera  Carlo  di  Borgogua  at  Venice  in 
1835  inducing  him  to  give  up  com^sosition 
for  a  time,  he  went  with  his  family  to  Via- 
reggio,  near  Lucca,  where  his  mother  lived, 
and  there  founded  a  suocessful  music  school, 
for  which  he  wrote  a  history  of  music,  a 
treatise  on  counterpoint,  and  one  on  har- 
monj'.  Several  of  his  pupils  have  since 
risen  to  eminence.  The  school  was  after- 
wards transferred  to  Lucca.  In  1840  he 
brought  out  at  Naples  with  flattering  and 
deserved  success  his  opera  of  Saffo,  his  best 
known,  as  it  is  probably  his  best,  work.  He 
married  three  times,  and  had  three  children 
by  each  wife,  of  whom  four  daughters  and 
his  onlv  son,  Luigi,  survived  him.  He  was 
musical  du'ector  of  the  music  school  at 
Florence,  and  a  knight  of  several  orders. 
In  1851  he  went  to  Paris  to  superintend  the 
production  of  his  L'  ultimo  dc'  Clodovei,  a 
new  version  of  Gli  Ai-abi  uelle  Gallic  which 
Napoleon  III.  had  applauded  at  Home 
twenty-seven  years  before.  Pacini  wrote, 
besides  eight}'  operas,  more  than  seventy 
masses,  oratorios,  and  cantatas,  of  which 
the  cantata  for  the  Dante  centenary  best 
deserves  mention.  He  was  an  imitator  of 
Rossini,  and  when  that  master's  peculiar 
style  passed  out  of  fashion,  Pacini's  success 
began  to  wane.  He  was  a  facile  and  melo- 
dious, but  very  cai'eless  writer  ;  his  knowl- 
edge of  the  voice  and  of  the  requirements  | 
of  the  stage  was  great,  and  he  excelled  in 
writing  arias  to  exhibit  the  best  qualities  in 
the  voices  of  individual  singers.     The  vari- 


ety and  beauty  of  his  cabalettas  have  been 
much  jJiaised.  During  his  Viareggio  jse- 
riod  he  made  quite  a  study  of  the  works  of 
Mozai-t,  Haydn,  and  Beethoven,  for  all  of 
whom  he  had  a  profound  admiration,  and, 
in  his  subsequent  operas  he  tried  his  best 
to  throw  off  his  Rossini  habit. 

Works :  I.  Operas  :  Annetta  e  Lucindo, 
Venice,  1811 ;  Gli  spousali  de'  silfi,  Milan, 
1814;  ;  L'  evacuazione  del  tesoro,  Pisa,  1815  ; 
Rosina,  Florence,  1815  ;  II  matrimonio  per 
procura,  Milan,  1815  ;  II  carnevale  di  Mi- 
lano,  ib.,  1815  ;  Piglia  il  montio  come  viene, 
ib.,  1815  ;  II  seguito  di  Ser  Mercantonio  (se- 
quel to  Stefano  Pavesi's  Ser  Mercantonio), 
Venice,  1815  ;  L'  iugenua,  ib.,  181G  ;  Dalla 
befla  il  disingauuo,  Milan,  1817 ;  La  sacei- 
doiessa  d'  Irminsul,  Trieste,  1817  ;  Adelaide 
e  Comminghio,  Milan,  1818  ;  II  barone  di 
Dolsheim,  ib.,  1818  ;  La  sposa  fedele,  ib., 
and  Venice,  1819  ;  H  falegname  di  Livonia, 
Milan,  1819  ;  L'  ambizione  delusa,  ?,  about 
1820  ;  Atala,  ?,  about  1820  ;  Vallace,  ossia 
r  eroe  scozzese,  Milan,  Feb.  24,  1820  ;  La 
schiava  di  Bagdad,  Tuiin,  1820  ;  La  gio- 
ventii  di  Enrico  V.,  Rome,  1821  ;  Cesai-e 
nelle  Gallic,  ib.,  1822  ;  La  vestale,  Milan, 
Feb.  6,  1823  ;  Temistocle,  Lucca,  1823  ; 
Isabella  ed  Enrico,  Milan,  June  12,  1824  ; 
AlessaiiJro  nell'  Indie,  Naj^les,  1824  ;  Ama- 
zUia,  ib.,  1825  ;  L'  ultimo  giorno  di  Pom- 
peja,  Naples,  Nov.  19,  1825,  and  Pai-is,  Oct. 
2,  1830  ;  La  gelosia  corretta,  Milan,  182G  ; 
Niobe,  Naples,  Nov.  19,  1826  ;  Gli  ArabineWe 
Gallie,  ossia  1'  ultimo  de'  Clodovei,  Milan, 
1827,  and  Paris  (with  7  new  numbers), 
1855  ;  Margherita  d'  Angiti,  Najsles,  Nov. 
19,  1827  ;  I  crociati  in  Ptolemaide,  Trieste, 
about  1827  ;  I  cavalieri  di  Valenza,  Milan, 
June  15,  1828  ;  II  talismano,  ossia  la  terza 
crociata  in  Palestina,  ib.,  June  10,  1829  ; 
Cesare  in  Egitto,  ?,  about  1830  ;  I  fidanzati, 
ossia  il  contestabile  di  Chester,  Milan,  1830  ; 
Giovanna  d'  Arco,  ib.,  March  14,  1830  ;  Gi- 
anni di  Calais,  Naples,  1830  ;  II  corsaro, 
Rome,  1831  ;  Ivanhoe,  Venice,  April,  1832  ; 
R  convitato  di  pietra,  Viareggio,  1832  ;  Gli 
Elvezi,  Naples,  1833  ;  Ferdinando  duca  di 


60 


PACINI 


Valeuza,  ib.,  1833  ;  Irene,  ossia  1'  assedio 
di  Messina,  ib.,  Nov.  30,  1833  ;  Maria  re- 
gina  d'  Ingbilterra,  Milan,  1834:,  and  as 
Maria  Tudor,  Palermo,  Feb.  11,  1843  ;  Carlo 
di  Borgogna,  Venice,  February,  1835  ;  Saffo, 
Naples,  Nov.  27,  1840  ;  Furio  Camillo,  ib., 
1841;  L'  uomo  del  mistero,  ib.,  1841;  II 
duea  d'  Alba,  Venice,  1842  ;  Adolfo  di  Wer- 
beck,  Najjles,  1842  ;  La  fidanzata  corsa,  ib., 
1842  ;  Medea,  Palermo,  December,  1843  ; 
Luisella,  ossia  la  cantatrice  del  Male  di 
Napoli,  Naples,  January,  1844  ;  L'  Ebrea, 
Milan,  Feb.  27,  1844  ;  Lorenzino  de'  Medici, 
ossia  Elisa  Valasco,  Eome,  March  5,  1845  ; 
Buondelmonte,  Florence,  1845  ;  Stella  di 
Napoli,  Naples,  1845  ;  La  regina  di  Cij^ro, 
ossia  Catarina  Cornaro,  Turin,  1S4G  ;  Me- 
rope,  Naples,  184G  ;  Ester  d'  Engaddi,  Tu- 
rin, 1847 ;  Allan  Cameron,  Venice,  1848  ; 
Malvina  di  Scozia,  Naples,  1851  ;  ZafBra, 
ib.,  1851 ;  II  Cid,  Milan,  March  12,  1853  ; 
Romilda  di  Provenza,  Naples,  1853  ;  La 
punizione,  Venice,  1854  ;  Margherita  Pus- 
terla,  Naples,  April,  1856 ;  II  saltimban- 
co,  Eome,  May  24,  1858  ;  Lidia  di  Bru- 
selles,  Bologna,  November,  1858  ;  Gianni  di 
Nisida,  Eome,  November,  1860  ;  E  mula- 
tiere  di  Toledo,  ib.,  June,  1861  ;  Belfegor, 
Florence,  1861  ;  Don  Diego  di  Mendoza, 
Venice,  1867  ;  Berta  di  Varuol,  Naples, 
April,  1867  ;  Niccolo  de'  Lapi  (posthumous), 
Florence,  Oct.  29,  1873. 

II.  Oratorios  :  La  destruzione  di  Gerusa- 
lemme,  Sala  dei  Cinque  Cento,  Florence, 
1858  ;  E  carcere  Mamertino,  Eome,  Sala  del 
Capitolio,  1867  ;  E  trionfo  di  Giuditta  ;  E 
trionfo  della  religione  ;  Sant'  Agnese.  in. 
Cantatas  and  hymns  :  L'  omaggio  piii  grato, 
Pavia,  1819 ;  II  puro  omaggio,  Trieste, 
1822  ;  Cantata  for  Franyois  I,  Naples, 
1825  ;  Cantata  for  the  wedding  of  Maria 
Cristina  of  Naples,  1830  ;  II  felice  imeneo, 
Naples,  1832  ;  Cantata  for  Pius  IX.,  Eome, 
1848  ;  Cantata  for  the  Emperor  of  Brazil, 
1851  ;  Cantata  for  the  Emperor  of  France  ; 
Cantata  for  the  wedding  of  Prince  Ferdi- 
nand of  Naples  ;  Cantata  for  the  wedding 
of   the   Prince   of   Tuscany ;  Eossini   e   la 


patria,  cantata  for  the  Eossini  fetes  at  Pe- 
saro  ;  L'  Italia  cattolica,  cantata,  for  the 
Accademia  dei  Quiriti,  Eome  ;  Hj'mu  to 
Guido  d'  Arezzo  ;  Hymn  to  the  Viceroy  of 
Egypt ;  Hymn  for  San  Marino  ;  Hymn  to 
the  Virgin  ;  Choruses  for  the  Qildipus  of 
Sophocles,  Vicenza,  1847.  IV.  Masses,  etc.: 
Messa  alia  Madonna  del  Castello,  Milan, 
1822  ;  Messa  a  8-voci,  dedicated  to  Greg- 
ory XVI.,  1827  ;  Mass  performed  at  Via- 
reggio  in  1835  ;  Messa  di  Eequiem,  dedi- 
cated to  the  town  of  Catania  ;  Mass  sung 
at  Monte  Carlo  ;  Messa  di  Eequiem  to  the 
memory  of  Michele  Puccini  ;  Messa  di 
Eequiem  for  the  removal  of  Bellini's  body 
to  Italy  ;  and  a  large  number  of  masses  in 
3  and  4  parts,  with  accompaniment  of  or- 
gan and  contrabass,  or  with  grand  orches- 
tra ;  two  SEserere,  a  De  profundis,  and  sev- 
eral vesper  services  for  4  and  8  parts  with 
grand  orchestra.  V.  Instrumental  music  : 
Dante  symphony  ;  Octet  for  three  violins, 
violoncello,  oboe,  bassoon,  horn,  and  con- 
trabass ;  Six  string  quartets  ;  Quartet,  ded- 
icated to  Mme  Pacini  ;  Quartet,  dedicated 
to  Lucca,  two  trios  for  pianoforte,  violin, 
and  violoncello  ;  A  number  of  duos,  trios, 
and  quartets  for  the  pianoforte  and  wind 
instruments  ;  Several  morceaux  for  piano- 
forte and  harp ;  Collection  of  6  songs  ; 
do.  of  5  songs  and  a  duet ;  and  a  num- 
ber of  songs  for  one  and  several  voices. 

VI.  Theoretical  works  :  Corso  teorico- 
pratico  dil  ezioui  di  armonia ;  Principj 
elementarj  col  metodo  del  meloplasto ; 
Ceuni  storici  sulla  musica,  e  trattato  di 
contrajJiJunto  (Lucca,  1864) ;  Sulla  ori- 
ginalita  della  musica  italiana  ;  Memoria 
sul  migliore  indirizzo  degli  studj  musicali 
(Florence,  1863)  ;  Progetto  per  giovani 
compositori  (1863)  ;  Lettera  ai  Municipj 
italiani  per  una  scuola  musicale  (1863)  ; 
Discorso  in  morte  di  Michele  Pulcini 
(1865)  ;  Vita  di  Giudo  d'  Arezzo  ;  Dis- 
corso ai  collegi  sul  concors  oall'  ufficio 
di  Direttore  uel  Conservatorio  di  Paler- 
mo (Pescia,  1862)  ;  Discorso  nel  primo 
pubblico    esperimento    degli    alunni    dell' 


PACIUS 


Istituto  musicale  in  Lucca  (Lecca,  1865) ; 
Ragionameuto  sull'  opera  del  Tiron  :  stud- 
ies in  Greek  music ;  Diseorso  nel  secundo 
pubblico  esperimento  degli  alunni  dell' 
Istituto  musicale  in  Lucca  (Pescia,  1867). 
— Le  mie  memorie  artisticbe,  autobiog- 
raphy (Florence,  1865,  revised  and  com- 
pleted by  Filippo  Ciccouetti,  Rome,  1872) ; 
Futis ;  Clc'ment,  Mus.  culebres,  434 

PACIUS,  FRIEDRICH,  born  in  Ham- 
burg, Marcb  19,  1809,  died  at  Helsingfors, 
Finland,  March  19,  1889.  Virtuoso  on  the 
violin,  pupil  of  Spohr  ;  from  1834  music 
director  at  the  University  of  Helsingfors. 
He  was  author  of  the  Finnish  national  air, 
"  Our  Country,"  and  other  songs  popular  in 
Finland  and  Sweden.  Works :  Kouig 
Karl's  Jagd,  opera  ;  Loreley,  Finnish  ojiera, 
Helsingfors,  April,  1887  ;  Songs. 

PADLOCK  QUINTET.  See  Zauberflote. 
PAER,  FERDINANDO,  born  in  Parma, 
Itah',  June  1,  1771, 
died  in  Paris,  May 
3,  1839.  Dramatic 
composer ;  studied 
composition  in  his  na- 
tive town  under  an 
organist  and  the  vio- 
linist Ghh-etti.  He 
pursued  his  studies 
with  great  facility, 
and  at  the  age  of  sixteen  stopped  his  lessons 
altogether,  and  began  composing  operas. 
His  first,  an  opera  bufta.  La  locanda  do' 
vagabondi  (Parma,  1789),  showed  decided 
comic  talent ;  the  second,  I  pretendenti 
bui-lati,  although  wTitten  before  he  was 
seventeen,  contains  some  of  the  best  music 
he  ever  wrote.  It  was  intended  for,  and 
given  at,  an  amateur  theatre,  but  its  success 
was  soon  noised  abroad.  During  the  next 
ten  years  Paor  wrote  twenty  operas,  given, 
with  almost  invariable  success,  at  Venice, 
Rome,  Naples,  Florence,  Milan,  Bologna, 
and  Padua.  In  1791  he  became  maestro  di 
cajjpella  at  Venice,  where  he  composed  with 
the  greatest  industry,  leading  the  while  a 
dissolute  life  and  ending  by  marrying  the 


--^ 


noted  singer,  Francesca  Riccardi,  from 
whom  he  afterwards  separated.  During 
this  period  he  founded  his  style  on  Cima- 
I'osa,  Paisiello,  and  Guglielmi.  In  1797  he 
was  called  to  Vienna,  where  Mozart's  music 
made  a  strong  impression  upon  him,  and  a 
consequent  modification  in  his  own  style 
soon  became  apparent.  His  harmony  grew 
more  vigorous,  his  instrumentation  richer, 
and  his  modulation  more  varied.  I  fuoru- 
sciti  di  Firenze  (Vienna,  1800)  marked  the 
beginning  of  his  second  manner.  In  1801 
the  Elector  of  Saxony  invited  him  to  Dres- 
den to  replace  Naumann,  deceased,  as  Ka- 
liellmeister.  Here  Paer  composed  several 
operas  with  un\vonted  care,  and  his  finest 
works  belong  to  this  period  of  his  life.  In 
180G  he  followed  Napoleon  to  Warsaw  and 
Posen,  and  in  1807  was  appointed  his  mai- 
tre  de  chapelle,  and  settled  permanently 
in  Paris.  In  1812  he  succeeded  Spontiui 
at  the  Thi'iUre  Italien,  where  he  remained 
until  1827,  Rossini  being  his  associate  from 
1824  to  1826.  In  these  years  he  wrote  eight 
operas,  none  of  which  made  any  decided 
success.  In  1831  he  was  admitted  to  the 
Academic,  and  in  1832  was  made  director 
of  the  King's  chamber  music.  As  a  man, 
PaOr  was  of  the  loosest  morals,  and  he  had 
an  immeasurable  love  for  intrigue.  As  a  com- 
poser, he  is  one  of  the  most  important  rep- 
resentatives of  Italian  opera  at  the  close  of 
the  eighteenth  century.  His  melodic  power 
was  great,  and  his  mastery  of  the  simpler 
forms  of  comj)osition  comijlete.  His  comic 
gift  was  remarkable,  but  he  was  almost  to- 
tally lacking  in  pathos  and  earnestness. 
His  best  work,  upon  the  whole,  is  jjrobably 
Camilla,  ossia  il  sotten-aueo. 

Works  :  I.  Operas  :  La  locanda  de'  vaga- 
bondi, Parma,  1789  ;  Iprelendenti  burlati, 
ib.,  1790  ;  Circe,  Venice,  1791 ;  Said,  ossia 
il  seraglio,  ib.,  1792  ;  L'  oro  fa  tutto,  Milan, 
1793,  and  Dresden,  1795  ;  I  molinari,  Ven- 
ice, 1793  ;  Laodicea,  Padua,  1793  ;  II  tempo 
fa  giustizia  a  tutti,  ossia  1'  astuzie  amorose, 
Pavia,  1794  ;  Idomeneo,  Florence,  1794  ; 
Una  in  bene  ed  una  in  male,  Rome,  1794, 


C2 


PAGANINI 


and  Dresden  (in  German,  as  Niclit  gelungen 
und  docb  gelungen),  1802  ;  H  matrimonio 
improvviso,  Vienna,  1794  ;  L'  amante  servi- 
tore,  Venice,  1795  ;  La  Rossana,  Milan,  Jan. 
31,  1795  ;  L'  orfana  riconosciuta,  Florence, 
1795 ;  Ero  e  Leandro,  Naples,  1795  ;  Tamer- 
lano,  Milan,  1796  ;  I  due  sordi,  Venice,  1796  : 
Sofonisba,  Bologna,  1796,  and  Dresden, 
1808  ;  Griselda,  ossia  la  virttial  cimeuto,  Par- 
ma, 1796  ;  L' iutrigo  amoroso,  Venice,  179G  ; 
La  testa  risealdata,  ib.,  1796  ;  Cinna,  Padua, 
1797  ;  II  priucipe  di  Taranto,  Parma  and 
Milan,  1797  ;  II  nuovo  Figaro,  Parma,1797  ; 
La  sonnambula,  Venice,  1797 ;  11  fanatico 
in  berliua,  Vienna,  1797;  Pirro,  ib.,  1798; 
Poco  ma  bene,  ib.,  1798  ;  II  morte  vivo,  ib., 
1799  ;  Le  donne  cambiate,  ossia  il  calzolajo, 
ib.,  1800  ;  I  fuorusciti  di  Firenze,  ib.,  1800  ; 
Camilla,  ossia  il  sotterraneo,  ib.,  1801  ;  Gi- 
nevra  degli  Almieri,  ossia  la  peste  di  Fi- 
renze, Dresden,  1802  ;  Sargino,  ossia  1'  al- 
lievo  deir  amore,  ib.,  1803  ;  Tutto  il  male 
vien  dal  buco,  Venice,  1804  ;  II  maniscalco, 
Padua,  1804  ;  Leonora,  ossia  1'  amore  conju- 
gale,  Dresden,  1805  ;  Achille,  ib.,  1806  ; 
Nunia  Pompilio,  Paris,  Theatre  de  la  Cour, 
1808  ;  Cleopatra,  ib.,  ib.,  1809  ;  Dklone 
abbandonata,  ib.,  ib.,  1810  ;  I  baccanti,  ib., 
ib.,  about  1811  ;  L'oriflamme  (with  Berton, 
Kreutzer,  and  Mehul),  ib.,  Academie  Impe- 
riale  de  Musique,  Jan.  31,  1814  ;  L'eroismo 
in  amore,  Milan,  1816  ;  La  primavera  felice, 
Paris,  July  6,  1816  ;  Agnese,  ib.,  July  24, 
1819  ;  La  gazza  ladra  (not  performed,  writ- 
ten about  1820)  ;  Le  maitre  de  cbapelle, 
Paris,  Theatre  Feydeau,  March  29,  1821  ; 
Blanche  de  Provence  (with  Berton,  Cheru- 
bini,  and  Kreutzer) ;  Olindo  e  Sofronia  (un- 
finished, written  about  1824)  ;  La  marquise 
de  Brinvilliers  (with  Auber,  Batton,  Berton, 
Blangini,  Boieldieu,  Carafa,  Cherubini,  and 
Herold),  Paris,  Ojjcra  Comique,  Oct.  31, 
1831;  Un  caprice  de  femme,  Paris,  1834. 

U.  Oratorios  :  II  San  Se^jolcro,  Vienna, 
1803  ;  Utrioufo  dellaChiesa,  Parma,  1804  ; 
La  Passione  de  Giesti-Cristo,  1810.  m. 
Cantatas :  II  Prometeo,  with  orchestra ; 
Bacco  ed  Ai-iana,  do.  ;  La  conversazione  ar- 


monica,  do. ;  Europa  in  Creta,  voice  and  or- 
chestra ;  Eloisa  ed  Abelardo,  two  voices 
with  pianoforte  ;  Diana  ed  Endimione,  do.  ; 
L'  amor  timido,  voice  with  pianoforte  ; 
L'  addio  di  Ettore,  two  voices  with  piano- 
forte ;  Ulisse  e  Penelope,  two  voices  and 
orchestra  (in  score,  Launer,  Paris)  ;  Saffo, 
voice  with  orchestra  (ib.)  ;  2  serenades  for 
three  and  four  voices  with  accompaniment 
of  harp  or  pianoforte,  horn,  violoncello,  and 
contrabass  ;  6  duets  for  voices  (Artaria,  Vi- 
enna) ;  6  little  Italian  duets  for  voices,  in 
two  suites  (Paris) ;  42  Italian  ariettas  for 
one  voice  with  pianoforte  ;  6  cavatinas  of 
Metastasio  for  do.  (Mollo,  Vienna) ;  12 
French  romances  with  pianoforte  ;  2  collec- 
tions of  exercises  for  soprano  and  tenor 
(Paris,  1821,  1825) ;  4  motets  (O  salutaris 
Hostia),  three  voices  and  orchestra  (Petit, 
Paris)  ;  Oflertory  for  chorus  (Janet,  Paris)  ; 
Ave  Regina  coeli,  two  voices  and  organ 
(Porro,  Paris).  TV.  Instrumental  music : 
Symphonie  bacchante  for  grand  orchestra 
(Nadermann,  Paris)  ;  Vive  Henri  IV.,  varia- 
tions for  gi-and  orchestra  (ib.)  ;  Grandes 
marches  mihtaires,  Nos.  I.,  IL,  DI.,  IV.  (Janet, 
Paris) ;  6  waltzes  for  sis-  and  ten-part  wind 
band  (ib.)  ;  La  douce  victoire,  fantaisio  for 
pianoforte,  two  flutes,  two  horns,  and  bas- 
soon (Schoenenberger,  Paris) ;  ^,^ 
3  gi'and  sonatas  for  the  piano-  Y  J  '* 
forte,     violin    obligato,     and  (XJT' ,, 

violoncello  ad  libitum  (Janet,  Paris) ;  and 
many  themes  with  variations  for  pianoforte. 
— Thomas  Masse  and  Antony  Deschamps, 
Paer  et  Rossini  (Pari.?,  1820)  ;  Fetis  ;  Cle- 
ment, Mus.  celebres,  289  ;  Carafa  de  Colo- 
brano,  Funerailles  de  M.  Paer :  Discours 
(Paris,  1839). 

PAESIELLO.     See  Paisiello. 

PAGANINI,  ERCOLE,  born  at  Ferrara 
about  1770,  died  (?).  Dramatic  conqjoser, 
settled  in  Milan  during  the  first  years  of 
the  19th  century.  Works — Operas  :  La 
conquista  del  Messico,  Milan,  1808  ;  Le  ri- 
vali  generose,  ib.,  1809 ;  I  filosofi  al  cimento, 
ib.,  1810;  Cesare  in  Egitto ;  Demetrio  a 
Rodi. — Futis. 


68 


PAGANINI 


PAGANINI,  NICC0L6,  born  in  Genoa, 
Oct.  27,  1782,  died  at  Nice,  May  27,  1840. 

The  father  of 
this  most  famous 
of  all  violin  vir- 
tuosi was  a  smaU 
tradesman,  with 
no  musical  cult- 
ure, but  a  decid- 
ed love  for  the 
art ;  as  soon  as  he 
perceived  his 
son's  marked 
musical  gift,  he 
gave  him  regular  instruction  on  the  mando- 
lin, which  instrument  he  played  himself. 
But  he  soon  turned  him  over  to  abler 
teachers,  fii'st  to  G.  Sei-vetto,  and  then  to 
G.  Costa,  the  Genoese  maestro  di  cappella, 
with  both  of  whom  the  young  Niccol5 
studied  the  violin.  At  the  age  of  eight 
the  boy's  proficiency  was  ab-eady  remark- 
able, and  he  had  composed  a  sonata  for  his 
instrument.  His  first  public  appearance 
was  in  1793  in  Genoa,  he  playing  variations 
on  La  carmagnole  with  gi'eat  success.  Ev- 
ery Sunday,  too,  he  would  play  a  violin  con- 
certo in  church.  About  1795  he  was  taken 
to  Parma  to  study  under  Alessandro  Eolla, 
who  gave  him  some  lessons  ;  he  studied 
also  for  some  time  under  Ghiretti,  who  had 
been  Paer's  teacher.  In  after-life  Pagauiui 
always  denied  having  taken  lessons  from 
Eolla,  but  it  is  almost  certain  that  he  really 
did.  But,  whoever  his  teachers  were,  he 
began  so  soon  to  explore  new  paths  in  vio- 
lin plaj-ing  that  he  must  be  considered  as  to 
a  great  extent  self-taught.  On  his  return 
to  Genoa  he  composed  his  first  studies, 
which  contained  then  unheard-of  difiiculties, 
and  gave  himself  iip  to  the  most  arduous 
practising.  His  father's  strict  control  was 
exceedingly  ii'ksome  to  him,  and  when  he 
was  allowed  to  go  to  Lucca  to  play  at  a 
musical  festival  in  November,  1798  (his 
first  journey  alone),  he  did  not  return  to 
his  family,  but  made  an  independent  tour 
through  Pisa  and  some  other  towns.     He 


was  addicted  to  all  sorts  of  dissipation, 
although  only  sixteen ;  fits  of  illness, 
brought  on  by  his  habits,  would  interrupt 
his  practice  and  his  appearances  in  public, 
and  his  youthful  excesses  undoubtedly  laid 
the  foundation  of  his  general  ill-health  in 
later  life.  In  Leghorn  he  had  gambled 
away  everything,  even  to  his  violin  ;  and,  to 
enable  him  to  ]Aa.y  at  a  concert,  one  M. 
Levron  lent  him  a  fine  Joseph  Guarnerius, 
which  he  afterwards  presented  to  him,  iu 
delight  at  his  performance.  This  Guarne- 
rius remained  his  favourite  violin  through 
life,  and  he  bequeathed  it  to  the  town  of 
Genoa,  where  it  is  still  kejjt  under  glass  in 
the  Municipal  Palace.  The  painter  Pisani 
also  gave  him  an  admirable  Stradivarius. 
In  1801  Pag.anini  withdrew  to  the  chateau 
of  a  lad}'  of  rank,  where  he  lived  in  retu-e- 
ment  four  years,  practising  the  guitar,  and 
writing  two  sets  of  sonatas  (op.  2  and  3)  for 
guitar  and  violin.  In  1804  he  returned  to 
Genoa,  and  once  more  took  up  violin  prac- 
tice, studying  Locatelli's  "Arte  di  uuova 
modulazione,"  and  other  of  his  studies,  and 
doing  his  best  to  outdo  their  difficulties. 
In  1805  he  set  out  on  fresh  travels,  creat- 
ing immense  enthusiasm  wherever  he  ap- 
peared. At  Lucca,  where  he  lived  until 
1808,  as  court  violinist,  he  began  hia  fa- 
mous performances  on  the  G-string  alone. 
After  1808  he  never  accejjted  another  regu- 
lar position,  but  led  a  roving  life,  full  of 
adventures,  and  not  always  devoid  of  danger 
from  outraged  husbands  and  fathers,  and 
audiences  with  whom  he  allowed  himself  to 
take  undue  Hberties.  But  liis  artistic  suc- 
cess was  constant ;  in  Jlilan  he  gave  in  1813 
thirty-seven  concerts.  He  came  out  victor 
in  two  violin  contests — with  Lafont  in  Mil- 
an in  1816,  and  with  Lipinski  at  Piacenza 
in  1817.  Pope  Leo  XH.  conferred  on  him, 
in  1827,  the  order  of  the  Golden  Spur. 
His  first  trip  outside  of  Italy  was  in  1828, 
when  (March  9)  he  gave  his  first  concei-t  in 
Vienna  ;  his  reception  was  unexampled,  the 
city  giving  him  the  gi'and  gold  medal  of 
St.  Salvator,  and  the  Emperor  making  him 


M 


PAGANINI 


court  virtuoso.  From  Vienna  he  continued 
his  tour  through  several  cities,  playing  in 
March,  1829,  for  the  first  time  in  Berlin. 
On  March  9,  1831,  he  ajipeared  in  Paris 
and  on  June  3  in  London.  His  concerts 
in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  during  this 
visit,  and  two  more  he  made  in  the  follow- 
ing year,  wei-e  so  successful,  financially,  that 
in  1832  he  returned  to  the  Continent  with 
a  large  fortune,  mainly  invested  in  landed 
estates.  He  spent  the  winter  of  1833  in 
Paris,  and  in  January,  1831,  asked  Berlioz 


Paganini   in  1831. 

to  write  a  viola  concerto  for  him,  which  re- 
quest resulted  in  the  composition  of  Harold 
en  Italic.  He  passed  most  of  the  next  two 
years  at  the  Villa  Gaiona,  near  Parma.  But 
his  bent  for  making  money  would  not  let 
him  rest  long  in  retirement.  In  1836  he  was 
induced  to  embark  in  a  dubious  speculation 
in  Paris,  the  Casino  Paganini,  a  fashionable 
club-house,  ostensibly  for  concerts,  but 
really  chiefly  for  gambling.  But  the  gam- 
bling license  was  refused,  and  the  concerts 
alone  could  not  float  the  undertaking. 
Paganini  went  to  Paris  to  do  his  best  to 
save  the  enterprise  by  appearing  at  the  con- 


certs, but  he  was  too  ill  to  play.  The  com- 
pany went  into  bankruptcy,  and  his  person- 
al loss  was  50,000  francs.  He  staid  in  Paris 
during  the  winter  of  1838,  and  it  was  in 
this  year  that  he  gave  Berlioz  the  so  much 
talked  of  present  of  20,000  francs  as  a 
mark  of  admiration  for  his  Symphonic  fan- 
tastique.  But  this  apparent  piece  of  munifi- 
cence was  in  reality  by  no  means  what  the 
world  took  it  to  be  for  many  years.  Fer- 
dinand Hiller  relates,  on  the  authority  of 
Franz  Liszt,  who  was  in  Paris  at  the  time, 
and  was  intimate  with  all  the  parties  to  the 
transaction,  that  the  splendid  gift  was  a 
mere  advertising  dodge,  suggested  by  Jules 
Janin  to  Paganini,  whose  well-known  miser- 
liness had  made  him  unpopular  with  the 
Parisian  public,  and  that  the  20,000  francs 
did  not  even  come  out  of  Paganini's  purse. 
But  Berlioz  never  knew  the  truth  about  the 
matter,  and  always  supposed  the  gift  to  be 
from  Paganini  himself.  Paganini  was,  and 
always  had  been,  miserly  and  grasping  in 
money  matters,  and  it  was  this  insatiable 
thirst  for  money  which  probably  lay  at  the 
bottom  of  his  ruinous  passion  for  gambling. 
His  chagrin  at  the  failure  of  the  Casino  ag- 
gravated the  laryngeal  phthisis  from  which 
he  had  been  suffering  for  some  time  ;  ho 
stayed  a  few  months  at  the  house  of  a 
friend  in  Marseilles,  but,  getting  no  relief, 
went  to  Nice  for  the  winter  of  1839,  and 
died  there  in  the  following  May.  Paganini's 
genius  was  ejsoch-making  in  the  history  of 
violin-playing.  Both  his  technique  and  his 
whole  style  of  performance  were  original. 
But  marvellous  and  novel  as  were  his  feats 
of  virtuosity,  his  immense  hold  upon  his 
audiences  was  chiefly  due  to  his  impressive 
individuality  and  the  passionate  warmth  of 
his  playing.  He  was  a  romantic  virtuoso 
rather  than  a  classical  player,  and  he  never 
attained  to  that  highest  distinction  of  the 
violinist,  of  being  a  fine,  or  even  a  good, 
quartet-player.  As  a  composer,  his  reputa- 
tion was  purely  ephemeral,  and  his  once 
famous  violin  caprices  now  live  only  through 
Schumann's    and    Liszt's   pianoforte   tran- 


65 


PAGEN 


scriptions,  works  into  which  the  transcrib- 
ers i)ut  far  more  of  their  own  individuality 
than  they  left  of  Paganini's.  Works : 
Ventiquattro  capricei  per  vioHno  solo,  op. 
1 ;  Sei  sonate  per  vioUno  e  chitarra,  op.  2  ; 
do.,  op.  3  ;  Tre  gran  quartetti  a  violin o, 
viola,  chitarra  e  violoncello,  op.  4  and  5  ; 
Concerto  in  E-flat  (solo-part  in  D,  for  violin 
tuned  a  semitone  higher  than  usual),  op.  G  ; 
do.  in  B  minor  (rondo  a  la  clochette),  op.  7  ; 
Le  streghe,  variations  on  a  theme  by  Simon 
Mayr,  op.  8;  Variations  on  "God  save 
the  King,"  op.  9  ;  II  camevale  di  Venezia, 
bm-lesque  variations  on  a  popular  air,  oj). 
10 ;  Perpetuum  mobile,  op.  11  ;  Variations 
on  "Non  piii  mesta,"  op.  12;  do.  on  "Di 
tanti  palpiti,"  op.  13  ;  CO  do.,  in  all  keys, 
on  the  air  "  Barucaba."     Only  the  first  five 

K 


opus  numbers  were  pubhshed  during  his 
life-time  ;  other  compositions  ascribed  to 
him  ai-e  spurious. — M.  Schottky,  Paganini's 
Leben  und  Treiben  als  Kunstler  und  als 
Mensch  (Prague,  1830  ;  translation  by  Lu- 
dolf  Vinata,  Hamburg) ;  George  Harris, 
Pagiinini  in  seinem  Reisewagen  und  Zim- 
mer,  etc.  (Vierweg,  Brunswick,  1830)  ;  II- 
menau,  Leben,  Charakter,  und  Kunst  dcs 
Eitter  N.  P.  (1830)  ;  M.  J.  Imbert  de  la 
Phalcque,  Notice  sur  .  .  .  N.  P.  (Paris) ; 
Gvihr,  Ubcr  Paganini's  Kunst  die  Violine  zu 
spielen  (1829,  English  translation  by  Sibilla 
Novello,  London,  1831) ;  G.  E.  Anders,  Pa- 
ganini,  sa  vie,  sa  personne  et  quelques  mots 
sur  son  secret  (Delaun.ay,  Paris,  1831) ;  Fr. 
FayoUe,  Paganini  et  de  Bcriot  (Paiis,  1831) ; 
Bennati,  Notice  physiologique  sur  .  .  . 
Paganini  (read  before  the  Acadumie  Royale 
des  Sciences,  Paris,  1831  ;Kevuemusicale,  xi. 
113-llG)  ;  Giancarlo  Conestabile,  Vita  di  N. 
P.  da  Genova  (Pei-ugia,  1851) ;  F.  J.  Futis, 
Notice  biographique  sur  N.  P.  (Paris,  1851 ; 
EngUsh  translation  by  Wellington  Guern- 
sey, Loudon,  1852)  ;  Niccolo  Paganini,  etc.. 


raconto  storico  di  Oreste  Bruni  (Florence, 
1873) ;  Elise  Polko,  N.  P.  und  die  Geigen- 
bauer  (Leipsic,  1875). 

PAGEN  UND  DEE  KONIGSTOCHTEE, 
VOM,  four  ballads  for  soli,  chorus,  and 
orchestra,  by  E.  Geibel,  music  by  Schu- 
mann, op.  110,  first  performed  at  Diissel- 
dorf,  Dec.  2,  1852.  Characters  repre- 
sented :  Prinzess,  KOnigin,  and  Nixe  (S.)  ; 
Alto  solo ;  Page  (T.)  ;  KOnig,  Meermann, 
and  Sj)ielmann  (B.).  This  work  was  given 
in  Leipsic,  Nov.  19,  18G1.  Published  by 
Eieter-Biedermanu  (Leij^sic  and  Wiuter- 
thur,  1858).  Posthumous  works.  No.  5. 
By  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Schumann  Werke, 
Serie  ix..  No.  13.— Neue  Zeitschr.,  liii.  27. 

PAGLIAEDI,  GIOVANNI  IIAEIA,  Flor- 
entine dramatic  composer,  maestro  di  caii- 
pella  to  the  Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany  dur- 
ing the  second  half  of  the  17th  century. 
Works — Operas  :  Caligula  delirante,  Venice, 
1C72  ;  Lisimacco,  ib.,  1G73  ;  Numa  Pompi- 
lio,  ib.,  1G74. 

PAINE,  JOHN  KNOWLES,  born  in 
Portland,  Maine, 
Jan.  9,  1839,  still 
living,  1890.  His 
first  musical  in- 
stniction  was  in 
his  native  town 
from  H.  Kotzsch- 
mar.  In  1858  he 
went  to  Berlin, 
where  ho  studied 
the  organ  and 
counterjjoint  under  Haupt,  singing  under 
Fischer,  and  instrumentation  under  Wic- 
precht  until  18G1,  when  he  retui-ned  to  the 
United  States.  After  giving  organ  concerts 
in  several  cities  he  settled  in  Boston,  where 
he  held  the  position  of  organist  at  the  West 
Church,  Cambridge  Street,  for  about  a  year. 
In  18G2  he  was  engaged  as  music  teacher 
at  Harvard  University,  and  organist  at  Ap- 
pleton  Chapel  in  Cambridge,  where  he  has 
lived  ever  since.  In  187G  he  was  invested 
with  a  fuU  professorship  of  music  at  Har- 
vard, the  first  chair  of  the  soii  created  at 


66 


PAINE 


an  American  university.  Paine's  reputation 
as  an  organist  was  exceedingly  brilliant 
during  the  first  six  or  eight  years  after  bis 
return  from  Germany,  his  taste  and  style 
of  2)laying  placing  him  almost  alone  in  this 
country  as  a  follower  of  the  extreme  classic 
school ;  but  of  late  years  be  has  jDlayed 
but  little  in  public,  or  even  in  church,  and 
is  known  to-day  principally,  if  not  solely, 
as  a  composer  and  teacher  of  composition. 
As  a  composer  he  baa  admittedly  belt!  the 
first  rank  in  America  for  some  years.  His 
musical  education  was  very  thorough,  and 
entirely  classic  in  its  tendency  ;  indeed,  be 
may  be  said  to  have  been  brought  up  on 
Bach.  His  earlier  works,  too,  are  wholly 
of  the  classic  type,  and  show  a  rare  mas- 
tery over  musical  form.  But  after  his  Mass, 
op.  10,  he  began  to  strike  out  more  and 
more  plainly  in  the  modern  romantic  direc- 
tion, and  is  now  to  be  classed  with  the  ro- 
manticists. Works  :  I.  For  voices  with 
orchestra :  Domine  salvum  fac,  for  male 
chorus  and  orchestra,  op.  8,  given  at  the 
inauguration  of  President  Hill,  of  Harvard 
University,  Cambridge,  March  4,  1SG3,  and 
at  that  of  President  Eliot,  ib.,  Oct.  19, 
18G9  (MS.) ;  Mass  in  D,  for  soli,  chorus,  and 
orch.,  op.  10,  given  under  the  composer's 
direction,  Berlin,  Singakademie,  February, 
1SG7  (pianoforte  score,  New  York,  Schir- 
mer) ;  Saint  Peter,  oratorio,  op.  20,  Port- 
land, Me.,  May,  1873  (pianoforte  score, 
Boston,  Ditson,  1872) ;  Centennial  Hymn, 
in  D,  for  chorus  and  orch.,  op.  27,  given  in 
Philadelphia,  at  the  opening  of  the  Centen- 
nial Exposition,  May  10,  1876  (Boston,  Dit- 
son) ;  Music  to  the  (Edipus  Tyrannus  of 
Sophocles,  for  male  voices  and  orch.,  op. 
35,  Cambridge,  Sanders  Theatre,   May  17, 

1881  (Boston,  Schmidt);  The  Bealm  of 
Fancy,  cantata  for  soprano  solo,  chorus,  and 
orch.,  op.  3G,  Boston,  Music  Hall,  1882 
(Boston,  Schmidt)  ;  Phcehus,  arise,  for  tenor 
solo,   male   chorus,  and  orch.,  op.  37,  ib., 

1882  (Boston,  Schmidt)  ;  The  Nativity,  can- 
tata for  soli,  chorus,  and  orch.,  op.  38,  Bos- 
ton,  Music  Hall,   1883  (Boston,  Schmidt) ; 


Song  of  Promise,  do.  for  soprano,  chorus, 
and  orch.,  op.  43,  Cincinnati  May  Festival, 
1888  (Cincinnati,  John  Chiu'ch  &  Co.) ; 
Harvard  Commencement  Hymn  ;  Mirabel, 
romantic  opera  in  4  acta  (MS.,  not  yet  fin- 
ished). H.  For  orchestra  :  Symphony  No. 
1,  in  C  minor,  op.  23,  Boston,  Music  Hall, 
Thomas  orchestra,  Jan.  2G,  187G  (MS.)  ; 
Overture  to  Shakespeare's  "  As  You  Like  It," 
in  F,  Cambridge,  Sanders  Theatre,  Thomas 
orchestra,  Nov.  21,  1878  (MS.) ;  Symphonic 
poem  on  Shakespeare's  Tempest,  in  D  minor, 
op.  31,  New  York,  October,  1877  (MS.)  ; 
Duo  concertante  for  violin  and  violoncello, 
with  orch.,  in  A,  op.  33,  Cambridge,  San- 
ders Theatre,  Thomas  orchestra,  April,  1878 
(MS.) ;  Sp)ring  symphony.  No.  2,  in  A,  op. 
34,  Cambridge,  Sanders  Theatre,  March, 
1880  (Hamburg,  Schmidt  &  Cranz)  ;  An 
Island  Fantasy,  symphonic  poem  in  G-sharp 
minor  and  A-flat  major,  op.  44,  Boston, 
Symphony  Orchestra,  April,  1888  (MS.)  ; 
HI.  Songs  and  part-songs  :  Part-songs  and 
motets,  op.  14,  IG,  18  (MS.)  ;  4  songs,  with 
pianoforte,  op.  29  (Boston,  Ditson) ;  3 
songs,  with  do.,  op.  40  (ib.,  Schmidt).  FV. 
Chamber  music  :  String  quartet  in  D,  op.  5 
(MS.) ;  Trio  for  pianoforte,  violin,  and  vio- 
loncello, in  D  minor,  op.  22  (MS.) ;  Larghetto 
and  scherzo  for  do.,  in  B-flat,  op.  32  (MS.)  ; 
Sonata  for  pianoforte  and  violin,  in  B  mi- 
nor, oj).  24  (MS.) ;  Eomanza  and  scherzo 
for  pianoforte  and  violoncello,  op.  30  (MS.). 
V.  For  pianoforte  :  Sonata  No.  1,  in  A  mi- 
nor, op.  1  (MS.)  ;  do.  No.  2,  in  F-sharp 
minor,  op.  4  (MS.) ;  Christmas  gift,  in  D, 
op.  7  (Boston,  Ditson) ;  Funeral  March  for 
Abraham  Lincoln,  in  B-flat  minor,  op.  9 
(New  York,  Schirmer) ;  4  Charakterstiicke, 
op.  11  (Leipsic,  Forberg) ;  Komance  in  C 
minor,  op.  12  (Boston,  Schmidt)  ;  4  charac- 
ter pieces,  op.  25  (ib.,  Ditson) ;  In  the  coun- 
try, 12  pieces,  op.  2G  (ib.,  ib.)  ;  Komauco 
in  D-flat,  op.  39  (ib.,  ib.)  ;  3  pieces,  op.  41 
(ib.,  Schmidt) ;  Nocturne  in  B-flat,  op.  45 
(MS.).  VI.  For  organ  :  Concert  variations 
on  the  Austrian  Hymn,  in  F,  and  on  The 
Star-spangled  Banner,  in  C,  op.  3  (Boston, 


67 


PAISIELLO 


Ditson) ;  Fantasia  in  F,  and  double  fugue 
on  God  Save  the  Queen,  op.  6  (MS.)  ;  Fan- 
tasia and  fugue  in  E  juinor,  and  Fantasia 
oil  Ein'  feste  Burg,  op.  13  (MS.) ;  Miscel- 
laneous pieces,  op.  17,  19  (MS.). 

PAISIELLO  (Paesiello),  GIOVANNI, 
bom  at  Taranto, 
Italy,  May  9, 1741, 
died  in  Naples, 
June  5,  1815. 
Dramatic  com- 
poser, son  of  a  vet- 
erinary surgeon, 
who  sent  him, 
when  five  years 
old,  to  the  Jesuit 
school  at  Taranto. 
The  beauty  of  his  voice  attracted  the  no- 
tice of  the  cavaliere  Guarducci,  maestro  di 
ca23pella  at  the  Capuchiu  church,  who  ad- 
vised his  parents  to  send  him  to  Najsles  to 
be  educated  as  a  musician.  After  he  had 
been  taught  the  elements  of  music  by  one 
Carlo  Kesta,  a  priest,  his  father  took  him, 
in  Maj',  1754,  to  Naples,  where  he  studied 
at  the  Conservatorio  di  S.  Onofrio,  under 
Durante,  Cotumacci,  and  Abos.  During 
his  live  years  there  he  devoted  himself 
to  church  music,  and  continued  writing 
masses,  motets,  and  oratorios  for  four  years 
more.  But  in  17G3  he  wrote  a  dramatic 
intermezzo  which  showed  so  much  dra- 
matic talent  that  he  was  invited  to  Bologna 
to  write  a  comic  opera,  La  pupUla,  ossia 
il  mondo  al  rovescio  (17G4).  The  next 
twelve  years  were  an  almost  unbroken 
series  of  successes  at  Modena,  Parma,  Ven- 
ice, Kome  (where  he  wrote  his  once  so  fa- 
mous H  marchese  di  Tuhpano),  and  Naples, 
where  he  sustained  successfully  a  brisk 
rivalry  with  Piccinni  and,  afterwards,  with 
Cimarosa.  In  this  Paisiello  did  not  depend 
upon  his  genius  alone,  as  he  might  have 
done,  for  the  success  of  his  L'  idolo  ciuese 
(17C9)  was  fully  equal  to  that  of  any  work 
of  his  rivals  at  that  time  ;  he  did  not  dis- 
dain to  have  recourse  often  to  very  shabby 
intrigues,   jealousy    and    unscrupulouaness 


being  marked  traits  in  his  character.  In 
1776  he  went  to  St.  Petersburg,  on  invita- 
tion of  the  Empress  Catherine.  He  stayed 
eight  yeai-s  in  Russia,  being  paid  a  royal 
salary,  and  writing  some  ten  ojjeras,  of 
which  the  most  noteworthy  is  II  barbiere 
di  Siviglia.  In  1784  he  returned  to  Italy, 
stopjjing  a  while  on  his  way  at  Vienna, 
where  he  wrote  II  ri;  Teodoro  and  twelve 
symphonies  for  Joseph  11.  Appointed 
court  maestro  di  cajjpella  by  Ferdinand  IV. 
of  Naples,  the  absence  of  Cimarosa  and 
Guglielmi  left  him  there  without  a  rival, 
and  during  the  thirteen  years  he  remained 
at  his  post  (refusing  advantageous  offers 
from  Berlin  in  1788,  and  Russia  and  Lon- 
don in  1790)  he  wrote  some  of  his  best  and 
most  successful  scores,  such  as  I  zingari  in 
fiera,  Nina,  o  la  pazza  per  amore,  and  La 
molinara.  In  1797,  on  invitation  of  Napo- 
leon, he  competed  successfullj-  with  Cheru- 
bini  for  the  composition  of  a  funeral  march 
for  General  Hoche.  Bonaparte's  decision 
on  this  occasion  spoke  more  for  his  well- 
known  love  for  Paisiello's  music  than  for 
his  ai-tistic  discrimination.  During  the  rev- 
olution of  1799  Paisiello  adopted  republi- 
can principles,  which  ho  was  quick  enough 
to  repudiate  at  the  subsequent  restoration  of 
Ferdinand  IV.,  although  it  took  him  a  good 
two  years  of  scheming  to  regain  the  king's 
favour,  and  his  former  position.  In  1802 
he  went  to  Paris  to  organize  and  direct 
the  chapel  of  the  First  Consul.  He  was  so 
munificently  treated  as  to  excite  the  jeal- 
ousy of  French  musicians,  notably  Mehul 
and  Cherubini,  whom  he  furthermore  en- 
raged by  sjjitefuUy  using  all  his  patronage 
to  favour  their  rivals.  While  in  Paris  he 
wi-ote  chiefly  church  music  ;  in  1803,  how- 
ever, he  produced  an  oj)era,  Pomone,  but 
with  such  ill-success  that  he  asked  leave  to 
return  to  Naples  on  the  plea  of  his  wife's 
want  of  health.  This  permission  was 
granted  him  next  year,  and  he  accordingly 
returned  to  his  old  post,  endowed  with  a 
handsome  pension,  after  appointing  Losu- 
eur  (to  general  sui-prise)  as  his  successor 


G3 


PAISIELLO 


at  Paris.  In  Naples  he  enjoj'ed  the  favour 
of  Joseph  Bonaparte  and  Murat,  but  on 
the  return  of  the  Bourbons  lost  his  pen- 
sions, retaining  only  his  salary  at  the  Royal 
Chapel.  The  anxiety  at  this  sudden  down- 
fall of  his  fortune  undermined  his  health, 
which  received  a  fiu-ther  shock  at  the  death 
of  his  wife  in  181.5.  He  survived  her  only 
a  few  months.  PaisieUo  was  one  of  the 
most  prolific  of  composers  ;  besides  91  ojie- 
ras,  he  wrote  103  masses  and  other  church 
compositions,  and  more  than  50  instrumen- 
tal pieces.  Gifted  neither  with  the  highest 
tragic  nor  comic  power,  he  was  yet  a  master 
of  beautiful,  simple,  and  expressive  melody. 
The  musical  means  he  employed  were  of 
the  simplest,  but  he  knew  how  to  obtain 
singularly  fine  effects  by  them.  He  ab- 
horred showy  vocalization,  and  was  incapa- 
ble of  producing  elaborate  work  of  any 
sort ;  but  few  writers  have  been  so  well 
able  as  he  to  keep  up  the  interest  in  a  mel- 
ody in  spite  of  frequent  repetitions  of  the 
same  phrase,  without  change  or  ornament. 
His  operas  are  now  wholly  out  of  date,  yet 
the  student  can  probably  find  in  them  more 
food  for  thoughtful  study  than  in  those  of 
any  other  Italian  dramatic  composer  of  his 
day.     Works : 

I.  Operas  :  La  pupilla,  ossia  il  mondo  al 
rovescio,  Bologna,  17G1  ;  La  madama  hu- 
morista,  Modena,  17G5 ;  Demetrio,  ib., 
1765  ;  Artaserse,  ib.,  1765  ;  I  virtuosi  ridi- 
coli,  Parma,  1765  ;  H  negligente,  ib.,  1765  ; 
I  bagni  di  Albauo,  ib.,  1765  ;  Le  pescatrici, 
Venice,  1765  ;  H  ciarloue,  ib.,  1766  ;  II 
marchese  di  Tulipano,  Rome,  1766  ;  La  ve- 
dova  di  bel  genio,  Naples,  1766  ;  L'  amore 
in  ballo,  Venice,  1766;  L'  imbroglio  delle 
ragazze,  Naples,  1766  ;  L'  idolo  cinese,  ib., 
1767,  and  Paris,  Academic  Royale  de  Mu- 
sique,  June  10,  1779  ;  Lucio  Papirio  ditta- 
tore,  Naples,  1767  ;  II  furbo  mal  accorto, 
ib.,  1767  ;  L'  OUmpiade,  ib.,  1768 ;  La  ser- 
va  padrona,  ib.,  1769  ;  Andromeda,  Milan, 
about  1770;  Le  nozze  disturbate,  Naples, 
1771 ;  La  somiglianza  dei  nomi,  ib.,  1771  ; 
Gli  scherzi  d'  amore  e  di  fortuna,  ib.,  1771 ; 


L'  innocente  fortunata  (La  semplice  fortuna- 
ta),  Venice,  1772  ;  Le  frame  per  amore,  Na- 
ples, 1772  ;  Le  Dardaue,  ib.,  1772  ;  L'  Arabo 
cortese,  ib.,  about  1773  :  La  contesa  de' 
numi,  ib.,  1773  ;  Semiramide,  Rome,  1773 ; 
Montesuma,  ib.,  1773  ;  II  tamburro  nottur- 
no,  Naples,  1773  (?),  and  Vienna,  May  17, 
177-4  ;  Annibale  in  Italia,  Turin,  1773  ;  I 
filosofi  (perhaps  identical  with  I  Socrati  im- 
maginarj,  q.  v.),  ib.,  1773  ;  II  giocatore,  ib., 
1773  ;  Le   astuzie  amorose,   Naples,  about 

1773  ;  La  discordia  fortunata,  Venice,  1773  ; 
Demnfoonle,  ib.,  1773  ;  II  credulo  deluso, 
Naples,  1774  ;  L'  osteria  di  Marechiaro,  ib., 

1774  ;  La  Frascatana,  Venice,  1774 ;  La 
luna  abitata,  Naples,  about  1775,  and,  as  II 
mondo  della  luua,  Moscow,  1778 ;  Alesmn- 
dro  neir  Indie,  Modena,  about  1775  ;  Don 
Anchise  Campauone,  ossia  gli  amauti  co- 
mici,  Naples,  1775  ;  Don  Chisciotto  della 
Mancia,  ib.,  about,  1775  ;  H  duello  comico, 
ib.,  1775,  and  in  French,  as  Le  duel  co- 
mique,  with  some  numbers  by  Mereaux, 
Paris,  Opera  Comique,  Se2)t.  16,  1776  ;  II 
finto  jjrincipe,  Florence,  1775  ;  La  disfatta 
di  Dario,  Rome,  about  1775  ;  Dal  finto  in 
vero,  Naples,  about  1775  ;  I  Socrati  immagi- 
narj,  ib.,  1775,  Milan,  1783,  and,  as  I  filosofi 
immagiuarj,  St.  Petersburg,  1779 ;  La  tinta 
maga  per  vendetta,  Najiles,  1776 ;  II  gran 
Cid,  Florence,  about  1776 ;  Le  due  con- 
tesse,  Vienna,  Nov.  17,  1776  ;  II  harhiere  di 
Siviglia,  St.  Petersburg,  1776,  and  Paris, 
Tuileries,  July  12,  Theatre  Feydeau,  July 
22,  1789  ;  II  matrimonio  inaspettato,  St. 
Petersburg,  1777  ;  La  finta  amante,  Mohi- 
slaw,  Poland,  1780  ;  L'  amor  contrastato,  St. 
Petersburg,  1780  ;  Achille  in  Sciro,  ib., 
about  1780  ;  Nitleli,  ib.,  1781  ;  Lucinda  ed 
Artemidoro,  ib.,  1782  ;  Alcide  al  bivio,  ib., 
1783 ;  n  r!i  Teodoro  iu  Venezia,  Vienna, 
Aug.  23,  1784 ;  Anligono,  Naples,  1784 ; 
L'  amor  ingegnoso,  Rome,  1785  ;  Ruggiero  e 
Bradamante,  Naples,  1785  ;  La  grotta  di 
Trofonio,  ib.,  1786  ;  Le  gare  generose,  ib., 
1786  ;  Pirro,  ib.,  about  1786  ;  La  lavandaja 
astuta,  Pisa,  1786  ;  Fedra,  Naples,  1788 ; 
L'  impresario  in  angustie,  Florence,  1788  ; 


PAIX 


Catone  in  Utica,  Naples,  1788  ;  La  molinara, 
ib.,  1788,  and  Pai-is,  Sept.  2,  1801 ;  I  zin- 
gari  in  fiera,  Naples,  1789,  and  Paris,  May 
3,  1802  :  II  matrimonio  per  fanatismo,  Na- 
ples, 1789 ;  Nina,  o  la  pazza  per  amore,  Bel- 
videre,  near  Naples,  1789  ;  II  fanatico  in 
berlina  (La  locandiera),  London,  1789,  and 
Najjlcs,  1792  ;  Giimone  Lucinda,  dramatic 
cantata,  Naples,  1789  ;  Zenobia  in  Palmira, 
ib.,  1790  ;  La  modista  raggiratrice,  Milan, 
June  7,  1790,  and,  as  La  scuffiara,  Najiles, 

1792  ;  II  conte  di  Bell'  umoi-e,  Verona,  1791 ; 
n  genio  poetico  appagato,  Naples,  1791 ;  I 
pretendenti  delusi,  Brunswick,  1791  ;  I 
giuochi  d'  Agrigento,  Venice,  1792  ;  II  ri- 
torno  di  Perseo,  Naples,  1792  ;  I  visionari, 
ib.,  1792,  and  in  German,  as  Die  Pbantas- 
ten,  Dresden,   1793  ;  Elfrida,  Naples,  about 

1793  ;  L'  inganuo  felice,  ib.,  1793 ;  I  scbiavi 
per  amore,  ossia  U  jtadrone  generoso  se  buon 
padrone,  Pai-is,  1793  ;  L'  antiquario  bui-lato, 
Bergamo,  1793  ;  H  calzolajo,  Berlin,  1793  ; 
Elvira,  Nai)les,  about  1703  ;  Didone  abban- 
donata,  ib.,  1795  ;  La  Daunia  felico,  Fog- 
gia,  1797  ;  Andromacca,  Naples,  about  1798; 
La  contadina  di  spirito,  ib.,  about  1800  ; 
Zelmira  (not  performed,  written  about 
1800) ;  I^oserjnnc,  Paris,  Opc'ra,  March  30, 
1803;  I  Pittagorici,  Naples,  1807.  The  fol- 
lowing are  doubtful :  Solimanno  ;  La  finta 
giardinicra  ;  Zamora  ;  L'  avaro  punito. 

n.  Chui'ch  music :  La  Passione  di  Gesii 
Cristo,  oratorio,  Warsaw,  1781 ;  Pastorali 
per  il  S.  Natale,  a  canto  e  coro  ;  3  solemn 
masses  for  2  choirs  and  2  orchestras ; 
Itequiem  for  do. ;  Te  Deum  for  do.  (for 
the  coronation  of  Napoleon) ;  Eequiem  for 

4  voices  and  orchestra ;  about  30  masses  for 
do.  ;  Te  Deum  for  do.  ;  4  Dixit,  3  Magnifi- 
cat, Kji-ie,  and  Gloria,  for  do.  ;  2  masses  for 

5  voices ;  2  Dixit  for  do.,  alia  Palestrina  ; 
Miserere  for  do.,  with  violoncello  and  viola  ; 
about  40  motets  with  orchestra,  etc. 

in.  Instrumental :  12  symphonies  for 
orchestra  (dedicated  to 
*,  Jose^jh  n.);  Marche 
funubre  in  memory  of  General  Hoche,  for 
do.  ;  G  concertos  for  pianoforte  ;  12  quar- 


tets for  do.  and  strings  ;  6  do.  for  strings  ; 
Sonata  and  concerto  for  the  harp  ;  2  volumes 
of  sonatas,  caprices,  etc.,  for  pianoforte. 
— Arnold,  Giov.  PaisieUo,  seine  kurze  Biog., 
etc.  (Ei-fui-t,  1810) ;  Biog.  del  regno  di  Na- 
poli,  iii.  ;  Fotis  ;  Gagliardo,  Onori  funebri, 
etc.  (Naj)les,  18 IG)  ;  Le  Sueur,  Notice  sur, 
etc.  (Paris,  181G)  ;  Quatremcre  de  Quincy, 
Notice  historique  (ib.,  1817)  ;  Schizzi,  Delia 
vita  e  degli  studi  di  G.  P.  (Milan,  1833) ; 
Villarosa,  Slemorie  dei  comijositori,  etc. 
(Naples,  1840). 
PAIS,  JAKOB,  born  at  Augsburg  in 
1550,  died  at  Lau- 
ingen,  p  robabl  y 
soon  after  15  9  0. 
Organist  at  Lauin- 
gen,  where  he  pub- 
lished the  foUowiug 
collections  :  E  i  n 
schon  niitz  mid 
gebrouchlich  Orgel- 
Tabulaturbucb,  etc.,  containing  motets  for 
4  to  12  voices  by  famous  composers,  be- 
sides songs,  Passamezzi,  and  other  dances 
(1583) ;  Missa  ad  imitationem  Motettio 
(1584)  ;  Seleetfp,  artificiosro  et  elegantes 
fugte,  etc.  (1587,  1590) ;  Missa  parodia 
Mutetas  (1587)  ;  Thesaurus  motettarum,  22 
motets  by  different  composers  (Strasburg, 
1589) ;  Missa  Helveta,  artificiosa)  et  ele- 
gantes fugce,  etc.  (1590).— Fctis  ;  Gerber  ; 
Mendel. 

PALADILHE,  fiinLE,  born  at  Montpel- 
lier  (Hurault),  June  3, 
1844,  still  hving,  1890. 
Dramatic  composer ; 
entered  when  only 
nine  years  old  the 
Conservatoire,  where 
he  was  pupil  of  Mar- 
montel  on  the  piano- 
forte, of  Benoist  on 
the  organ,  and  of 
Halevy  in  counterpoint.  In  1857  he  won 
the  first  piize  for  pianoforte,  and  in  18G0 
the  organ  prize  and  the  prix  do  Home,  the 
latter   for   the   cantata   Le   czar  Ivan   IV, 


70 


PALESTRINA 


given  at  the  OpC-ra,  18G0,  but  never  j)ub- 
lisbed.  During  his  stay  in  Rome  he  sent 
to  the  lustitut  several  compositions,  in- 
cluding an  Italian  opera  buffa,  a  mass,  and 
orchestral  works,  which  showed  ability. 
On  his  return  to  Paris  he  wrote  his  first 
opera,  Le  passant,  on  Coi^pue's  text,  but 
the  music  was  not  regarded  as  a  success. 
His  Suzanne  was  better  received,  and  his 
Patrie  still  more  favourably  ;  but  his  meth- 
ods are  antiquated  and  he  is  wanting  in  in- 
vention. Legion  of  Honour,  1881.  Works 
— Operas:  Le  passant,  opcra-comique,  one 
act,  given  at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris, 
1872  ;  L'amour  africain,  do.,  two  acts,  ib., 
1875  ;  Suzanne,  do.,  three  acts,  ib.,  1878  ; 
Diana,  do.,  ib.,  1885  ;  Patrie,  grand  opera, 
text  from  Sardou's  drama.  Opera,  Dec.  20, 
1886.  Symphony  for  orchestra,  18G0 ;  6 
melodies  ecossaises  ;  20  melodies,  voice  and 
pianoforte ;  Fragments  symphoniques,  1882 ; 
2  masses  ;  Songs,  etc. — Fetis,  Supplement, 
ii.  29G  ;  Grove. 

PALESTRINA,  GIOVANNI  PIERLUIGI 
DA  (Joannes  Petraloysius  Prteuestinus), 
born  at  Palestrina,  near  Rome,  probably  in 
1514-15,  died  in  Rome,  Feb.  2,  1594.  His 
family  name  was  Sante  ;  in  the  earlier  edi- 
tions of  his  works  he  is  called  either  simply 
Gianetto,  or  Gianetto  with  differently  si^ellcd 
affixes,  such  as  Palestrina,  Pallestrina,  Pales- 
trino,  Palestina,  Pelestrino,  with  or  without 
the  da ;  sometimes,  also,  Jo.  de  Palestina. 
He  is  called  J.  P.  Aloisius  by  his  biographer 
Baini.  The  date  of  his  lairth  has  been  much 
disj)uted,  and  was  formerly  set  at  1524,  but 
the  best  later  authorities  now  agree  that  it 
must  have  been  ten  years  earlier.  He  was 
the  son  of  Pierluigi  and  Maria  (Gismondi) 
Sante,  people  in  a  humble  station.  His 
musical  gift  is  said  to  have  been  first  dis- 
covered by  tlie  maestro  di  cappella  of  Sta. 
Maria  Maggiore,  in  Rome.  It  is  almost 
certain  that  he  was  sent  at  an  early  age  to 
Claude  Goudimel's  music  school,  where  he 
laid  the  foundations  of  his  unsiu-passed 
mastery  in  counterpoint.  The  first  record 
of  his  occupying  an  ofiicial  position  is  his 


succeeding  Francesco  Rosseli  as  maestro  de' 
putti  (master  of  the  boys)  at  the  Cappella 
Giuha,  in  February 
or  March,  1551, 
the  chapter  of  St. 
Peter  conferring 
upon  him  the  title 
of  maestro  della 
cappella  della  Ba- 
silica Vaticana ;  it 
is  estimated  that 
he  began  his  pro- 
fessional career  as 
a  musician  in  1544.  In  1554  was  published 
his  first  book  of  masses,  dedicated  to  Pope 
Julius  HI.  On  Jan.  1,  1555,  he  was  made 
maestro  di  cappella  of  the  Pontifical  Chap- 
el, Giovanni  Animuccia  succeeding  him  at 
his  former  post  at  St.  Peter's.  It  is  evident 
that  his  exceptional  genius  must  have  been 
pretty  well  recognized  at  this  period,  for  the 
jjope  dispensed  him  from  passing  the  strict 
examination  prescribed  in  the  Motu  proprio 
of  Aug.  5,  1553,  for  all  applicants  for  admis- 
sion to  the  Pontifical  Chapel,  and  also  over- 
looked the  regulation  that  all  members  of 
the  chapel  must  be  priests  ;  for  at  that 
time  Palestrina  was  already  married,  and 
had  several  sons.  But  although  these  in- 
fractions of  the  rules  of  the  chapel  were 
winked  at  also  by  Julius's  successor,  Mar- 
cellus  n.,  who  had  been  a  jmtrou  of  Pales- 
trina's  before  his  accession  to  the  Papal 
Chair,  that  stern  reformer  in  church  matters, 
Paul  rV.,  expelled  him  and  two  other  mar- 
ried singers  from  the  chapel,  with  a  very 
small  pension,  July  30,  1555,  so  that  he 
held  the  position  for  only  seven  months. 
It  was,  however,  a  stroke  of  the  irony  of  fate, 
that  Palestrina  should  afterwards  have  been 
a  potent  agent  in  thwarting  one  of  Paul's  most 
cherished  reformatory  measures  :  the  aboli- 
tion of  contrapuntal  chui-ch  music,  and  the 
return  to  the  plain  Gregorian  chant.  On 
Oct.  1, 1555,  Palestrina  was  appointed  maes- 
tro di  cappella  at  San  Giovanni  in  Laterano ; 
but  as  this  post  was  poorly  paid  he  ob- 
tained a  release  from  it,  and  in  1561  the 


71 


PALESTRINA 


appointment  to  the  similar  position  at  Sta. 

Mai-ia  Maggiore.     In  1563  came  the  most 

famous  event  of 
his  Ufe,  the  writ^ 
ing  of  the  Mar- 
cellus  Mass,  and 
with    it  the 


so- 

"  saving 

art    of 

This 

transac- 

which 


called 
of    the 
music." 
whole 
t  i  o  n , 

ended  in  nullify- 
ing, in  so  far  as 
music  itself  was 
concerned,  the  radical  reforms  in  church  mu- 
sic proposed  bj'  Paul  IV.,  and  discussed  at 
gi'eat  length  at  the  Council  of  Trent  (1545- 
63),  has  been  made  the  theme  of  almost  end- 
less romancing.  A  brief  account  of  it  may 
be  found  under  the  heading  3Iissa  Papaj 
Marcelli,  and  a  detailed  one  in  Ambros  (iv., 
7-20).  The  result  to  Palestrina  was  his  be- 
ing made  composer  to  the  Pontifical  Chapel, 
an  honorary  position  which  has  been  held  only 
by  him  and  by  Felice  Anerio.  In  1571,  on 
the  death  of  Auimuccia,  he  was  made  maes- 
tro di  cappella  at  St.  Peter's,  which  i)Ost  he 
held  until  his  death.  Other  suiiplementaiT 
posts  held  by  him  were  those  of  composer 
to  the  Congregazione  del  Oratorio,  founded 
by  S.  Filippo  Neri,  of  maestro  concertatore 
to  Prince  Buoucompagni  in  1581,  and  oc- 
casional teacher  in  G.  M.  Nanini's  music 
Bchool.  Pope  Gregory  XUI.  intrusted  him 
with  the  revision  of  the  Roman  Gradual 
and  Antiphoiial,  an  enormous  task,  in  which 
he  was  assisted  by  his  pupil  Giudetti,  but 
left  unfinished  at  his  death.  In  1585  Pope 
Sixtus  V.  tried  to  reinstate  him  in  his 
former  position  of  maestro  di  cappella  to 
the  Pontifical  Chapel,  but  the  jealous  op- 
position of  the  singers  was  too  energetic  to 
be  overcome.  Palestrina  stands  universally 
accepted  as  the  greatest  genius  not  only  of 
the  "  great "  Roman  contrapuntal  school 
but  of  the  whole  epoch  of  strict  simple  con- 
trapuntal  composition,   which   reached   its 


culmination  in  him.  The  only  two  men 
who  could  in  any  way  dispute  his  suprema- 
cy in  this  style  were  Giovanni  Gabrieli  and 
Orlando  Lasso  ;  but,  making  all  due  allow- 
ance for  the  greatness  of  these  men,  the 
palm  of  superiority  must  still  be  awarded 
to  Palestrina.  The  romantic  legends  that 
grew  up  around  the  nucleus  of  fact  con- 
cerning the  jiart  he  and  his  Marcellus  Mass 
j)layed  in  the  history  of  church  music  after 
the  Council  of  Trent  for  a  long  time  misled 
musical  historians  into  looking  u^jou  him 
as  an  important  innovator  in  music.  He 
was  dubbed  not  only  the  Prince  of  Music, 
but  the  Father  of  Music.  But  Palestrina 
was  in  no  sense  a  musical  innovator  ;  his 
tendencies  were  conservative,  he  never  de- 
parted from  the  field  of  composition  which 
had  been  so  well  worked  by  his  great  prede- 
cessors. In  the  Marcellus  Mass  itself  there 
was  not  a  single  element  of  novelty  either  in 
style  or  construction.  Palestrina's  mission 
was  to  complete  and  perfect  a  great  musi- 
cal epoch,  not  to  pave  the  way  for  a  new 
one.  His  compositions  are  all  in  strict  sim- 
jjle  counterpoint  in  the  Gregorian  modes,  for 
unaccompanied  chorus  ;  he  made  frequent 
use  of  almost  every  contrapuntal  subtlety 
known  to  the  older  Netherlandish  compos- 
ers, but  with  a  completeness  of  technical  mas- 
tery and  an  iin  failing  sense  for  ideal  beau- 
ty that  wholly  veiled  the  merely  scholastic 
side  of  these  devices.  His  long  life  was  a 
hard-working,  but  not  particularly  eventful 
one  ;  he  saw  a  line  of  fifteen  popes — from 
Leo  X.  to  Clement  VHI. — ascend  the  throne 
and  pass  awa}',  and  he  held  some  of  the 
most  brilliant  musical  positions  of  his  day  ; 
but  the  salaries  were  small,  and  there  is  lit- 
tle doubt  that  he  was  miserably  poor  the 
greater  part  of  his  life.  The  portrait  on  this 
page  is  a  facsimile  of  part  of  the  frontis- 
piece of  his  first  book  of  masses,  represent- 
ing him  presenting  the  book  to  the  pope. 
It  is  the  only  contemporary  likeness  of  him. 
Works  :  I.  Masses :  Joannis  Petri  Aloysii 
Prsenestini  in  Basilica  S.  Petri  de  Urbe 
cappellse  Magistri,  Missai'um,  liber  primus. 


72 


PALESTEINA 


four4-part  masses,  and  one  in  5  parts  (Rome, 
1554  ;  2d  ed.,  1572  ;  3d  ed.,  containing  a  5- 
part  Requiem  and  a  6-part  mass,  1591) ;  Mis- 
sarum,  liber  secundus,  four  4-part  and  two 
5-part  masses,  and  the  6-part  Missa  Papse 
Marcelli  (Rome,  1567  ;  2d  ed.,  Venice,  1598) ; 
]\Iissarum,  liber  tertius,  four  4-part,  two  5- 
part,  including  the  Tihomme  armu,  and  two 
6-part  masses  (Rome,  1570)  ;  Missarum, 
liber  quartus,  four  4-part  and  three  5-part 
masses  (Rome,  1582  ;  2d  ed,  ib,  1582  ;  3d 
ed,  ib.,  1590) ;  Missarum,  liber  quintus, 
three  4-part,  two  5-part,  and  two  6-part 
masses  (Rome,  1590  ;  2d  ed.,  Venice,  1591) ; 
Missaj,  liber  sestus,  four  4-part  masses,  and 
one  5-part  (Rome,  1594  ;  2d  ed.,  containing 
also  a  6-part  Ave  Maria,  Venice,  1596)  ; 
Missse,  liber  Septimus,  two  4-part  and  two 
6-part  masses,  published  after  Palestrina's 
death  by  bis  son  Hygin  (Rome,  1594  ;  2d 
ed.,  ib.,  1595  ;  3d  ed.,  containing  also  a 
6-part  mass,  Venice,  1605) ;  Missarum,  liber 
octavus,  two  4-part,  two  5-part  masses,  and 
one  6-23art  with  perpetual  double  canon 
(Rome,  1599  ;  2d  ed,  ib.,  1609)  ;  Mis- 
sarum, liber  nonus,  two  4-part,  two  5-part, 
and  two  6-part  masses  (Rome,  1599  ;  2d 
ed.,  ib.,  1608) ;  Missarum,  liber  decimus, 
two  4-part,  two  5-part,  and  two  6-part 
masses  (Rome,  1600)  ;  Missarum,  liber  un- 
decimus,  one  4-part,  two  5-part,  and  two 
6-part  masses  (Rome,  1600)  ;  Missarum, 
liber  duodecimus,  two  4-part,  two  5-part, 
and  two  6-part  masses  (Rome,  1601)  ;  Mis- 
B8e  octonis  vocibus  concinendse,  four  8-part 
masses  (Venice,  1601)  ;  Lauda  Sion,  Pater 
noster,  and  Jesu  nostra  redemptio,  in  4- 
parts  ;  Beatus  Laurentius,  Panem  nostrum, 
Salve  Regina,  and  O  Sacrum  Convivium,  for 
5  parts  ;  Ecce  ego  Joannes,  and  Veni  Creator 
Spiritus,  for  6  parts,  and  other  unedited 
masses  preserved  in  the  Library  of  the 
Vatican  ;  also  a  collection  in  the  Minerva 
Library,  Rome.  II.  Motets  :  Motecta  fes- 
torum  totius  anni,  cum  communione  sanc- 
torum quaternis  vocibus,  liber  primus 
(Rome,  1585  and  1590  ;  Venice,  1601  ;  and 
Rome,    1622) ;  Mottettorum    quse    partim 


quinis,  partim  senis,  partim  septenis  voci- 
bus concinantur,  liber  primus  (Rome,  1569  ; 
2d  ed,  Venice,  1586  ;  3d  ed,  1600)  ;  Mot- 
tettorum, liber  secundus,  discovered  by 
Baini  (Venice,  1572)  ;  Mottettorum,  liber 
tertius  (Rome,  1575  ;  Venice,  1581,  1589, 
and  1594) ;  Mottettorum  quatuor  vocibus, 
partim  plena  voce,  e  jjartim  partibus  voci- 
bus, liber  secundus  (Venice,  1581 ;  Rome, 
1590  ;  Venice,  1604,  1606)  ;  Mottettorum 
quinque  vocibus,  liber  quartus  (Rome,  1584  ; 
2d  ed.,  Venice,  1584 ;  10th  ed.,  Rome, 
1650)  ;  Mottettorum  quinque  vocibus,  liber 
quintus  (Rome,  1584  ;  Venice,  1588,  1595, 
1601).  Three  books  of  motets  for  4,  5,  and 
6  voices  were  collected  by  Baini.  HL  La- 
mentations of  Jeremiah  :  23  Lamentations 
in  4  parts,  liber  primus  (Rome,  1588 ; 
Venice,  1589) ;  and  two  other  works  in  4, 
5,  and  6  parts,  collected  by  Baini.  IV. 
Hymns  :  Hymni  totius  anni,  secundum  S. 
R.  E.  consuetudinem  quatuor  vocibus  con- 
cinendi  nee  non  hymni  religionum  (Rome 
and  Venice,  1589  ;  Rome,  1625).  V.  Offer- 
toria  (Rome,  1593;  Venice,  1594,  1596). 
VI.  Magnificat :  Magnificat  octo  tonorum, 
liber  primus  (Rome,  1591 ;  2d  ed.,  Venice, 
1591) ;  also  of  5-,  6-,  and  8-part  unedited 
Magnificats,  collected  by  Baini.  VII.  Lit- 
anies :  Litanipe  Deiparfc  Virginis  (Rome, 
1600)  ;  Vm.  Madrigali  spiritual],  libro 
primo  (Venice,  1581)  ;  libro  secundo  (Rome, 
1594).  IX.  Psalms :  Sacra  omnia,  solemn. 
Psalmodia  Vespertina  (Venice,  1596).  X. 
Madrigals :  Libro  primo  a  quattro  voci 
(Rome,  1555;  Venice,  1568,  1570,  1594, 
1596,  1605)  ;  libro  primo  a  cinquo  voci 
(^^enice,  1581)  ;  secundo  libro  a  quattro 
voci  (Venice,  1586).  Many  of  Palestrina's 
masses  were  edited  and  jjublished  by  Al- 
fieri  in  his  "  Raccolta  di  Musica  in  cui  con- 
tengonsi  i  capolavori  di  celebri  compositori 
italiani "  (Rome,  1841)  ;  and  Alfieri  also  pub- 
lished, "  Raccolta  di  mottetti  a  quattro  voci 
di  Giovanni  Pierluigi  da  Palestrina,  Ludo- 
vico  de  Vittoria  di  Avia  e  di  Felice  Anerio  " 
(ib.,  1841).  A  number  of  Palestrina's  works 
were  published  by  Proske  in  his  collection  of 


73 


PALESTRINA 


"  Musica  Divina."  Tbo  most  of  Palestrina's 
MSS.  are  in  the  Library  of  the  Vatican,  and 
37  motets  are  in  the  Library  of  the  Con- 
servatoire in  Paris.  Breitkojof  &  Hartel's 
edition  of  Palestrina  "Werke  :  L  5,  6,  and 
7-part  Motets  ;  11.  5,  G,  and  8-part  Motets  ; 
IIL  5,  6,  and  S-jjart  Motets;  IV.  5-part 
Motets  ;  V.  4-part  Motets  ;  YL.  5,  6,  and 
8-part  Motets;  VH.  4,  G,  8,  and  12-pai-t 
Motets  ;  \TII.  4-part  Hymns ;  IS..  5-part 
Offertories  ;  X.  Masses,  1st  Book ;  XI.  2d 
Book;  Xn.  3d  Book;  XHL  4th  Book; 
XrV.  5th  Book ;  XV.  Gth  Book  ;  XVI  7th 
Book ;  XVn.  8th  Book  ;  XYIJI.  9  Books 
of  Masses ;  XIX.  10  Books  of  Masses ; 
XXIV.  15  Books  of  Masses  ;  XX\1.  Three 
Books  of  Litanies  for  4,  5,  6,  and  8  voices, 
and  six  12-part  Motets  and  Psahns  ;  XXVII. 
35  Magnificats  in  3  Books.  XX^TH.  3,  4, 
5,  and  6-part  Madrigals,  3  Books  ;  XXIX. 
5-part  Madrigals,  2  Books  ;  15  Books  of 
Masses  ;  3  Books  of  Lamentations  in  4,   5, 

/7_  f  •>  A  '  /"•  •  and  G  parts  ;  3  Books 
j4^^H^^C^/k4/l  of  Litanies  in  4  and 
C  jiarts  ;  2  Books  of  Magnificats  in  4,  5,  6, 
and  8  parts  ;  and  a  Supplement  of  miscel- 
laneous works,  biographical  data,  and  docu- 
ments, etc. — Baini,  Memorie  storico-critiche 
della  vita  e  delle  opera  di  G.  Pierluigi  da 
Palestrina  (2  vols.,  Rome,  1828  ;  German 
translations  by  Kandler  and  Kiesewetter, 
1834)  ;  C.  Winterfcld,  Palestrina,  seine 
"Werke  und  deren  Bedeutung  fiir  die  Ge- 
schichte  der  Tonkunst  (Breslau,  1832) ; 
Biiumker,  Palestrina  (Freiburg,  1871)  ; 
Fc'tis,  vi.  ;  Ambros,  iv.  1.  ;  Clement,  Mus. 
celebres,  7  ;  Kiemann  ;  Naumann,  Italien- 
ische  Tondichter  von  Palestrina  bis  auf  die 
Gegenvrart  (?). 

PALESTRINA,  oratorio,  by  Cari  Loewe, 
written  in  1841.  It  was  performed  by  the 
Berlin  Singakademie  in  1845. — Wellmer, 
Loewe  (Leipsic,  1887). 

PALIONE,  GIUSEPPE,  born  in  Rome, 
Oct.  7,  1781,  died  in  Paris,  December  (?), 
1819.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Fonte- 
maggi  in  Rome  and  of  Fenaroli  in  Naples  ; 
went  to  Paris  in   1805,  and  taught  vocal 


music.  "Works — Operas  :  La  finta  amante, 
Naples,  about  1800 ;  Le  due  rivali,  Rome, 
1802  ;  La  vedova  astuta,  ib.,  about  1803  ; 
La  villanella  rapita,  ib.,  about  1804.  De- 
bora,  oratorio  ;  Ai-iane,  cantata ;  2  sympho- 
nies for  orchestra ;  3  quintets  for  2  piano- 
fortes, 2  violins,  and  violoncello  ;  9  quartets 
for  strings. — Fetis. 

PiiLLAVICmO,  BENEDETTO,  born  at 
Cremona  in  the  second  half  of  the  IGth  cen- 
tury, died  (at  Mantua?)  after  IGIG.  Vocal 
composer,  maestro  di  eappella  to  the  Duke 
of  Mantua.     "Works :  Book  of  madrigals,  for 

4  voices  (Venice,  1570) ;  7  books  of  do.,  for 

5  voices  (ib.,  1581,  1.593,  159G,  1597,  1G12, 
1G13) ;  Book  of  do.,  for  G  voices  (1587) ;  do. 
of  motets,  for  8,  12,  and  IG  voices  (ib., 
1595) ;  Madrigals  in  several  collections  of 
the  time. — Fetis  ;  Riemann. 

PALLA"V^CINO,  CARLO,  born  at  Bres- 
cia, Italy,  in  1G30,  died  in  Dresden,  Jan. 
27, 1G88.  Dramatic  composer,  Vize-Kapell- 
meister  in  Dresden,  1GG7 ;  Kaiiellmeister 
in  1G72  ;  then  lived  for  several  years  in 
Italy,  but  from  1G85  again  in  Dresden 
as  Kapellmeister  of  the  new  Italian  ojjera. 
"Works :  AureUano,  Demetrio,  Venice,  IGGG  ; 
II  tiranuo  umiliato  d'  amore,  ovvero  Meraspe, 
1G67  ;  Diocleziano,  1674 ;  Enea  in  Itaha, 
1G75  ;  Galeuo,  1G76  ;  H  Vespasiano,  1G78  ; 
n  Nerone,  1G79  ;  Messalina,  1G80  ;  Bassiano, 
ossia  il  maggiore  impossibile,  1G82  ;  Carlo, 
ro  d'  Italia,  1G83  ;  R  re  infante,  1G83 ;  Li- 
cinio  imi^eratore,  1G84 ;  Recimero,  vh  de' 
Vaudali,  1G85  ;  Massimo  Puppieno,  1685  ; 
Penelope  la  casta,  1G8G  ;  Didone  delirante, 
168G  ;  Amor  innamorato,  1687 ;  L'  amaz- 
zone  corsara,  1687  ;  Elmiro,  re  di  Corinto, 
1G87 ;  La  Gorusalemme  liberata,  1G88 ; 
Antiope  (finished  by  Strungk),  Dresden, 
1689.— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

PALilA,  SILVESTRO  DI,  born  at  Ischia, 
near  Naples,  about  1762,  died  at  Naples, 
Aug.  8,  1834.  Dramatic  com^joser,  pupil 
of  Valenti  and  Fenai-oli  at  the  Conserva- 
torio  in  Loreto,  and  afterwards  of  Paisiello. 
"Works :  La  finta  matta,  Naples,  1791  ;  La 
pietra  simpatica,  ib.,  1792  ;  GU  amanti  ridi- 


74 


PALME 


coli,  ik,  about  1794  ;  La  sposa  contrastata, 
Turiu,  about  1797  ;  II  iiaturalista  immagiua- 
rio,  Florence,  180G ;  Several  others,  given  in 
Naples. — Fetis. 

PALME,  RUDOLF,  born  at  Barby,  Prus- 
sian Saxony,  Oct.  23,  1834,  still  living,  1890. 
Organist  of  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Ghost 
at  Magdeburg,  and  royal  music  director  ; 
pupil  of  August  Gottfried  Ritter.  Works  : 
Sonatas,  jireludes,  Conzert-Phantasie  with 
male  chorus,  and  many  other  comjjositions 
for  the  organ ;  Choruses  for  male,  and 
mixed  voices,  sacred  songs,  etc. — Riemann. 

PALMEN-SONNTAG  MORGEN  (Palm- 
Sunday  morning),  for  chorus,  soli,  and  or- 
chestra, text  by  Geibel,  music  by  Ferdinand 
Hiller,  op.  102.  Pubhshed  by  Rieter-Bie- 
dermaun  (Leijisic,  1860-67). 

PALIMER,  HORATIO  RICHMOND, 
born,  of  American  parentage,  in  Sherburne, 
New  York,  April  26,  1834,  still  living,  1890. 
When  nine  years  old  he  sang  alto  in  a 
church  chou-,  at  seventeen  was  organist 
and  choirmaster,  and  at  eighteen  began 
composing.  He  studied  thorough-bass  and 
harmony  under  his  father,  but  is  chietly 
self-taught.  He  became  professor  of  mu- 
sic in  the  Academy,  Rushford,  New  York, 
then  musical  editor  of  the  "  Sunday  School 
Teacher  ;"  in  1866  began  editing  the  "  Con- 
cordia," a  monthly  journal  of  music  in  Chi- 
cago, where  for  sis  years  he  was  chorister 
in  the  Second  Baptist  Church.  In  1874  he 
removed  to  New  York,  where  he  still  resides. 
He  has  lectured  in  nearly  every  State  in  the 
Union,  and  has  had  several  thousand  pupils 
under  his  instruction.  In  1879  the  Uni- 
versity of  Chicago  gave  him  the  degree  of 
Doctor  of  Music.  He  has  published  many 
collections,  containing  most  of  his  own  com- 
positions ;  among  them  :  The  Song  Queen 
(1867) ;  Sabbath  School  Songs  (1868) ;  Nor- 
mal Collection  of  Sacred  Music  (1870,  200,- 
000  copies  sold) ;  The  Song  King  (1871, 
200,000)  ;  The  Standard  (with  L.  O.  Emer- 
son, 1872) ;  Concert  Choruses  (1873) ;  Songs 
of  Love  for  the  Bible  School  (1874) ;  The 
Leader  (with  L.  O.  Emerson,  1874) ;  The 


Song  Monarch  (with  L.  O.  Emerson,  1874) ; 
The  Song  Herald  (1876) ;  Book  of  Anthoma 
(1879)  ;  The  Sovereign  (1879) ;  Rays  of 
Light  (1882) ;  Concert  Gems  for  Choruses 
(1883) ;  Book  of  Threnodies  (1883) ;  The 
Choral  Union  (1884) ;  Concert  Collection  of 
Choruses,  1886  ;  Book  of  Literludes,  1888  ; 
Anthems,  glees,  and  jjart-songs. 

PALOTTA,  MATTEO,  surnamcd  II  Pa- 
normitano,  born  at  Palermo  in  1680,  died 
in  Vienna,  March  28,  1758.  Church  com- 
poser, pupU  at  the  Conservatorio  di  S.  Ono- 
frio,  Najiles,  about  the  same  time  as  Pergo- 
lesi.  He  was  ordained  secular  jiriest  on 
his  return  to  Palermo,  devoted  himself  to 
studies  in  part-writing  and  counterpoint, 
and  produced  a  valuable  work  entitled  : 
Gregorian!  cantus  enucleata  praxis  et  cog- 
nitio  ;  a  treatise  on  Guido  d'  Arezzo's  Sol- 
misation  ;  and  an  instruction  book  on 
church  tones.  In  1733  he  was  apjjoiuted 
Hof-Kapellmeister  in  Vienna ;  was  dis- 
missed in  1741,  and  reinstated  in  1749. 
Works  :  Masses  in  four  and  eight  parts, 
motets,  etc.,  in  the  libraries  of  the  court 
chapel  and  the  Gesellschaft  der  Musik- 
freunde,  Vienna. — Mendel  ;  do.,  Ergilnz., 
324  ;  Riemann  ;  Schilling. 

PALUMBO,  COSTANTINO,  born  at 
Torre  Annunziata,  Naples,  Nov.  30,  1843, 
still  living,  1890.  Pianist,  pupil  at  the 
Conservatorio  of  Lanza  antl  Russo,  and  in 
comjiosition  of  Mercadante  ;  made  a  eon- 
cert  tour  in  1864  through  Italy,  and  in  1867 
went  to  Paris,  where  he  profited  by  the  ad- 
vice of  Henri  Herz  and  Planti"'.  Having 
appeared  also  in  London  as  a  vii'tuoso,  he 
returned  to  Naj)les,  where  he  gave  many 
concerts,  often  performing  in  company  with 
Thalberg.  In  1873  he  became  professor  at 
the  Conservatorio.  Works  :  Maria  Stuarda, 
opera,  given  at  Naples,  Teatro  San  Carlo, 
1874 ;  More  than  70  compositions  for  the 
pianoforte. — Fctis,  Supplement,  ii.  298. 

PAmNGER  (Pammigerus),  LEON- 
HARDT,  born  at  Aschau,  Upper  Austria,  in 
1494,  died  at  Passau,  May  3,  1567.  Con- 
trapuntist, educated  in  the  Monastery  of 


T5 


PAMPANI 


St.  Nicholas  at  Passau,  where  he  became 
secretary  after  completing  his  studies  in 
Vienna  in  1513-16. 
Works  :  Ecclesias- 
ticarum  cantionum 
4,  5,  G  et  jjlurium 
vocum,  etc.  (Nur- 
e  mbor  g,  1573)  ; 
Others  in  several 
collections  of  the 
times.  His  three 
sons,  Balthasar, 
Sophonias,  and  Sig- 
ismund,  were  also  composers. — Fetis  ;  Men- 
del ;  Eitner,  Bibl.,  771. 

PAMPANI,  ANTONIO  GAETANO,  born 
in  the  Komagna  in  the  beginning  of  the  18th 
century,  died  in  Venice,  February,  17G9. 
Dramatic  composer,  maestro  di  cappeUa  of 
the  cathedral  at  Fermo  until  1748,  then  di- 
rector of  the  Venice  Couservatorio.  Mem- 
ber of  the  Accademia  Filarmonica,  Bologna, 
1746.  Works— Operas  :  Anagilda,  1735  ; 
Artaserse  Lougimano,  1737  ;  La  caduta  d' 
Amulio,  174G  ;  La  clemenza  di  Tito,  1748  ; 
Artastrse,  1750  ;  II  Vinceslao,  1752  ;  Astia- 
nassc,  1755  ;  Demofoonte,  1764  ;  Demelrio, 
1768.     Church  music— Fetis. 

PiVNICO,  mCHELE,  born  at  Naples, 
July  IG,  1830,  still  living,  1890.  Dramatic 
and  church  composer,  pupil  of  the  Couser- 
vatorii  at  Naples  and  Milan.  Works :  La 
figlia  di  Domenico,  opera,  Naples,  1857  ; 
Stella,  do.,  ib.,  1859 ;  SI  e  no,  ojieretta,  ib., 
1875  ;  Mass  with  full  orchestra,  1855  ;  Other 
church  music,  and  vocal  melodies. — Fetis, 
Supplement,  ii.  299. 

PANIZZA,  GLACOMO,  born  at  Castel- 
lazzo,  Italy,  May  1,  1804,  died  there,  April, 
18G0.  Dramatic  composer,  and  vocal  in- 
structor of  considerable  reputation,  who 
formed  many  excellent  singers.  Works — 
Operas :  Sono  eghno  maritati  ?,  Milan, 
1827  ;  La  coUerica,  ib.,  1831  ;  Gianni  di 
Calais,  Trieste,  1834  ;  I  ciarlatani,  Milan, 
1839.  Ballets  :  La  rosiera  ;  Merope  (with 
Viviani),  Milan,  1832;  Faust  (with  Costa 
and    Bajetti),    ib.,    1848  ;     Palmiua   (with 


Santos  and  Pinto),  ib.,  1853  ;  Nana  Sa'ib 
(with  Strebiuger),  Vienna,  1867.  Inno  a 
Maria  Malibran,  serenade  for  4  voices  and 
orchestra,  Milan,  1834 ;  Sextet  for  wind  in- 
struments ;  Arias  and  romances. — Fotis  ; 
do..  Supplement,  ii.  299. 

PANNAIN,  ANTONIO,  born  at  Naples, 
Jan.  31,  1841,  still  living,  1890.  Instru- 
mental and  vocal  composer,  pupil  of  Nicola 
Fornai-ini,  his  uncle.  Works  ;  4  masses,  of 
which  3  with  orchestra  ;  Other  church  mu- 
sic ;  2  overtures  for  orchestra  ;  Pianoforte 
music,  and  songs. — Futis,  Supplement,  ii. 
299. 

PANNY,  JOSEPH,  born  at  Kohlmitz- 
berg,  Nether  Austria,  Oct.  23,  1794,  died 
at  Mainz,  Sept.  7,  1838.  VioUnist,  pupil  of 
his  father,  and  in  theory  of  his  grandfather, 
an  organist ;  studied  afterwards  in  Vienna, 
where  Paganiui  took  a  fancy  to  him  (1824), 
and  invited  him  to  join  him  on  his  future 
concert  tours.  In  Prague  they  separated 
and  Pauny  went  to  Germany,  gave  concerts 
in  Munich  (1828)  and  other  cities,  and  set- 
tled at  Mainz,  whence  he  made  concert 
tours  to  Hamburg  and  Berlin  in  1830,  to 
Norway,  Sweden,  and  England  in  1831-32. 
Works  :  3  masses ;  Requiem,  for  3  voices, 
2  violins,  2  horns,  and  organ  ;  Several  grad- 
uals  ;  Cantatas  ;  Quartets  ;  Sonata  for  clar- 
inet and  pianoforte  ;  Violin  music  ;  Cho- 
ruses for  male  voices,  and  songs. — Allgem. 
wiener  mus.  Zeitg.  (1842),  448  ;  Fetis  ;  N. 
Necrol.  der  D.  (1839),  i.  38  ;  Wurzbach. 

PANOFKA,  HEINRICH,  born  in  Brcs- 
lau,  Oct.  2,  1807,  died  in  Florence,  Italy, 
Nov.  18,  1887.  Violinist,  and  professor  of 
singing  ;  destined  to  the  law  by  his  father, 
he  took  lessons  on  the  violin  from  his  sis- 
ter, a  clever  violinist ;  learned  the  princi- 
ples of  music  from  the  cantor  Strauch  and 
his  successor  Foerster,  played  at  a  concert 
at  the  age  of  ten,  when  his  father,  recogniz- 
ing his  talent,  sent  him  to  study  in  Vienna 
under  Mayseder  and  Hoffmann,  1824-27. 
He  gave  his  first  concert  in  1827  ;  left  Vi- 
enna for  Munich  in  1829,  and  thence  went  to 
Berlin,  and  at  last  settled  in  Paris  as  violin- 


70 


PANSEKON 


ist.  He  played  at  the  Conservatoire  con- 
certs, studied  vocal  music  and  itfs  practical 
instruction  under  Bodogni,  and  with  him 
established  in  1842  an  Acadcmie  de  Chant, 
in  imitation  of  the  one  in  Berlin.  Their 
project  was  not  successful,  as  the  Prince  de 
la  Moskowa  was  then  forming  his  Societu 
de  Concerts.  In  1844  Panofka  went  to 
London,  and  in  1847  was  engaged  by  Lum- 
ley  as  assistant  at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre  at 
the  time  of  Jenny  Lind's  visit.  The  Revo- 
lution of  1848  obliging  him  to  remain  in 
London,  he  became  widely  known  as  a 
teacher  of  singing,  but  returned  to  Paris  in 
1852,  and  settled  at  Florence  in  1866.' 
Works  :  L'  art  de  chanter,  op.  81  (Paris)  ; 
24  vocalises  progressives,  op.  85  ;  Abecc- 
daire  vocal,  2d  edition  ;  12  vocalises  d'  ar- 
tiste, op.  86  ;  Erholung  und  Studium,  op. 
87  ;  86  nouveaux  exercices,  op.  88  ;  12  vo- 
calises pour  contralto,  op.  89  ;  12  Vokalisen 
fur  Bass,  op.  90  ;  Works  for  violin  and  pi- 
anoforte, and  violin  and  orchestra,  etc. — Fe- 
tis  ;  Riemauu  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

PiVNSERON,  AUGUSTE  MATTHIEU, 
bom  in  Paris,  April  2G,  1796,  died  there, 
July  29,  1859.  Vocal  composer,  professor 
of  singing,  and  writer  ou  music  ;  the  son 
of  a  professor  of  music  who  scored  many  of 
Gretry's  operas,  he  entered  the  Conserva- 
toire in  1804,  became  pupil  of  Gossec  in 
counterpoint,  of  Levasseur  on  the  violon- 
cello, and  of  Bertini  in  harmony,  winning 
prizes  in  these  studies.  He  won,  also,  in 
1813  the  grand  jirix  de  Rome  for  his  can- 
tata Herminie.  He  went  to  Italy,  took 
lessons  in  counterpoint  from  Mattel  in 
Bologna,  lived  in  Naples  and  Rome  several 
years,  studying  under  the  best  masters, 
went  to  Germany,  and  was  pupil  of  Salieri 
in  Vienna,  and  of  Winter  in  Munich.  In 
1817  he  became  honorary  Kapellmeister  to 
Prince  Eszterhiizy  at  Eisenstadt.  After  vis- 
iting Prussia  be  returned  iu  1818  to  Paris, 
where  he  taught  singing  and  became  ac- 
companist at  the  Opera  Comique,  then  in 
1826  professeur  de  solfege  and  in  1826  pi'O- 
fesseur  de  chant  at  the  Conservatoire.     His 


great  charm  as  a  composer  was  in  his  ro- 
mances, which  acquired  great  popularity, 
and  of  which  he  published  two  hundred 
between  1825  and  1840.  His  greatest 
merit  lies  in  his  didactic  treatises,  which 
were  the  outcome  of  his  experiences  as  jjro- 
fessor  at  the  Conservatoire.  L.  of  Honour  ; 
Orders  of  Oaken  Crown,  and  of  the  Red 
Eagle.  Works :  La  grille  du  pare,  opera- 
comique,  Paris,  Theatre  Feydeau,  1820  ;  Les 
deux  cousines,  do.,  ib.,  1821  ;  Le  mariage 
difficile,  ib.,  1823  ;  L'ccole  de  Rome,  Oduon, 
1827  ;  3  solemn  masses  ;  2  masses  for  3  so- 
prani ;  Requiem  ;  De  prof  undis  ;  Miserere  for 
4  voices  ;  Mois  de  Marie,  motets  and  hymns 
for  1-3  voices  ;  Pie  Jesu  ;  Many  fugues  ; 
Fantaisies,  nocturnes,  and  themes  varies 
for  pianoforte  and  flute.  ABC  musical ; 
Suite  de  I'A  B  C  ;  Solfuge  a  deux  voix  ;  Sol- 
fege d'artiste  ;  Solfege  sur  la  clef  de  fa  ; 
Solfege  d'ensemble  a  deux,  trois  et  quatre 
voix,  3  parts  ;  Solfege  du  pianiste  ;  Solfege 
du  violoniste  ;  Solfege  concertant  a  deux, 
trois  et  quatre  voix,  3  parts  ;  50  lemons  de 
solfege  a  changements  de  clefs  ;  36  do.,  suite 
aux  50  lemons  ;  Methode  complete  de  voca- 
lisation, 3  parts  ;  Douze  etudes  sj)eciales  ; 
Traite  de  I'harmonie  pratique,  etc. — Fetis  ; 
do..  Supplement,  ii.  300  ;  Riemann  ;  Schil- 
ling, Supplement,  334. 

PANZINI,  ANGELO,  born  at  Lodi,  Nov. 
22,  1820,  still  living,  1890.  Pianist,  pro- 
fessor at  the  Conservatorio  in  Milan. 
Works :  La  carita,  cantata ;  II  brindisi, 
song  with  chorus  ;  Ariettas  and  other  vocal 
music ;  Grand  sonata  for  pianoforte  and 
harmonium  ;  Various  pieces  for  do.  ;  do. 
for  pianoforte  and  flute  ;  Grand  duo  for 
2  flutes  ;  Nocturnes,  caprices,  melodies, 
scherzi,  etc. — Fetis,  Sujjplement,  ii.  300. 

PAOLUCCI,  Padre  GIUSEPPE,  born  at 
Siena  in  1727,  died  at  Assisi  iu  1777.  Church 
composer  and  Franciscan  monk,  pujjil  of 
Padre  Martini  at  Bologna,  then  maestro  di 
cappella  successively  in  the  convents  of  his 
order  at  Venice,  at  Sinigaglia,  and  at  Assisi. 
Works :  Preces  pife,  for  8  voices  (2  choirs), 
(Venice,  1767) ;  Other  church  music  iu  MS. 


77 


PAPILLONS 


He  is  particularly  noteworthy  through  the 
IJublication  of  his  Arte  pratica  di  contrap- 
punto  dimostrata  con  esempj  di  vari  autori 
(ib.,  17G5-72).— Fetis. 

PA-PA-PAPAGENO.     See  ZaubcrflOie. 

PAPILLONS  (Butterflies),  a  set  of  twelve 
short  pianoforte  ijieces  in  dance  form,  by 
Schumann ;  op.  2.  Nos.  1,  3,  4,  G,  and  8 
were  composed  in  1829,  the  others  in  1831. 
They  were  written  in  Heidelberg  and  Leip- 
sic,  and  are  dedicated  to  the  composer's 
sisters-in-law,  Therese,  Rosalie,  and  EmiUe 
Schumann.  The  name  indicates  musical 
ideas  and  phases,  exjiressed  from  esjseri- 
ences  of  a  thoughtful  Ufe,  through  which 
they  break  as  the  butterflj'  from  its  chrysa- 
lis. Schumann  gives  them  a  poetical  mean- 
ing by  referring  to  the  chapter  of  Jean 
Paul's  "  Flegeljahre,"  describing  a  masked 
ball,  or  carnival,  which  the  PapLllous  ai-e 
sui^posed  to  depict.  The  last  bars  of  the 
finale  ai-e  inscribed  with  these  words  :  "The 
noise  of  the  Carnival  night  dies  away.  The 
church  clock  strikes  sis."  The  PapUlons 
may  be  regarded  as  a  sketch  for  the  more 
elaborate  Carneval,  op.  9,  and  in  this  work 
a  passage  is  inserted  from  the  Papillons, 
No.  1.  The  finales  of  both  works  contain 
the  Grossvaterlanz,  which  is  the  finale  of  op. 
2,  and  is  treated  coutrax)uutally  with  the 
subject  of  Papillon  No.  1.  Introduzione, 
Moderate,  in  D ;  L  In  D  ;  H.  Prestissimo, 
in  E-flat  and  A-flut ;  IIL  In  F-sharp  minor ; 
IV.  Presto,  in  A ;  V.  In  B-flat ;  VI.  In  D 
minor ;  Vli.  Semplice,  in  F  minor  and  A-flat ; 
\TII.  In  C-sharp  minor  and  D-flat ;  IX. 
Prestissimo,  in  B-flat  minor  ;  X.  Vivo,  in  C, 
Piti  lento  in  G  and  C  ;  XI.  In  D,  Piti  lento 
in  G,  In  tempo  vivo  in  D ;  XH.  Finale  in 
D  (Grossvatertanz),  Piii  lento.  PubUshed 
by  Kistner  (Leipsic,  1832).  Breitkopf  & 
Hiirtel,  Schumann  Werke,  Serie  vii.,  No.  2. 
— Wasielewsky,  Schumann,  3d  ed.,  328  ; 
Reissmann,  Schumann,  41 ;  Maitland,  Schu- 
mann, 49 ;  Wiener  mus.  Zeitg.  (1832),  No. 
26  ;  AUgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xxxv.  G16  ;  Grove, 
ii.  G45  ;  iii.  408. 

PAPINI,  GUIDO,  bom  at  Camaggiore, 


near  Florence,  Aug.  1,  1847,  still  living, 
1890.  Virtuoso  on  the  violin,  pupil  of  Gi- 
orgetti.  He  made  his  debut  at  the  age  of 
thii-tcen  in  Florence,  jjlaying  Spohi-'s  third 
concerto  ;  and  was  for  several  years  leader 
of  the  Societa  del  Quartetto  in  that  city. 
In  1874  he  appeared  in  England  at  the 
Musical  Union,  and  has  since  played  at  the 
old  and  new  Philharmonics,  and  in  187G  at 
the  Pasdeloup  Concerts  in  Paris.  Works : 
Concerto  for  violin  ;  do.  for  violoncello  ; 
Exercices  du  mecanisme  pom-  le  violou 
seul ;  Amour,  romance-nocturne  ;  A  mon 
t'toile,  romance  sans  pai'oles ;  FeuiUes 
d'album,  etc.  ;  Arrangements  and  tran- 
scriptions.— Fetis,  Supplement,  ii.  312 ; 
Grove  ;  Mendel,  Ergiiuz.,  325. 

PARADIES,  PIETRO  D03IENIC0, 
bom  in  Naples  in  1710,  died  in  Vcuico  in 
1792.  Harpsichord  player  and  dramatic 
comj)oser,  pupil  of  Porpora  ;  he  went  to 
London  in  1747,  and  lived  there  many 
years,  teaching  the  pianoforte.  Works : 
His  best  known  operas  are  Alessandro  in 
Persia,  Lucca,  1738  ;  II  decreto  del  fato, 
Venice,  1740  ;  Phaiiton,  London,  1747  ;  Le 
muse  in  gara,  cantata,  Venice,  Conserva- 
torio  dc'  Mcndicanti,  1740 ;  12  sonato  di 
gravicembalo  (London  ;  2d  ed.,  Amsterdam, 
1770).— Fetis  ;  Grove  ;  Mendel. 

PARADIES  UND  DIE  PERI,  DAS 
(Paradise  and  the  Peri),  cantata  in  three 
parts,  for  soli,  chorus,  and  orchestra,  text 
from  Moore's  "  Lalla  Rookh,"  music  by 
Schumann,  op.  50,  first  performed  at  the 
Gewandhaus,  Leipsic,  Dec.  2,  1843,  imder 
the  composer's  direction.  This  is  Schu- 
mann's first  work  for  voices  and  orches- 
tra, and  is  one  of  his  most  important  com- 
jiositions.  It  bears  the  same  relation  to 
the  concert  hall  that  Weber's  Oberon  does 
to  the  stage.  The  text  was  chosen  largely 
from  Emil  Fechsig's  translation  of  "  Lalla 
Rookh,"  but  Schumann  added  several  num- 
bers to  the  third  part.  Characters  repre- 
sented :  A  Peri  (S.)  ;  an  Angel  (A.) ;  the 
King  of  Gazna  (B.) ;  a  Youth  (T.)  ;  a 
Horseman  (Bar.) ;  a  Maiden  (S.) ;  and  cho- 


78 


PARADIS 


ruses  of  Indians,  Angels,  Houris,  and  Genii 
of  the  Nile.  The  part  of  Narrator  is  sung 
by  the  different  voices  and  the  chorus. 
This  work  was  first  given  in  Dresden,  Dec. 
23,  1843  ;  in  Berlin,  Feb.  17,  1847 ;  in  Dub- 
lin, Feb.  10,  1854  ;  in  London,  by  the  Phil- 
harmonic Society,  with  Mme  Jenny  Lind 
Goldschmidt  as  the  Peri,  June  23,  185G ;  at 
the  Theatre  Italien,  Paris,  in  December, 
18G9  ;  and  in  New  York  by  the  Oratorio 
Society  in  1876.  Published  by  Breitkopf  & 
Hiirtel  (Leipsic,  1845).  Schumann  Werke, 
Serie  ix..  No.  1.  Same  title,  cantata  by 
John  F.  Barnett,  Birmingham  (England) 
Festival,  Aug.  31,  1870. — Heissmaun,  Schu- 
mann, 129  ;  Maitland,  Schumann,  85-87  ; 
130-131 ;  Neue  Zeitschr.  xxvi.  71  ;  Naumann 
(Ouseley),  ii.  1020  ;  Concertwesen  im  Wien, 
ii.  145  ;  Signale  (1858),  113  ;  Allgem.  mus. 
Zeitg.,  xlv.  951 ;  slvi.  28  ;  xlvii.  561,  585, 
606,  617  ;  lii.  210  ;  Athenjeum  (1844),  951 ; 
(1855),  651 ;  (1856),  81G  ;  Grove,  ii.  648  ; 
iii.  416;  Upton,  Standard  Oratorios,  273. 

PAEADIS,  MAEIA  THEKESIA  VON, 
born  in  Vienna,  May  15,  1759,  died  there, 
Feb.  1,  1824.  Pianist  and,  although  blind 
from  her  fifth  year,  a  skilful  organist,  pupil 
of  Eichter  and  Ko^eluch,  Salieri,  and  Ei- 
ghiui,  and  in  composition  of  Friberth  and 
the  Abt  Vogler.  She  became  a  protegee 
of  the  Empress  Maria  Theresa,  her  god- 
mother, and  went  in  1784  to  Paris,  where  she 
played  at  the  court  concerts  and  Concerts 
Spirituels,  and  at  the  then  newly  founded 
Professional  Concerts.  She  visited  London 
in  1786,  then  Brussels  and  the  most  im- 
jDortant  German  courts,  and  on  her  return 
to  Vienna  played  at  the  concerts  of  the 
Tonkunstler  Societilt.  Mozart  wrote  a  con- 
certo for  her,  and  a  friend  invented  a  system 
of  notation  for  her  so  that  she  took  up  com- 
position. Towards  the  close  of  her  life  she 
devoted  herself  to  teaching  singing  and  the 
pianoforte.  Principal  works:  Ariadne  and 
Bacchus,  melodrama,  Vienna,  1791 ;  Der 
Schulcandidat,  operetta,  ib.,  1792  ;  Kinaldo 
und  Alcina,  fairy  oj^era,  Prague,  1797 ; 
Deutsches  Monument  Ludwig's  des  Ungliick- 


lichen,  a  funeral  cantata  for  the  anniversary 
of  the  death  of  Louis  XVI.,  Vienna,  1794  ; 
Trio  for  pianoforte  and  strings  ;  Sonatas, 
variations,  etc.,  for  pianoforte ;  German 
songs  and  Italian  canzonets. — Fctis  ;  Ger- 
ber  ;  Mendel,  viii.  15  ;  Eiemann  ;  Schilling  ; 
Wurzbach. 

PAEADIS  SOETI  DU  SEIN  DE 
L'ONDE.     See  Africaine. 

PAEADISE  AND  THE  PEEI,  fantasy- 
overture  for  orchestra,  by  William  Sterndalo 
Bennett,  op.  42,  written  for,  and  first  per- 
formed at  the  Jubilee  concert  of  the  Phil- 
hai-monic  Society,  London,  July  14,  1862. 
— Athen.t'um  (18^62),  ii.  89. 

PAEDON  DE  PLOEEMEL,  LE  (The 
Pilgrimage  of  PloGrmel),  French  opura-co- 
mique  in  three  acts,  text  by  Jules  Barbier 
and  jMichel  Carro,  music  by  Meyerbeer, 
first  represented  at  the  Optra  Comiquo, 
Paris,  April  4,  1859.     Original  cast : 

Dinorah  (S.) Mme  Cabel. 

HoOl  (Bar.) M.  Faure. 

Corentin  (T.) M.  Saiute-Foy. 

The  scene  is  laid  in  the  village  of  PloiJrmel, 
Brittany.  On  a  certain  day,  when  the  in- 
habitants of  Plourmel  make  a  j)ilgrimage  to 
the  shrine  of  the  Vii-gin,  Hool,  a  goatherd, 
and  Dinorah,  his  betrothed,  go  to  receive  a 
benediction.  A  storm  arises  and  destroys 
Dinorah's  house.  Hoel,  resolving  that  she 
shall  not  suffer  by  the  loss,  and  acting  on  a 
wizard's  advice,  leaves  Ploermel  in  quest  of 
a  treasure  which  is  guarded  by  the  Kori- 
gans,  fays  of  Brittany,  and  spends  a  year  in 
the  forest  in  solitude.  Dinorah,  believing 
that  her  lover  has  abandoned  her,  becomes 
mad  and  wanders  about  with  her  goat,  seek- 
ing him.  The  opera  begins  at  this  point. 
After  a  rustic  chorus,  Dinorah  enters  and 
sings  a  slumber  song  to  her  goat,  "Dors, 
petite,  dors  tranquille."  Soon  HoOl  arrives, 
and  goes  to  the  house  of  a  bagpiper,  Corent- 
in, to  whom  he  tells  the  story  of  the  treasure. 
Dinorah  is  seen  in  the  distance,  and  the  act 
closes  with  a  trio.  The  second  act  begins 
with  a  drinking-song  by  the  wood-cutters. 


79 


PAEENTI 


When  they  leave  the  stage,  Dinorah  enters 
and  begins  a  pathetic  air  ;  but  seeing  her 
shadow  in  the  moonHght,  she  dances  to  it, 
singing  meanwhile  the  famous  aria,  "  Ombre 
legfere,"  or  "  Shadow  Song,"  a  polka  ma- 
zurka, which  is  frequently  given  at  con- 
certs. The  next  scene  is  in  the  Val  Maudit, 
where  HoOl  and  Corentin  are  searching  for 
the  Korigans'  treasui-e.  Dinorah  is  heard 
singing,  and  from  her  words  Corentin  learns 
that  whoever  touches  it  first  will  die.  He 
refuses  to  continue  the  quest,  and  Hoel, 
who  sees  Dinorah,  believes  her  to  be  a  spiiit. 


D^sirSo  ArtJt. 

She  falls  from  the  bridge  into  the  torrent 
and  is  rescued  by  HoOl,  who  takes  her  back 
to  Ploermel.  In  the  last  act  Dinorah's  rea- 
son returns,  and  she  goes  with  HoOl  to  the 
chapel,  while  a  procession  is  seen  in  the  dis- 
tance wending  its  way  to  the  shrine.  The 
overture  is  a  retrospect,  and  is  unique  in 
having  interpolated  a  chorus,  which  sings 
behind  the  scenes  a  chant  to  the  Virgin. 
The  role  of  Dinorah,  one  of  the  most  fan- 
tastic and  charming  of  light  soprano 
parts,  has  been  sung  with  success  by  Ade- 
Una  Patti,  lima  de  Murska  and  Dosirt'e 
Artot.    The  opera  is  given  in  Italian  under 


the  title  of  "  Dinorah."  It  was  represented 
in  Italian  at  Covent  Garden,  London,  under 
Meyerbeer's  direction,  July  20,  1859,  with 
Mme  Miolan-Carvalho  as  Dinorah ;  Si- 
gner Gardoni,  Corentin  ;  and  Signor  Grazi- 
ani,  Hoiil.  It  was  given  at  Covent  Garden 
in  English,  Oct.  3  of  the  same  year,  with 
Miss  Pyne,  Mr.  Santley,  and  Mr.  Harrison. 
It  was  first  represented  in  New  York  with 
IMlle  Cordier  as  Dinorah.  Published  by 
Brandus  &  Dufour  (Paris,  1859)  ;  by  Bote 
&  Bock  (Berlin,  18G0).— Clement  et  La- 
rousse,  511 ;  Mendel,  Meyerbeer,  86  ;  Eovue 
et  Gaz.  mus.  de  Paris  (1859),  117, 125,  133, 
349 ;  Athenfeum  (1859),  i.  522 ;  ii.  151, 
473  ;  Upton,  Standard  Operas,  153  ;  Hans- 
lick,  Moderne  Oper,  IGl. 

P.\ItENTI,  FEANCESCO  PAOLO 
(MAURIZIO),  born  in  Naples,  Sept.  15, 
1764,  died  in  Paris  in  1821.  Dramatic  and 
church  composer,  pupil,  at  the  Conserva- 
torio  della  Pieta  de'  Turchini,  of  Tarantia, 
Sala,  and  Traetta  ;  went  to  Paris  in  1792, 
and  was  accompanist  and  chorus-master  at 
the  Italian  opera  there  in  1802-3.  Works 
— Operas :  Le  vendemie,  Venice,  about 
1784  ;  II  matrimonio  per  fanatismo,  1785  ; 
I  viaggiatori  felici,  about  1785  ;  H  re  pas- 
tore,  about  1787 ;  Nitteti,  Venice,  about 
1788  ;  Artaserse,  about  1789  ;  Les  deus  por- 
traits, Paris,  1792  ;  L'homme  ou  le  malheur, 
ib.,  1795.  Masses  and  motets  alia  Pales- 
trina,  and  other  church  music. — Ft'tis. 

PARIDE  ED  ELENA  (Paris  and  Helen), 
Italian  opera  in  five  acts,  text  by  Calzabigi, 
music  by  Gluck,  first  represented  in  Vi- 
enna in  1769.  This  work  was  written  af- 
ter Alceste  and  Orfeo,  and  continued  the 
reformation  begun  in  those  operas.  The 
story  is  from  the  Iliad  ;  but  Elena  is  made 
Queen  of  Sparta,  and  the  betrothed,  in- 
stead of  the  wife  of  Menelaus.  Characters 
represented  :  Paride,  son  of  Priam,  King  of 
Troy  (S.) ;  Elena,  Queen  of  Sparta  (S.)  ; 
Erasto  (Amore,  the  god  of  love),  (S.)  ;  Pal- 
lade  (Pallas),  the  goddess  (S.)  ;  a  Trojan 
(T.)  ;  and  chorus  of  Trojans  and  Spartans. 
The  opera  closes  with  a  ballet.     Among  the 


80 


'    THE  NEW  YORR 
il'UBLIC  LIBRARY 
1 

TlLBf.N   FOUNCATION* 


TARIS 


best  numbers  ai"e  :  The  Overture  in  C  ;  the 
ballet  music  in  A  minor  ;  and  Paride's  first 
three  arias,  "  O  del  mio  doles  ardor,"  in  G 
minor  ;  "  Spiagge  amate,  ove  talora,"  in 
F  ;  and  "La  bella  immagine,"  in  F  minor. 
The  score  was  dedicated  to  the  Duke  Gio- 
vanni di  Braganza,  and  published  by  Tratt- 
ner  (Vienna,  1770).  The  overture  was  re- 
scored  by  Hans  vou  Biilow,  and  jjublished 
by  Peters  (Lei^Jsic,  18(J4).  He  added  two 
clarinets  in  G,  two  horns  in  F,  and  a  bass 
trombone,  to  the  original  score,  which  re- 
quired strings,  two  flutes,  two  oboe.s,  two 
bassoons,  two  trumpets,  two  horns,  and 
drums.  A  now  edition  of  the  opera  in 
jjianoforte  score,  by  H.  M.  Schletterer,  was 
published  by  Peters  (Leij^sic,  18G4)  ;  and  a 
new  edition  of  the  ballet  music,  by  Carl 
Eeinecke,  by  Brcitkopf  &  Hartel  (Leipsic, 
1882).  Other  operas  on  the  same  subject — 
in  Italian  :  II  ratto  d'  Elena,  by  Virgilio  Puc- 
citeUi,  Dantzic,  1C34  ;  by  Francesco  Cirillo, 
test  by  Gennaro  Paolella,  Naples,  1G55  ; 
Elena,  regina  di  Sparta,  by  Cavalli,  Venice, 
1659 ;  II  Paride,  text  and  music  by  Gio- 
vanni Andrea  Bontempi,  Dresden,  Nov.  3, 
1(jG2  ;  Elena  rapita  da  Paride,  by  Giovanni 
Domenico  Freschi,  Venice,  1G77  ;  L'amorosa 
preda  di  Paride,  by  G.  B.  Bassani,  Bologna, 
1684  ;  II  giudizio  di  Paride,  by  Pollarolo, 
Venice,  1G99  ;  by  Gianettini  (Zauettini), 
about  1710  ;  by  K.  H.  Graun,  text  by  Vil- 
lati,  Berlin,  June  25,  1752  ;  by  Valentino 
Fioravauti,  about  1803  ;  II  giudizio  di 
Paride  corretto  della  giustizia,  serenata, 
test  by  L.  N.  Cilni,  music  by  P.  E.  Bal- 
dasari,  Vienna,  July  10,  1707  ;  Helena,  ossia 
la  forza  dell'  amore,  text  and  music  by 
Eeinhardt  Keiser,  Hamburg,  1709  ;  Paride 
in  Ida,  text  bj'  Mazzari,  music  by  Coletti 
and  Carlo  Monza,  Venice,  1709,  revised  by 
Mendozzi  as  Le  due  rivali  in  gara,  Padua 
and  Bologna,  1719  ;  Le  nozze  di  Paride,  by 
Galuppi,  Venice,  1756  ;  II  Paride,  by  Pietro 
Casella,  Naples,  1806  ;  and  Elena  in  Troja, 
Italian  operetta  by  Eoberto  d'  Alessio,  Na- 
ples, January,  1875.  Operas  in  French,  Le 
jugement  de  Paris,  by  Marc  Antoiue  Char- 


pentier,  Paris,  about  1700  ;  by  T.  Bertin 
de  la  Due,  test  by  Mile  Barbier  and  Pelle- 
grin,  ib.,  June  21,  1718  ;  by  Franz  Hor- 
zizk}',  Eeinsberg,  about  1790  ;  opera-co- 
mique,  by  Laurent  de  Eillo,  text  by  Albyaud 
Commerson,  Paris,  Feb.  11,  1859  ;  La  belle 
Hc'lene,  by  Offenbach,  ib.,  Dec.  17,  18G4 ; 
La  belle  Helene  dans  sou  menage,  by 
Georges  Eose,  ib.,  1867  ;  ballet  by  Mehul, 
ib.,  1793,  and  cantata  by  Salieri,  ib.,  1787. 
Operas  in  German  :  Paris  und  Helena,  test 
by  David  Schirmer,  composer  of  music  un- 
known, Dresden,  Dec.  2,  1650  ;  by  Johann 
David  Heinichen,  Leipsic,  1709  ;  by  Peter 
von  Winter,  Munich,  1780  ;  Der  Eaub  der 
Helena,  ballet  by  Josef  Weigl,  Vienna,  May 
16,  1795  ;  Paris  und  Helena,  ballet  by  J. 
N.  Hummel,  about  1810  ;  Der  trojanisclie 
Krieg  (second  part  of  Die  schOne  Helena), 
by  W.  Homann,  test  by  SchObel,  Hamburg, 
August,  1867  ;  and  music  to  Euripides's  He- 
lena, by  Louis  Kuhler,  about  18G0.  Operas 
in  English  :  The  Judgment  of  Paris,  masque, 
by  Congreve,  music  by  Purcell,  Eccles, 
Weldon,  and  Finger,  London,  March  11, 
1701  ;  new  music,  by  Dr.  Arne,  ib.,  1740  ; 
oi^ora,  by  F.  H.  Barthi'lemon,  ib.,  1770  ;  and 
a  ballet,  by  D.  Steibelt,  ib.,  1804.— Marx, 
Gluck  und  die  O^Jer,  i.  396-433  ;  ii.  377  ; 
Schmid,  Eitter  von  Gluck,  135-154  ;  Bitter, 
Eeform  der  Oper  durch  Gluck,  256  ;  Eeiss- 
mann,  Gluck,  129  ;  AUgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xiv. 
632  ;  (1864),  849,  865,  869. 

PAEIGI,  O  CAEA.     See  Tramata. 

PAEIS,  CLAUDE  JOSEPH,  born  at  Ly- 
ons, March  6,  1801,  died  in  Paris,  July  25, 
1866.  Dramatic  composer  ;  studied  first  in 
his  native  city,  then  was  j)upil  of  Lesueur 
at  the  Conservatoire,  Paris,  where  he  won 
the  second  grand  prix  in  1825,  and  the  first 
in  1826.  He  then  studied  two  years  in 
Eome  and  Naples,  returned  to  Paris,  then 
to  Lyons,  and  about  1835  became  chef 
d'orchestre  at  the  Theatre  du  Pantheon, 
Paris.  Works :  L'  alloggio  militare,  opera 
buffa,  Vienna,  1829 ;  La  veillee,  Paris,  Ope- 
ra Comique,  1831  ;  Le  cousin  de  Denise, 
Theatre  Beaumarchais,  1849  ;   ballet,  The- 


81 


PARISE 


aire  de  la  Porte  Saint-Martin,  1825  ;  Her- 
minie,  cantata,  182G. — Futis  ;  do.,  SuppK'- 
ment,  ii.  304. 

PARISE,  GENNAEO,  born  at  Naples 
during  the  last  j-ears  of  the  18th  century. 
Church  composer,  pupil  of  his  father,  but 
formed  himself  chie%  by  studying  the 
works  of  the  gi'eat  masters.  He  became  ma- 
estro di  cajipella  at  the  cathedral  and  several 
other  churches  of  Najiles,  and  in  ISGljwofes- 
sor  at  the  Koyal  College  of  Music.  "Works  : 
Masses  with  orchestra  ;  Do.  alia  Palestrina  ; 
Do.  for  3  voices,  with  organ  ;  Short  masses 
and  vesjjers,  with  organ  and  harp  ;  Requiem 
with  full  orchestra  ;  2  do.  alia  Palestrina  ;  3 
complete  vespers  with  all  the  psalms,  do.; 
Other  psalms  with  fuU  orchestra ;  Dixit, 
Credo,  Te  Deum,  etc.,  hymns  with  orches- 
tra, or  organ,  or  alia  Palestrina. — Fetis. 

PARISER  SmFONIE,  for  orchestra,  in 
D,  by  Mozart,  first  performed  at  the  Concert 
Spii-ituel,  Paris,  June  18,  1778,  with  gi-eat 
success.  L  Allegi'o  assai ;  H  Andantino  ; 
UL  iVllegro.  The  opening  phrase  of  the 
first  movement  was  -wi-itten  with  regard  to 
the  "premier  coup  d'archet,"  for  which  the 
Paris  orchestra  was  famous.  Legros,  by 
whom  Mozart  was  commissioned  to  write 
the  symphony,  wished  him  to  insert  a 
lighter  movement  in  place  of  the  Andan- 
tino. Mozart  acquiesced,  and  the  sym- 
phony in  its  new  form  was  played  in  Paris, 
Aug.  15,  1778.  It  is  one  of  the  compos- 
er's most  fully  scored  symphonies,  and  is 
usually  given  as  originally  written.     It  was 


PARISH- ALVARS,  ELI  AS,  born  at 
Teignmouth,  England,  Feb.  28,  1808,  died 
in  Venice,  Jan.  25,  1849.  Virtuoso  on  the 
harp  and  pianist,  pupil  of  Dizi,  Labarre, 
and  Bochsa  ;  became  one  of  the  most  dis- 
tinguished performers  on  the  harp  ;  visited 
Germany  in  1831,  and  played  at  Bremen, 
Hamburg,  and  other  places  with  great  suc- 
cess. After  visiting  Milan,  he  went  in  1836 
to  Vienna,  where  he  remained  two  years  ; 
travelled  in  the  East  in  1838-42,  and  on  his 
return  gave  concerts  in  Leipsic,  and  visited 
Bei'lin,  Frankfort,  Dresden,  Prague  in  1843, 
and  Naples  in  1844.  In  184G  he  went  to  Leip- 
sic, where  his  association  with  Mendelssohn 
imjjroved  his  composition,  and  in  1847  ho 
settled  in  Vienna  and  became  chamber  mu- 
sician to  the  Emperor.  Works  :  2  concertos 
for  harp  and  orchestra  ;  Concertino  for  two 
harps  and  orchestra ;  Fantasias,  transcrip- 
tions, romances,  and  melodies,  for  harp  and 
orchestra,  harp  and  jHanoforte,  etc.;  Marcli 
for  harp  ;  Voyage  d'uu  liarpiste  en  Orient, 
a  collection  of  airs  and  melodies  pojjular  in 
Turkey  and  Asia  Minor. — Grove ;  Fetis ; 
IMendel  ;  Wnrzbach. 

PARISIAN  BACCHANALE.  See  Tann- 
liduser. 

PARISIENNE,  LA,  French  revolutionary 
song,  text  by  Casimir  Delavigne,  music  by 
Brack,  supposed  to  have  been  written  in 
1757,  at  the  time  of  the  siege  of  Harburg. 
The  music  was  transposed  by  Auber,  who 
composed  for  it  additional  bars  of  instru- 
mental accompaniment.     It  was  first  sung 


performed  at  the  Crystal  Palace,  London,  i  in  public  at  the  Theatre  de  la  Porte  Saint- 
March  15,  1873.  The  autograph,  in  pos-  [  Martin,  Paris,  Aug.  2,  1830,  and  at  the  Aca- 
session  of  Andre  (Offenbach),  was  published  dcmie  Royale  de  Musique,  Paris,  Aug.  4, 
by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Mozart  Werke,  Serie    1830,  during  a  representation  of  La  muette 


viii..  No.  31.  A  second  symphony  is  said  to 
have  been  written  bj'  Mozart  in  Paris  at 
that  time  and  first  perfonned  there,  Sejit. 
18,  1778,  but  the  score  of  this  has  been 
lost. — KiJchel,  Verzeichniss,  No.  297  ;  An- 
dre, Verzeichniss,  No.  127 ;  Jahn,  Mozart, 
ii.  287  ;  Nissen,  Mozart,  i.  377,  385  ;  Geh- 
ring,  Mozart,  7G  ;  Mozart's  Letters  (Lady 
Wallace),  i.  208 ;  Grove. 


de  Portici,  by  Adolphe  Nourrit,  who  sang  it 
every  evening  for  several  months,  and  it 
was  greatly  owing  to  him  that  it  became 
popular.  The  subject  is  the  triumph  of 
the  Orleanist  party.  Of  late  years  a  con- 
troversy has  arisen  regarding  its  origin. 
The  air,  which  is  bold  and  martial,  was  pre- 
viously introduced  into  Le  baron  de  Trenk, 
a  comedie-vaudeville  in  two  acts,  by  Scribe 


82 


PARISDSTA 


and  Delavigne,  Paris,  Oct.  4,  1828.  Henri 
Herz  wrote  variations  on  this  air,  op.  58, 
published  by  Seliott  (Mainz,  1830).— Grove, 
ii.  G49  ;  Larousse  ;  Eevue  et  Gaz.  mus.  de 
Paris  (April  i),  1849). 

PARISINA,  overture  for  orchestra,  in 
F-sharp  minor,  to  Loi-d  B3'ron's  j^oem  of 
the  same  title,  bj'  William  Sterudale  Ben- 
nett, op.  3,  composed  in  1834-35,  and  first 
performed  in  Loipsic,  in  March,  1837,  and 
at  the  London  Philharmonic  in  1839.  It 
was  given  at  the  Euterpe  Concert,  Leipsic, 
Feb.  1,  187G.  Published  by  Kistner  (Leip- 
sic, 1S7C). 

PARISINA,  Italian  opera  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Romani,  music  by  Donizetti,  first 
represented  at  the  Pergola,  Florence,  March 
18,  1833.  The  story  is  fi-om  Byron's  "Pa- 
risina."  Azzo,  Duke  of  Ferrara,  who  has 
put  his  wife,  Matilda,  to  death,  marries 
a  young  and  beautiful  woman,  Parisina, 
who  loves  Hugucs,  a  young  soldier  who  has 
won  renown  under  Ernest,  the  Duke's  gen- 
eral. Hugues,  victor  in  a  tournament,  is 
crowned  by  Parisina,  who  betrays  Ler  af- 
fection for  him.  On  making  this  discovery, 
Azzo  has  the  two  arrested  and  sentenced  to 
death.  Ernest  reveals  to  him  that  Hugues 
is  his  child,  whom  Matilda  left  in  his  charge. 
Although  Azzo  hates  this  son,  lie  revokes 
the  sentence  and  orders  him  to  be  banished. 
The  order  comes  too  late,  for  at  the  moment 
■when  Parisina  makes  her  last  prayer  Ernest 
appears,  and,  drawing  a  curtain,  discloses 
the  corpse  of  Hugues,  upon  \?hich  Parisina 
falls  dead.     Original  cast : 

Parisina  (S.) Mle  Ungher. 

Hugues  (T.) M.  Duprez. 

Azzo  (B.) M.  CoseUi. 

This  ojjera  was  given  at  the  Theatre 
Italien,  Paris,  Feb.  24,  1838,  with  Grisi, 
Eubini,  and  Tamburini  in  the  cast.  Pub- 
lished by  Ricordi  (Milan).  —  Clement  et 
Larousse,  512  ;  Revue  et  Gaz.  mus.  de 
Paris  (1837-38),  101  ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg., 
xxxvii.  405. 


Dance  of  Sirens, 


PARKER,  HENRY,  born  in  London, 
Aug.  4,  1845,  still  living,  1890.  Instru- 
mental and  vocal 
composer,  pupil  at 
Lei2")sic  of  Moscheles, 
Eichter,  and  Plaidy, 
and  in  Paris  of  Le- 
fort.  Works:  Pa- 
mela, gavotte  for  or- 
chestra ;  Clarissa, 
minuet  for  do.  ;  Do- 
rothea, sarabande, 
do.  ;  P  a  V  a  n  n  e  d  e 
Guise,  do.  ;  Imogen,  do. 
do.  ;  400  songs  and  pianoforte  jjieces. 
PARKER,  HORATIO  WILLIAM,  Iwrn, 
of  American  par- 
ents, at  Auburn- 
dale,  Massachu- 
setts, Sept.  15, 
18G3,  still  living, 
1890.  Organist 
a  n  d  composer, 
pupil  from  1877 
of  his  mother,  an 
accomplished  mu- 
sician, then  in 
Boston  of  Stephen 
A.  Emery  in  har- 
mony and  pianoforte,  of  John  Orth  in  piano- 
forte, and  of  George  W.  Chadwick  in  comjjo- 
sition.  In  1880  he  was  organist  of  St.  Paul's, 
Dedham,  Mass.,  and  in  1881  of  St.  John's, 
Boston  Highlands.  In  1882  he  went  to 
Munich,  where  he  studied  for  three  years  the 
organ  and  composition  under  Josef  Rhein- 
berger,  and  conducting  under  Ludwig  Abel. 
In  1885  his  cantata.  King  Trojan,  was  suc- 
cessfully given  in  Munich.  On  his  return 
to  America  in  the  same  year  he  became  j)ro- 
fessor  of  music  at  the  Cathedral  Schools  of 
St.  Paul  and  St.  IMary,  Garden  Citj-,  Long- 
Island  ;  in  lS8(i  he  became  organist  and 
choirmaster  at  St.  Andrew's  Church,  Har- 
lem, New  York,  and  in  1887  resigned  his 
position  in  St.  Paul's,  but  retained  that  in 
St.  Mary's  School ;  in  1888  became  organist 
and    choirmaster    at    the   Church    of    the 


I  ^■^ 


PAIiKEli 


Holy  Trinity,  Madison  Avenue,  New  York. 
"Works:  Concert  overture,  in  E-flat,  given 
in  Munich,  1884  ;  Psalm  xxiii.,  for  female 
chorus,  organ,  and  harp,  ib.,  1884  ;  Ro- 
mance for  chorus  and  orchestra,  ib.,  1884  ; 
Symphony  in  C  major,  orchestra,  ib.,  1885  ; 
Kegulus,  heroic  overtui-e,  ib.,  1885  ;  King 
Trojan,  ballad  for  chorus  or  orchestra,  ib., 
1885  ;  String  quartet  in  F  major,  Garden 
City,  188G  ;  Der  Normanuenzug,  ballad  for 
male  chorus  and  orchestra.  New  York,  1889 ; 
Chamber  music  ;  Organ  and  pianoforte  mu- 
sic ;  Songs  and  jiart-songs  for  male,  female, 
and  mixed  voices. 
r.\ItKER,  JAjMES  cutler  DUNN, 
born,  of  Amer- 
ican parentage, 
in  Boston,  Mas- 
sachusetts, June 
2,  1828,  still  liv- 
ing, 1890.  Or- 
ganist; was 
g  r  a  d  u  ated  at 
Hai-vard  Col- 
lege in  1848, 
and  began  to 
study  law,  but 
soon  gave  it  up  for  mu.sic,  and,  after  prelim- 
inary- study  in  Boston,  went  in  1851  to  Eu- 
rope and  studied,  in  Leipsic,  the  pianoforte 
under  Moscheles  and  Phiidy,  hai'mony  un- 
der Hauptmann,  and  composition  under 
Rietz  and  Richter.  In  1854  he  returned  to 
Boston  and  soon  took  a  prominent  jilace  as 
organist,  leader,  and  instructor.  In  1862  he 
organized  the  Parkiu'  Club,  an  amateur  vo- 
cal association  which  gave  classical  works 
with  success.  He  has  been  organist  of  the 
Handel  and  Haydn  Sociot\',  and  for  the  past 
twenty-four  years  organist  and  choir  direc- 
tor of  Trinity  Cluu-ch,  Boston  ;  and  has 
held  a  2)rofessorship  in  the  College  of  Mu- 
sic connected  with  the  Boston  University. 
"Works :  Redemption  Hymn,  for  contralto 
solo  and  chonis,  wi-itten  for  the  fourth  trien- 
nial festival  of  the  Handel  and  Haydn  Soci- 
ety, May  17,  1877  ;  The  Blind  King,  cantata, 
188G  ;  Church  music.     Didactic :  Manual  of 


Sterndale  Bennett. 


Harmony  (1855)  ;  Theoretical  and  Practical 
Harmony  (1870). 
PARKER,  LOXnS  NAPOLEON,  born  at 
Calvados,  France,  Oct. 
21,  1852,  still  living, 
1890.  I'ianist ;  studied 
in  Italy,  France,  and 
Germany,  and  fro  m 
1870  at  the  Royal  Acad- 
emy of  ]\Iusio,  London, 
under  Harold  Thomas, 
"Walworth ,  B  a  n  i  s  t  e  r, 
Steggall,  Cusins,  and 
In  1874  he  was  elected 
an  Associate  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Mu- 
sic, and  he  has  been  since  1877  director 
of  music  in  the  King's  School,  Sherborne. 
Works  :  Silvia,  dramatic  idyl,  text  by  Sew- 
ard Mariner  (Walter  Raymond),  for  four 
solo  voices,  chorus,  and  small  orchestra, 
1880  ;  Psalm  xxiii.,  motet  for  female  voices  ; 
The  Wreck  of  the  Hesperus,  trio  for  female 
voices,  text  by  Longfellow  ;  Cantate  Do- 
mino and  Deus  misereatur  ;  Overtures  for 
orchestra  (MS.)  ;  "Violin  music  ;  Pianoforte 
music ;   Songs. 

PARLAR,     SPIEGAR.      See     vl/o.s^     in 
Egitto. 

PARJIENTIER,  CHARLES  JOSEPH 
THEODORE,  born  at  Barr  (Bas-Rhin), 
3*Iarch  14,  1821,  still  living,  1890.  Ama- 
teur composer,  general  in  the  French  army, 
where  he  served  with  distinction  in  the 
coqjs  of  engineers,  and  took  part  in  the 
campaigns  in  the  Crimea,  1855,  Italy,  1859, 
and  France,  1870-71  ;  was  wounded  at 
Wiirth,  and  taken  prisoner  at  Sedan.  He 
is  the  husband  of  the  violin  virtuoso  Te- 
resa Milanollo.  Works  :  Grande  polonaise 
de  Weber,  for  orchestra  ;  2  polkas  for  do.; 
4  pieces  and  fugue  for  organ  ;  9G  preludes 
and  versets,  do. ;  Nocturnes,  barcarolles,  ca- 
prices, etc.,  for  pianoforte  ;  Choruses  for  4 
male  voices  ;  Romances  ;  German  songs  and 
Balladen. — Fetis  ;  do.,  Supplement,  ii.  304. 
PARNASSO  CONFUSO,  IL  (Parnassus 
in  Confusion),  festa  teatralo  in  one  act,  text 
by  Metastasio,  music  by  Gluck,  first  reprc- 


84 


PAENASSO 


sented  in  the  palace  of  Sclionbrunn,  Jan. 
23,  1765,  on  the  wedcling  day  of  Josejsli  11. 
and  Maria  Josepha  of  Bavaria,  for  which 
occasion  both  tlie  text  and  music  were 
written.  The  Archduke  Leopold  conducted 
and  accompanied  the  play  on  the  clavecin. 
The  part  of  Apollo  was  sung  by  the  Prin- 
cess Amalia,  and  the  Three  Graces,  hy  Eliz- 
abeth, Charlotte,  and  Josephine. —  Marx, 
Gluek  und  die  Oper,  i.  33.'5  ;  Sehmid,  Ritter 
von  fUiK^lc,  115. 

PAI'iNASSO  IN  FESTA,  Italian  sercnata 
by  Handel,  first  represented  at  the  King's 
Theatre,  London,  March  13, 1734,  in  honour 
of  the  marriage  of  the  Princess  Anne  with 
the  Prince  of  Orange,  which  took  place  on 
the  following  day.  The  royal  family  was 
I^resent  at  the  first  performance  ;  the  work 
was  repeated  several  times.  It  was  given 
without  dramatic  action  and  in  one  gayly 
decorated  scene,  representing  Mount  Par- 
nassus, with  Apollo  and  the  Muses  seated, 
celebrating  the  marriage  of  Peleus  and 
Thetis.  The  work  contains  only  thirteen 
new  airs,  the  rest  of  the  music  being  ta- 
ken from  Handel's  oratorio,  Athaliah,  which 
had  not  been  heard  in  London  at  that 
time,  and  to  which  ho  afterwards  added  sev- 
eral new  airs  from  the  Paruasso  in  Festa. 
Characters  represented  :  Apollo  (S.)  ;  Orfeo 
(S.) ;  Cho  (S.)  ;  Calliope  (S.) ;  Cloride  (A.) ; 
Eurilla  (A.) ;  Euterpe  (A.) ;  Proteo  (B.) ;  and 
chorus  of  nymphs  and  shepherds.  At  the 
close  of  the  wedding  ceremony,  March  14, 
the  choir  sang  an  anthem,  "This  is  the 
day,"  with  orcliestral  accompaniments,  the 
music  of  which  was  selected  by  Handel 
from  Athaliah,  the  Parnasso  in  Festa,  and 
the  seventh  Chandos  Anthem.  The  MS. 
conducting  score  of  this  and  of  the  Par- 
nasso in  Festa  are  in  the  Public  Library, 
Hamburg.  In  each  the  music  is  in  Smith's 
handwriting  and  the  text  in  Handel's.  The 
Parnasso  in  Festa  was  published  by  the 
Hiindelgesellschaft,  Breitkojjf  &  Hilrtel 
(Leipsic,  1878). — Chrysander,  Hilndel,  ii. 
319,  358  ;  Scha-lcher,  "Hilndel,  103  ;  Rock- 
stro,  201 ;  Burncy,  iv.  374. 


PARRATT,  WALTER,  born  at  Hudders- 
field,  Yorkshire,  England,  Feb.  10,  1841, 
still  living,  1890.  Organist,  pupil  of  his 
father,  Thomas  Parratt  (organist  at  Hud- 
dersfield),  and  in  Loudon  of  George  Cooper. 
Organist  at  Armitage  Bridge  Church,  1852  ; 
St.  Paul's,  Huildersfield,  1854-GO  ;  at  Wit- 
ley  Court,  Worcestershire,  18G1-G7  ;  Wigan 
Parish  Church,  18CS-71  ;  Magdalen  College, 
Oxford,  1872-81  ;  appointed  to  St.  George's 
Cliapel,  Windsor,  in  1882,  vice  Sir  George 
Job  Elvej'.  In  1873  he  became  Mus.  Bac, 
Oxford,  and  in  1883  professor  of  the  organ 
in  the  Eoyal  College  of  Music.  Works  : 
Music  to  Agamemnon,  given  at  Oxford, 
1880,  and  to  The  Story  of  Orestes,  Prince's 
Hall,  188G  ;  Anthems  ;  Songs  ;  Organ  music. 

PARRY,  CHARLES  HUBERT  HAST- 
INGS, born  at  Bournemouth,  Feb.  27, 1848, 
still  living,  1890.  Instrumental  and  vocal 
composer,  educated  at  Eton  and  Christ 
Church,  Oxford  ;  pupil  of  Elvej',  and  in 
Stuttgart  of  Pierson  ;  in  London,  of  Mac- 
farren  and  Dannreuther.  Mus.  Bac,  1870  ; 
Mus.  Doc,  Oxford  ;  do.,  Cambridge  (hon- 
orary degree),  1883  ;  professor  at  Eoyal 
College  of  Music  ;  choragus  of  Oxford  Uni- 
versity :  professor  of  composition  and  mu- 
sical history  in  Royal  College  of  Music. 
Works :  Scenes  from  Shelley's  "  Prometheus 
Unbound,"  for  soli,  chorus,  and  orchestra, 
Gloucester  Festival,  1880;  Music  to  "The 
Birds"  of  Ai-istophanes,  Cambridge,  1883; 
Judith,  oratorio,  Birmingham  Festival, 
1888  ;  Ode  for  chorus  and  orchestra  ;  Guil- 
lem  de  Cabestanh,  overture.  Crystal  Palace, 
1879  ;  Symjshony  in  G,  Birmingham,  1882  ; 
do.  in  F,  Cambridge,  1883  ;  do.  in  C,  Phil- 
harmonic Society,  Loudon,  May  23,  1889  ; 
Suite  moderuc,  Gloucester  Festival,  188G  ; 
Concerto  for  pianoforte  and  orchestra ; 
Nonet  for  wind  instruments ;  Quartet  for 
pianoforte  and  strings ;  2  trios  for  do. ; 
Quintet  for  strings  ;  Quartet  for  do. ;  So- 
nata for  j)ianoforte  and  violin  ;  2  sonatas  for 
pianoforte  and  violoncello  ;  Sonatas  for  pi- 
anoforte ;  Duo  for  2  pianofortes  ;  O  Lord, 
thou  hast,  cantata ;  Morning  and  Evening 


86 


PAERY 


Service  ;  3  Odes  of  Anacreon  ;  Charakter- 
bilder,  for  pianoforte  ;  Songs,  etc. — Grove  ; 
Riemann  ;  Crystal  Palace  Programmes 
(1878-79),  523. 

PARRY,  JOHN,  born  at  Denbigh,  North 
Wales,  Feb.  18, 1776,  died  in  London,  Apul 
8,  1851.  Clarinet  player  and  teacher,  com- 
I^oser  of  songs  and  dramatic  music.  He 
received  his  earliest  education  from  a  danc- 
ing master,  joined  the  band  of  the  Den- 
bighshire militia  in  1795,  became  master 
in  1797,  resigned  in  1807 ;  settled  in  Lon- 
don as  teacher  of  flageolet.  He  was  en- 
gaged in  1809  to  compose  songs  for  Vaux- 
hall  Gardens,  and  adapted  English  vrords 
to  many  Welsh  melodies.  He  composed 
the  music  for  the  extravaganzas.  Harlequin 
Hoax,  1814  ;  Oberon's  Oath,  181G  ;  and 
High  Notions,  1817  :  and  wrote  both  text 
and  music  for  Fair  Cheating,  1814  ;  Helji- 
less  Animals,  1818  ;  Two  Wives,  1821  ;  My 
Uncle  Gabriel,  etc.  He  also  adapted  music 
for  Ivanhoe,  1820,  and  Caswallon,  a  tragedy, 
1829.  He  was  for  many  years  conductor  of 
the  Cynimrodorion  .and  Eistcddvod.an,  or 
Congresses  of  Welsh  bards,  hold  in  various 
places  in  Wales ;  received  in  1821  the  de- 
gree of  Bard  d  Alaw,  or  Master  of  Song. 
He  was  author  of  An  Account  of  the  Rise 
and  Progress  of  the  Harp  ;  An  Account  of 
the  Royal  Musical  Festival  held  in  West- 
minster Abbey  in  1834,  of  which  he  w.as  sec- 
retary. Was  nuisical  critic  for  the  "Morn- 
ing Post "  from  1834  to  1848.  He  imblished 
also  a  collection  of  Welsh  melodies  under 
the  title  of  the  "  Welsh  Harper." — Grove  ; 
FtJtis  ;  Riemann,  G7G  ;  Mendel. 

PARRY,  JOSEPH,  born  at  Merthyr-Tyd- 
vil,  Wales,  May  21,  1841,  still  lining,  1890. 
Dramatic  composer,  son  of  Daniel  Parry, 
■who  removed  to  the  United  States  in  1853. 
Joseph  returned  in  a  few  years,  and  after 
receiving  some  instruction  in  music  at  his 
native  place  went  back  to  America,  where  he 
continued  his  studies.  In  18G8,  through 
the  aid  of  Brinley  Rich.ards  and  others,  he 
was  enabled  to  enter  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Music   in  London,  where  he  studied  until 


1871  under  Sterndale  Bennett,  Garcia,  and 
Steggall.  A  bronze  medal  was  awarded 
liiin  in  1870,  a  silver 
one  in  1871,  and  in  the 
same  year  his  overture 
to  the  Prodigal  Son 
was  given  at  the  Acad- 
cmj-.  In  1871-78  he 
was  professor  of  music 
at  the  University  Col- 
lege at  Aberystwith, 
in  1879-8G  principal 
of  the  Music  College 
of  Wales  at  Swansea,  and  since  then  has  been 
professor  at  Cardiff  University.  Mus.  Bac, 
Cambridge,  1871  ;  Mus.  Doc,  ib.,  1878. 
Works  :  Blodwen,  opera,  Aberdare,  and  Al- 
exandra Palace,  London,  1878  ;  2  other  op- 
eras (MS.) ;  Emmanuel,  oratorio,  St.  James's 
Hall,  London,  May  12,  1880  ;  2  other  ora- 
torios (]MS.)  ;  G  overtures ;  Sj'mj^hony  for 
full  orchestra  ;  Anthems  ;  Druids'  Chorus, 
1888,  and  other  cantatas  ;  400  songs ;  Piano- 
forte music,  etc — Grove  ;  Riemann. 

P.;VRSIFAL,  a  festival  stage-consecration 
play  in  three  acts,  text  and  music  by  Rich- 
ard Wagner,  first  represented  at  Bayreuth, 
July  2G,  1882,  with  the  following  cast: 

Ainfortas  (Bar.) Herr  Roichmann. 

Titurcl  (B.) Herr  Kindcrmaiin. 

Gurnemanz  (B.) Herr  Scaria. 

Parsifal  (T.) Herr  Winckelmann. 

Klingsor  (B.) Herr  Carl  Hill. 

Kundi-y  (S.) Frau  Materna. 

The  action  takes  place  in  and  near  the 
Castle  of  Mon.salvat,  Spain,  where  the  Holy 
Grail  is  kept,  and  whence  came  Lohengrin, 
son  of  Parsifal  (called  Parzivid  in  Lohen- 
grm),  in  his  swan-boat,  to  the  rescue  of 
Elsa  of  Brabant.  The  Holy  Grail,  the 
crystal  chaUce  used  by  Christ  at  the  eu- 
charist  and  in  which  Joseph  of  Arimathea 
caiight  the  Saviour's  blood  after  the  lance- 
thrust,  is  in  charge  of  the  Knights  of  the 
Holy  Grail,  who  derive  from  it  all  their 
sustenance,  physical  as  well  as  spiritual. 
In  order  to  share  in  the  benefits  to  be  de- 


8C 


PAESIFAL 


rived  from  its  adoration,  tbo  Kuiglits  are 
required  to  lead  lives  of  purity.  Amfortas, 
their  king,  who  has  fallen  from  this  estate, 
is  suffering  from  a  wound  received  in  an 
encounter  with  the  magician  Klingsor. 
Klingsor,  who  aspired  to  become  a  Knight 
of  the  Grail  but  had  been  rejected,  studied 
the  magic  arts  and  created  for  himself  a 
fairy  j)alace  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain  on 
which  stands  the  castle,  peopling  it  with 
beautiful  women  to  tempt  the  Knights  of 


WincVelmann,  as  Parsifal. 

the  Grail.  Kundry,  one  of  these  women, 
beguiles  Amfortas,  who  falls  into  the  power 
of  Klingsor,  and  loses  the  holy  spear — the 
spear  with  which  the  Saviour's  side  was 
pierced — receiving  from  it  a  wound  which 
will  never  heal  until  the  coming  of  "  der 
reiueThor"  (the  gxiileless  fool),  appointed 
to  cure  him.  Parsifal  (whose  name  Wagner 
derives  from  two  Ai-abic  words  signifying 
"  foolish  pure-one  "),  who  has  been  reared  by 
his  mother  in  ignorance  of  the  world,  has 
his   chivalric   nature   aroused   by  sight  of 


some  knights,  and  starts  out  in  search  of 
adventure,  armed  only  with  his  bow  and 
arrows.  He  shoots  a  swan  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  Castle  of  the  Grail,  where  all  animals 
are  sacred,  and  when  questioned  by  Gurne- 
manz,  one  of  the  Knights  of  the  Grail,  ap- 
pears to  be  unaware  that  he  has  committed 
any  wrong.  In  hope  that  he  may  prove  to 
be  der  reine  Thor,  he  is  led  into  the  great 
hall  of  the  castle  and  permitted  to  witness 
the  adoration  of  the  Grail.  Parsifal  is  be- 
wildered at  the  splendour  of  the  holy  vessel, 
which  glows  with  ever-increasing  light,  and 
at  the  ceremonial,  but  acknowledges  that 
he  does  not  understand  the  rite  and  is 
ignominiously  cast  out.  The  second  act  is 
in  the  palace  and  gardens  of  Klingsor,  who, 
recognizing  Parsifal  as  the  promised  re- 
deemer, turns  all  his  magic  powers  against 
him  ;  but  Parsifal  overcomes  wicked  knights 
sent  against  him  and  is  proof  against  the 
fascinations  of  the  flower-maidens  who  seek 
to  seduce  him.  Kuudry,  who  leads  a  dual 
life — in  the  service  of  the  Knights  of  the 
Grail  as  well  as  in  that  of  the  sorcerer — 
also  fails  ;  but  Parsifal,  who  siiuriis  her, 
learns  from  her  kiss  the  meaning  of  all  that 
has  taken  place,  and  demands  to  be  led  to 
Amfortas.  She,  declaring  he  shall  never 
find  the  way  to  the  castle,  summons  Kling- 
sor, who  hurls  the  sacred  spear  at  Parsifal. 
It  remains  suspended  in  the  air,  and  Parsi- 
fal, grasjDing  it,  makes  with  it  the  sign  of  the 
cros.s,  and  the  enchanted  palace  disajijiears  ; 
Parsifal  and  Kundry  are  left  alone  in  a 
desert,  and  while  she  sinks  to  the  ground 
he  turns  from  her  to  seek  the  Castle  of  the 
Grail.  In  the  third  act  Parsifal,  after  wan- 
dering for  years,  at  last  meets  Gurnemanz, 
now  an  old  man  living  as  a  hermit  in  the 
forest,  where  Kundry  is  serving  him.  Gur- 
nemanz, recognizing  the  sacred  spear,  hails 
him  king,  and  Parsifal,  after  baptizing 
Kundry,  is  led  to  Monsalvat  just  as  the 
tolling  bells  announce  the  funeral  of  Titu- 
rel,  father  of  Amfortas.  Parsifal  heals  the 
wound  of  Amfortas  by  touching  it  with  the 
spear,  and,  while  Kundry  dies  in  the  joy  of 


87 


PARSONS 


repentance  and  the  others  kneel  in  homage, 
proclaims  himself  Iving  of  the  Grail  and 
raises  on  high  the  chalice  amid  the  joyful 
chants  of  the  knights.  Parsifal,  like  Lo- 
hengrin, is  founded  on  the  Ai-thurian  legend 
of  the  Holy  Grail,  and  follows,  with  some 
changes,  the  metrical  romance  of  "Parzi- 
val,"  by  Wolfram  von  Eschenbach.  The 
poem  of  Parsifal  was  published  by  Schott 
(llainz,  1877) ;  the  sketch  of  the  first  act  was 
completed  in  the  spring  of  1878,  the  second 
act,  Oct.  11,  the  third,  April,  1879,  and  the 
orcliestration  was  finislied  at  Palermo,  Jan. 
13,  1882.  The  Vorspiel  was  first  performed 
privately  by  the  Meiiiingcn  orchestra,  un- 
der the  composer's  direction,  at  Bayreuth, 
Christmas,  1878.  It  was  given  sixteen 
times  at  Bayi'euth  in  1882,  and  was  rejieated 
in  1883, 1881, 188G,  and  1889.  It  was  sung 
as  an  oratorio  by  the  Royal  Albert  Hall 
Choral  Society,  London,  Nov.  10  and  15, 
1884,  and  by  the  Oratorio  Society  of  New 
York,  March  4,  188G.  Full  score  iDublished 
by  Schott  (Mainz,  1882) ;  pianoforte  score, 
by  Jo.seph  llubinstein  (ib.,  1882).  English 
translation  by  H.  L.  and  F.  Corder  (ib., 
1882). — Wagner,  Gesammelte  Schriften,  x. 
417;  Pohl,  Wagner,  323;  Nohl,  Wagner 
(Upton),  159  ;  Wolzogen,  Leitfadcn  durcli 
Parsifal  ;  Bartsch,  Parcifal  (1870-72) ; ! 
Brachvogel,  Parcival  (Berlin,  1877) ;  Wolf- 
ram von  Eschenbach,  Parcival  aus  dcm 
Mittelhochdeutschen  von  Sau-Marte  (A. 
Schulz,  Leipsic,  1858) ;  Wolfram  von  Esch- 
enbach, Parcival  Fragmente  vom  Titurel 
luid  Willehelm  und  Lieder-Lachmann  ; 
Wolfram  von  Eschenbach,  Parcival  Epos  ; 
Carl  Simrock,  Parcival,  dritte  Auflage  (1857); 
Eichberg,  Pai-sifal  (Leipsic,  1882) ;  Mayer- 
]\Iarkau,  Parsifal  (:Magdeburg,  1882) ;  Max 
Gutenhaag,  Parsifal  (Leipsic,  1883) ;  All- 
gem,  deutsche  mus.  Zeitg.  (1877),  No.  49  ; 
Bayreuther  Blatter  (1878),  95,  119,  222  ; 
(1879),  12,  47,  GG,  lOG  ;  (1881),  112,  181, 
206,  238,  272,  342  ;  (1882),  189  ;  (1883),  57, 
264  ;  (1884),  97  ;  (1885),  27  ;  (1886),  41,  69, 
103;  (1888),  277;  Neue  Zeitschr.  (1882), 
301,  341,  353,  361,  429,  471,  527  ;  (1883), 


318;  (1884),  317,  326;  (1888),  387,  399; 
Mus.  Wochenblatt  (1882),  313,  325,  337, 
357,  369,  395,  606  ;  (1883),  369,  386  ;  (1884), 
457,  469 ;  Signale  (1882),  641 ;  Athenteum 
(1882),  ii.  151,  183  ;  (1884),  ii.  633  ;  Acad- 
emy (1882),  ii.  91,  109;  (1888),  ii.  169; 
Ki-ehbiel,  Review  (1885-86),  159;  Grove, 
iv.  364  ;  Upton,  Standard  Operas,  308. 

PARSONS,  ALBERT  ROSS,  born,  of 
American  parentage,  in  Sandusky,  Ohio, 
Sept.  16,  1847,  still  living,  1890.  Organist 
and  pianist ;  he  studied  in  1854-56  the 
pianoforte  under  Robert  Denton  in  Buffalo, 
in  1863-66  the  pianoforte  and  theory  under 
Dr.  F.  L.  Ritter  in  New  York,  and  in  1867- 
69,  at  the  Leipsic  Conscrvatorium,  piano- 
forte under  Moscheles,  Reinecke,  Weuzel, 
and  Pappeiitz,  and  countei'point  and  fugue 
under  E.  F.  Richter  and  Oscar  Paul.  The 
following  j'ear  ho  studied  in  Tausig's  High 
School  for  Pianists,  in  Berlin,  iiianoforte 
under  Tausig,  and  harmony,  counterpoint, 
and  fugue  under  C  F.  Weitzmann,  and 
in  1871,  in  the  same  city,  at  Kullak's  New 
Academy  of  Music,  pianoforte  under  Kul- 
lak  and  composition  tinder  Richard  Wiierst. 
On  his  return  to  America  he  settled  in  New 
York,  where  he  has  since  resided.  He  has 
occupied  tlic  following  jrositions  :  1861-62, 
organist  of  Third  Pre.sbyteriau  Church, 
Indianapolis  ;  1863-66,  organist  of  First 
Baptist  Church,  Indianapolis  ;  1873,  princi- 
])al  of  department  of  instrumental  music 
in  New  York  Institute  for  the  Bhnd  ;  1874- 
79,  organist  of  First  Reformed  Episcopal 
Church,  New  York  ;  1875,  editor  of  "  Ber- 
ham's  Musical  Review ; "  1877,  editor  of 
"  The  Orpheus,"  New  York  ;  1879-85,  or- 
ganist of  Church  of  the  Holy  Trinitj',  New 
York  ;  since  1885  organist  of  Fifth  Avenue 
Presbyterian  Church,  New  York.  In  1889 
he  was  elected  ^jresident  of  the  Music 
Teachers'  National  Association.  He  is 
the  translator  and  editor  of  the  follow- 
ing :  Wagner's  "  Beethoven,"  Lessmann's 
"  Liszt,"  Kullak's  "  Comjjlete  Works  of 
Chopin,"  HoUilnder's  "  Complete  Works  of 
Schumann,''  and    other    works   of   impor- 


PARTAGEZ-VOUS 


tance  ;  and  has  edited  and  annotated  many 
pieces  for  instructive  purposes.  His  orig- 
inal compositions  include  songs,  vocal  quar- 
tets, etc. 

PAETAGEZ-VOUSMESFLEURS.  See 
HamJet. 

PARTANT  POUR  LA  SYRIE,  French 
song,  text  by  Count  Alexandre  de  Laborde, 
music  by  Queeu  Hortense,  written  in  1809. 
It  was  suggested  by  a  picture  which  the 
Queen  showed  Count  Laborde,  representing 
a  knight  cutting  an  inscription  on  a  stone 
Avith  his  sword.  Louis  Napoleon  took  his 
mother's  melody  for  a  national  air  when 
he  ascended  the  throne  of  France  in  1853, 
and  it  was  arranged  for  military  bands. 
Drouet  claims  to  have  had  a  share  in  its 
composition,  and  a  claim  has  been  made  for 
Narcisse  Carbonel,  Queen  Hortense's  accom- 
panist. Dussek  wrote  variations  for  the  pi- 
anoforte in  E-flat  on  this  tune. — Grove  ; 
Larousse  ;  Mile  Cochelet's  (Mnie  Parquiu) 
Momoires  sur  la  Eeine  Hortense,  i.  4.5  ; 
Masson,  La  Lyre  franraise,  lOG. 

PART  DU  DL\BLE,  LA,  opura-comique 
iu  three  acts,  text  by  Scribe,  music  by 
Auber,  first  represented  at  the  Opera  Co- 
mique,  Paris,  Jan.  IG,  1843.  Subject,  Philip 
V.  of  Spain,  who  after  the  death  of  his  sou 
had  fallen  into  a  state  of  despair  and  melan- 
choly, and  is  restored  to  health  by  the  jDOwer 
of  music  through  the  singing  of  Farinelli 
(Carlo  Broschi),  whom  the  Queen  employs 
for  this  purpose.  Afterwards  Farinelli  plays 
the  part  of  Satan  in  order  to  win  Philip's 
consent  to  the  union  of  a  young  student, 
Rafael  d'  Estuniga  and  Caselda,  Farinelli's 
sister,  with  whom  the  King  also  is  in  love. 
Mme  Rossi-Caccia  sang  the  part  of  Farinelli 
ill  the  original  cast.  The  opera  was  given 
iu  Berlin  and  Leijssic  in  1843.  Published 
by  Schott  (Mainz,  1843).— Clement  et  La- 
rousse, 514  ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  slv.  8G1. 

PARTENIO,  GIOVANNI  DOMENICO, 
died  at  Venice  in  1701.  Dramatic  and 
church  composer,  of  a  family  from  Friuli, 
who  had  settled  at  Venice.  He  became  a 
priest,  and  was  at  first  a  singer  in  the  ducal 


chapel  of  S.  Marco,  where  he  succeeded 
Legreuzi  as  second  maestro  di  cappella,  in 
1G85.  Shortly  after  this  he  founded  the 
philharmonic  society,  and  in  1090  was  made 
director  of  the  Couservatorio  de'  Mendicanti ; 
in  1G92,  maestro  di  cappella  at  S.  Marco. 
Works — Operas  :  Genserico,  Venice,  1GG9  ; 
La  costanza  trioufaute,  1G73  ;  Diouisio, 
1G81  ;  Flavio  Cuniberto,  1082.  Much 
church  music. — Fetis. 

PARTENOPE,  Italian  opera  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Silvio  Stampiglia,  nuisic  by  Handel, 
first  represented  at  the  King's  Theatre,  Lon- 
don, Feb.  24,  1730.  The  original  score,  in 
Buckingham  Palace,  is  dated  at  the  end  of 
the  first  act,  Jan.  14  ;  at  the  end  of  the  opera, 
Feb.  12,  1730.  Besides  the  overture  there 
are  in  this  work  four  sinfonie — short  in- 
strumental interludes — and  many  beautiful 
arias.  The  aria,  "  Furibondo  spira  il  vento," 
has  been  published  with  additional  accom- 
jsanimeuts  by  Robert  Franz  (Kistner,  Leip- 
sic).  Burney  considers  this  one  of  Han- 
del's best  ojjeras.  Original  cast :  Par- 
tenope.  Queen  of  Parthenope  (Naples),  and 
lover  of  Ai'sace  (S.),  Signora  Strada  ;  Ros- 
mira.  Princess  of  Cyprus  and  lover  of  Arsace 
(A.),  Signora  Merighi ;  Arsace,  Prince  of 
Corinth,  once  lover  of  Rosmira,  now  of 
Partenoi^e  (C),  Signor  Bernacchi ;  Armindo, 
Prince  of  Rhodes,  lover  of  Partenope  (A.), 
Signora  Bertolli  ;  Einilio,  Prince  of  Cuma, 
lover  of  Partenope  (T.),  Signor  Fabri ;  Or- 
monte,  cajjtaiu  of  the  guards  of  Partenope 
(B.),  Signor  Riemschneider  ;  and  chorus  of 
soldiers  and  people  of  Najjles.  The  opera 
was  given  only  seven  times  during  the  first 
season,  but  it  was  revived  the  following 
year  and  received  seven  more  representa- 
tions, when  several  alterations  were  made, 
especially  in  cutting  the  recitatives.  Par- 
tenope was  translated  into  German  by  H. 
Wend,  and  represented  in  Hamburg  with 
recitatives  by  Reinhard  Keiser  in  1733. 
Published  by  Walsh  ;  Hiindelgesellschaft, 
Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel  (Leipsic,  1879).  Other 
Italian  operas  of  the  same  title  :  By  Cal- 
dara,  Venice,  1707  ;  by  Luca  Antonio  Pre- 


89 


PASCAL 


dieri,  Bologna,  1719  ;  bj'  Sarri,  IMetastasio's 
text,  Naples,  1722  ;  by  Porpora,  ib.,  about 
1742  ;  by  J.  A.  Hasse,  Vienna,  1767  ;  a 
dramatic  cantata  by  Kossini,  Naples,  May 
9,  1819 ;  and  Partenope,  by  Cordelia,  Na- 
ples, about  1830. — Cbrysander,  Handel,  ii. 
237  ;  Buruey,  iv.  344^349. 

PASCAL,  FLORIAN.  See  Williams, 
Joseph. 

PASCAL,  PEOSPER,  born  in  France 
about  1825,  still  living,  1890  (?).  Dramatic 
comjjoser,  and  musical  critic.  "Works  :  Le 
reman  de  la  rose,  given  in  Pai-is,  Theatre 
Lyiique,  1854  ;  La  nuit  aux  gondoles,  ib., 
18G1 ;  Le  cabaret  des  amours.  Opera  Co- 
mique,  1862  ;  Fleur  de  lotus,  Baden-Baden, 
1864  ;  Les  Temijliers,  grand  opera.  Les 
chants  de  la  veillue,  collection  of  vocal 
melodies. — Fetis,  Supplement,  ii.  305. 

PASMORE,  HENRY  BICIvFORD,  bora, 
of  English  pai'entage,  in  Jackson  Township, 
"Wisconsin,  June  27,  1857,  still  living,  1890. 
Organist  ;  began  the  study  of  music  in 
San  Francisco  when  twenty  years  old, 
pupil  on  the  organ  and  in  harmony  of  John 
P.  Morgan,  and  in  singing  of  S.  J.  Morgan. 
In  1882  he  went  to  Leijjsic,  and  studied 
hai-mony  and  composition  under  S.  Jadas- 
sohn and  C.  Reiuecke,  and  singing  under 
Frau  "Uuger-Haujit  ;  then,  in  London,  sing- 
ing under  William  Shakespeare  and  R.  H. 
Cummings.  On  his  return  to  America  he 
settled  in  San  Francisco,  where  he  is  organ- 
ist of  St.  John's  Episcopal  Church  ;  also 
professor  of  vocal  music  in  University  of 
the  Pacific,  San  Jose,  "^'orks :  Conclave 
March,  for  orchestra,  performed  at  Sinfonie- 
Conzert,  Leii^sic,  1883  ;  Overture  to  Miles 
Standish,  performed  at  Leipsic  Conserva- 
torium  concert,  1884  ;  Suite  for  organ  and 
string  orchestra ;  Tarantelle  for  pianoforte  ; 
Kyrie  from  Mass  in  F  ;  Mass  in  B-flat ; 
Rainy  Day,  Sechs  Lieder,  Sea  Song,  Stars 
of  the  Summer  Night,  Those  Evening  Bells, 
Among  the  Heather,  and  other  songs  ;  also, 
pai't-songs  for  male  voices. 

PASQUINI,  BERN.IRDO,  born  at  Massa 
di  Valnevola,  Tuscany,  Dec.  8,  1637,  died 


in  Rome,  Nov.  22,  1710.  Organist,  pupil 
of  Loreto  Vittori  and  of  Antonio  Cesti,  but 
foi'med  himself  chiefly  by  studying  the 
works  of  Palestrina  ;  went  to  Rome  when 
quite  young,  and  became  organist  at  S.  M. 
Maggiore  ;  later  received  the  title  of  organ- 
ist to  the  Senate  and  the  Roman  j^eople, 
and  was  also  chamber  musician  to  Prince 
Borghese.  "Works  :  Dov'  e  amor  e  pietu, 
opera,  Rome,  1679  ;  Allegorical  drama,  ib., 
1686  ;  La  forza  d'  amore,  ojsera ;  La  sete 
di  Crislo,  oratorio  ;  Toccates  et  suites  pour 
le  clavecin  (Amsterdam,  1704) ;  Organ  mu- 
sic ;  Saggi  di  contrapinmto  (1695). — Fetis  ; 
Mendel ;  Schilling. 

PASSACAGLIA,  a  work  for  the  organ,  in 
C  minor,  by  Johanu  Sebastian  Bach,  written 
in  "Weimar  between  1717  and  1723.  Its 
form,  a  dance-form,  consisting  of  a  short 
theme  on  a  ground  bass  elaborated  with 
contrapuntal  devices,  was  a  favourite  one 
with  the  organ  and  harjisichord  composers 
of  the  17th  and  18th  centuries.  The  work 
was  published  by  the  Bachgesellschaft, 
year  xv.,  Orgelwerke,  vol.  i.  The  first  cho- 
rus of  the  cantata,  "Weinen,  Klagen,  Sorgen, 
Zageu  (Bachgesellschaft,  year  ii.,  Kirchen- 
cantateu,  ii..  No.  12),  contains  a  passacaglia 
the  theme  of  which  is  again  used  in  the 
cantata,  Jesu,  der  du  meine  Seele  (Bach- 
gesellschaft, year  xviii.,  voL  viii.,  No.  78). 
Other  noted  jjassacaglias  are  by  Buxtehude, 
Frescobaldi  (Toccate  d'  Intavolatura,  vol. 
i.),  and  by  Handel  (Suite  vii.  and  Sonata 
iv.  of  Vn.  Sonatas  or  Trios).  There  are 
also  passacagUas  in  Gluck's  operas,  and 
some  cui-ious  examples  in  Salvatore  Maz- 
zella's  "Balli,  Correnti,  Gighe,  Gavotte, 
Brande,  e  Gagliarde,  con  la  misura  giusta 
per  ballare  al  stile  Inglese  "  (Rome,  1689). 
— Spitta,  Bach,  i.  276  ;  ii.  234,  650  ;  Spitta, 
Bach  (Bell),  i.  279  ;  ii.  405  ;  iii.  170  ;  Grove, 
ii.  661  ;  Schcelcher,  Handel,  174. 

PASSARINI  (Passerini),  Padre  FRAN- 
CESCO, born  at  Bologna  dui-ing  the  fii-st 
half  of  the  17th  century,  died  there  in  1698. 
Church  comi^oser,  Franciscan  friar,  was  aji- 
pointed  maestro  di  cappella  in  the  convent 


ao 


PASSION 


of  his  order  in  1657,  ami  resumed  that  posi- 
tion after  having  fulfilled  the  same  functions 
at  Viterbo  in  1674:-S0.  Works  :  Salmi  con- 
certati  a  3-G  voci  con  violini,  etc.  (Bologna, 
1G71) ;  Antifone  della  Beata  Vergine  a  voce 
sola  (ib.,  1C71)  ;  Compieta  concertata  a  5 
voci,  con  violini  obligati  (ilx,  1072)  ;  Misse 
brevi  a  otto  voci  col'  organo  (ib.,  1G90). 
— Potis. 

PASSION,  German  oratorio,  text  from 
Barthold  Hermann  Brockes'a  poem,  "Der 
fiir  die  Siindcu  der  Welt  gemartete  und 
sterbende  Jesus,"  music  by  Handel,  first 
performed  in  Hamburg  in  1717.  This, 
Handel's  onlj'  German  oratorio,  was  written 
during  his  visit  to  Hamburg  with  George  L 
It  is  different  in  treatment  from  his  other 
oratorios  and  shows  the  influence  of  Keiser 
and  Steffani.  Characters  represented  :  Ma- 
ria, Drei  Mi'igde,  Tochter  Zion,  and  Gli'iu- 
bige  Seele  (S.)  ;  Judas,  Johannes,  Jacobus, 
Kriegesknecht,  and  Glaubige  Seele  (A.) ; 
Evangelist,  Petrus,  and  Glaubige  Seele  (T.) ; 
Jesus,  Caiphas,  Pilatus,  Hauptmann,  and 
Glaubige  Seele  (B.) ;  and  chorus.  The  work 
contains  a  sinfonia,  arias,  recitatives,  and 
choruses.  The  duet  between  Maria  and 
Jesus,  "  Soil  mein  Kind,  meiu  Leben  ster- 
ben,  Ja  ich  sterbe  dir  zu  gut,"  was  worked 
over  for  the  duet  in  Eather,  "  Who  calls  my 
parting  soul  from  death.  Awake  my  soul,  my 
life,  my  breath,"  and  the  Daughter  of  Zion's 
aria.  Die  ihr  Gottes  Gnad'  versaiimet,  was 
again  used  in  the  air,  "In  Jehovah's  awfid 
sight," in  Ikhoruh.  The  originalMS.  islost, 
but  several  autograph  transcriptions  are  ex- 
tant, two  in  Buckingham  Palace,  two  in  the 
Royal  Library,  Berlin  ;  and  one,  partly  in 
Johann  Sebastian  Bach's  handwriting.  It 
was  first  published  by  the  Hilndelgesell- 
schaft,  Chrysander's  edition,  Breitkopf  & 
Hiirtel  (Leipsic,  1863).  The  same  poem 
was  set  by  Eheinhard,  Keiser,  Hamburg, 
170J:;  by  Gottfried  HeinrichStoelzel,  Prague, 
1715  ;  by  Telemann,  Hamburg,  1716  ;  and 
by  Mattheson,  ib.,  1718.  Handel  wrote  also 
a  Passion  cantata,  in  two  parts,  on  Postel's 
version  of  the  Passion  according  to  Saint 


John,  Hamburg,  1704.  The  autograph  in 
the  Konigliche  Bibliothek,  Berlin,  was  ed- 
ited by  Chrysander  and  published  by  the 
Hiindelgesellschaft,  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel 
(Leipsic,  18G0).— Chrysander,  Handel,  i. 
88-102,  427-449  ;  Rockstro,  32,  101 ;  Schoil- 
cher,  45  ;  Maitland,  GO ;  Wiuterfeld,  Der 
evangeliche  Kirchengesang,  iii.  128,  164, 
179,  195  ;  Athenffium  (1872),  i.  215. 

PASSION — nach  dem  Evangelisten  Mat- 
tliilus,  in  two  parts,  text  selected  from  the 
Bible,  St.  Matthew,  chapters  sxvi.  and 
xsvii.,  by  Picander  (Christian  Friedrich 
Henrici)  and  J.  S.  Bach,  music  by  Johann 
Sebastian  Bach,  first  performed  at  St. 
Thomas's  Church,  Leipsic,  Good  Friday, 
April  15,  1729.  This  surpasses  all  other 
works  on  the  same  theme.  The  text,  con- 
tained in  Picander 's  "  Scherzhaffte  und  sa- 
tyrische  Gedichto "  (vol.  ii.,  101),  is  writ- 
ten partly  in  the  dramatic  and  partly  in 
the  epic  form.  An  Evangelist,  the  prin- 
cipal tenor,  relates  certain  events ;  but 
Christus,  Petrus,  Pilatus,  and  other  persons 
speak  in  the  words  assigned  to  them  in  the 
Bible.  The  arias  and  choi-uses,  called  Soli- 
loquire  at  the  time  of  their  composition, 
are  meditations  and  exj^ressions  of  sorrow 
ujion  the  events  acted  and  narrated.  The 
double  choruses  of  fanatical  Jews,  or  loviusr 
disciples,  in  the  dramatic  form,  are  in  intri- 
cate part-writing.  The  congregation  was 
expected  to  join  in  the  chorals,  repre- 
senting the  voice  of  the  entire  Christian 
Church,  and  the  sermon  was  delivered  be- 
tween the  parts  of  the  oratorio.  Part  I. 
treats  of  the  conspiracy  of  the  High  Priests 
and  Scribes  ;  the  anointing  of  Christ  ;  the 
institution  of  the  Lord's  Supper  ;  the  praj'er 
on  the  Mount  of  Olives ;  and  the  betrayal 
by  Judas.  Part  II.,  of  the  hearing  before 
Caiajjlias  ;  Peter's  denial  ;  Pontius  Pilate's 
judgment ;  Judas's  death  ;  the  progress  to 
Golgotha  ;  and  the  crucifixion,  death,  and 
burial  of  Christ.  The  music  is  written  for 
two  choruses,  each  with  its  separate  or- 
chestra and  organ  accomjianiment,  but  in 
the  less  dramatic  numbers  and  chorals  they 


PASSION 


are  combined  into  ouo  clioir.  The  open- 
ing double  chorus,  "  Kommt  ibr  Tijchter, 
helft  mir  Klagen,"  sung  by  the  Daughters 
of  Zion  and  believers,  has  the  addition  of 
a  third  choir,  Soprano  ripieuo,  which  sings 
the  choral  melody,  "  O  Lamm  Gottes  un- 
schuldig,"  one  of  the  finest  numbers  in  the 
work.  All  of  the  solos  by  biblical  persons, 
excepting  the  false  witnesses,  are  supported 
b}'  the  first  chorus.  The  Evangelist  and 
other  sjieakers  sing  in  recitativo  secco, 
and  Jesus  is  accompanied  by  the  strings. 
Among  the  fourteen  chorals  the  one,  "  0 
Haujjt  voll  Blut  und  Wunden,"  occiu-s  five 
times,  each  time  with  new  words  and  har- 
mony. The  work  was  revised  by  Bach  and 
extended  into  its  present  form  and  given 
about  1740-41.  The  original  score  is  in  the 
Kijnigliche  Bibliothek,  Berlin,  which  also 
possesses  a  cojiy  in  Bach's  autograph.  An- 
other coj)y  is  owned  by  the  Berlin  Singaka- 
demie,  and  one,  in  Kiriiberger's  writing,  is 
in  the  Joachimsthal  Gymnasium,  Berlin. 
The  oratoi'io  was  revived  by  Mendelssohn, 
and  first  given  under  his  direction  by  the 
Singiikademie,  Berlin,  March  11,  21,  and 
24,  1829.  The  solo  singers  were  Herr 
Stumer,  the  Evangelist ;  Herr  Devrient, 
Christ ;  Herr  Bader,  Herr  Busolt,  Mme 
^Milder,  Mme  Tiirrschmidt,  Frl.  Blanc,  and 
Frl.  von  Schiitzel.  This  work  was  first  given 
in  Brcslau,  April  3,  1829 ;  in  Dresden, 
Ajnil  3,  1833  ;  selections  in  Paris,  Jan.  12, 
1840  ;  in  Vienna,  1802  ;  in  London,  by  the 
Bach  Society,  under  W.  S.  Bennett's  direc- 
tion, April  6,  1854  ;  in  St  Martin's  Hall, 
March  23,  1858  ;  at  St.  James's  Hall,  Feb. 
15,  1871  ;  at  Westminster  Abbey,  April  13, 
1871,  and  IMarch  28,  1872  ;  and  it  is  fre- 
quently given  during  Passion  week,  and  at 
the  musicial  festivals  in  England.  It  was 
first  giv(ai  in  America  by  the  Handel  and 
Haydn  Society,  Boston,  May  8,  1874  ;  and 
by  tlie  Oratorio  Society,  New  York,  March 
18,  1880.  Published  by  Schlesinger  (Ber- 
lin, 1829) ;  French  translation  by  Maurice 
Bourgcs,  ib.  (Paris,  1844)  ;  by  Trautwein 
(Beriin,    1829)  ;    by    the    Bachgesellschaft 


(year  iv.),  edited  by  Julius  Rietz  and  re- 
vised by  W.  llust,  by  Breitkopf  <fc  Hiirtel 
(Leijisic,  1854) ;  by  Novcllo,  with  an  intro- 
duction by  Macfarren  (London) ;  edition  by 
Julius  Stern,  by  Peters  (Leipsic,  18G0-G7) ; 
and  with  additional  accompaniments  by 
Robert  Franz,  by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel  (Leip- 
sic, 1860-67) ;  and  by  Leuckart  (Leipsic, 
1860-67). 

Bach  left  five  settings  of  the  Passion,  the 
most  important  of  which,  next  to  the  ]Mat- 
thiius,  is  the  Passion  uach  dcm  EvangeUsten 
Johannes,  in  two  parts,  first  performed  at 
St.  Nicholas's  Church,  Leipsic,  Good  Friday, 
April  7,  1724.  This  is  supjiosed  to  have 
been  written  at  Cothen  in  1723.  The  text 
was  selected  from  the  Bible  by  Bach,  who 
adopted  some  verses  of  Brockes's  Passion 
poem  for  the  arias.  It  is  written  for  a 
single  chorus  with  orchestra  and  organ  ac- 
comjianiment.  Several  of  the  chorals  set 
to  Stockmann's  hymn,  "Jesu  Leiden,  Pein 
und  Tod,"  are  in  Bach's  most  exquisite 
style,  and  the  arias  are  among  the  finest  that 
he  ever  wrote.  The  work  originally  opened 
with  the  chonis,  "  O  Mensch  bewcin  dein 
Siinde gross,"  wlucli  Bach  afterwards  cutout, 
transposed  from  E-flat  to  E,  and  inserted 
into  the  Matthew  Passion,  when  he  revised 
it  in  1740,  and  it  closed  with  a  choral 
chorus,  "  Christe  du  Lamm  Gottes,"  now 
the  last  number  of  the  cantata,  Du  wahrer 
Gott.  It  treats  of  the  betrayal  of  Jesus 
by  Judas  ;  Peter's  denial  ;  the  scene  with 
Pilate  ;  the  cries  of  the  Jews  for  the  cruci- 
fixion ;  the  division  of  the  garments  ;  the 
agony  of  the  cross  ;  and  a  final  Requiem. 
This  work  was  first  given  in  Berlin,  March 
21,  1833  ;  in  London,  under  Mr.  Barnby, 
March  22,  1872.  The  oldest  copy  of  the 
original  score  is  lost,  but  one  of  Bach's 
later  copies  is  in  the  Konigliche  Bibliothek, 
Berlin.  This  was  edited  by  W.  Rust  for 
the  Bachgesellschaft  (year  xii.),  and  jjub- 
lished  by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel  (Leipsic, 
1862). 

Between  the  writing  of  the  first  and  sec- 
ond parts  of  the  St.  John  Passion,  Bach  is 


PASSION 


snp250sed  to  have  composed  another  Passion 
oratorio  on  a  text  by  Picander,  written  for 
Good  Friday,  1725.  The  music  is  lost  but 
the  test  remains.  The  Bible  narrative  is 
recited  by  an  Evangelist,  and  the  characters 
represented  are  Christ,  Peter,  John,  and 
Mary.  There  are  no  dramatic  choruses, 
and  only  two  chorals  are  introduced. 

The  Passion  nach  dem  Evangelisten  Lucas 
is  supposed  by  some  authorities  to  be  the 
earliest  of  Bach's  comi^ositions  on  this  theme. 
It  is  thought  to  have  beeu  written  for  Good 
Friday,  1733,  but  the  King  Elector  of  Sax- 
ony died  in  that  year  and  there  was  a  gen- 
eral mourning.  It  is  supposed  that  Bach  set 
the  work  aside,  finished  it  in  173i,  and  gave 
it  at  St.  Thomas's  Church  on  Good  Friday 
of  that  year.  There  are  only  eight  lyric 
numbers,  but  there  are  thirty-one  chorals, 
among  which  Johann  Flittner's  hynin,  "  Je- 
su  meines  Herzeus  Freudo,"  occurs  many 
times.  The  authenticity  of  this  work  is, 
however,  more  than  doubtful,  and  m'any 
excellent    authorities,    among    them    Men- 


by  three  Deacons,  but  in  1585  Vittoria  made 
a  polyphonic  setting  of  words  uttered  by 
the  crowd,  Turbfs,  which,  intermingled  with 
the  chants  of  the  Deacons,  were  so  effec- 
tive that  they  were  continued  in  use.  Pub- 
lished by  Gardano  (Rome,  1585).  Portions 
of  this  were  published  by  R.  Butler  (Lon- 
don). Francesco  Suriano  also  made  a  po- 
lyphonic setting  for  four  voices  of  these 
words,  his  last  work  (Rome,  1G19),  included 
in  Proske's  "  Musica  Divina  "  (vol.  iv.).  The 
old  church  form  of  the  Passion  contained  a 
dramatic  germ  which  developed  into  the 
jMystery  and  Miracle  plays,  originally  per- 
formed in  the  churches,  and  some  valuable 
sf)ecimens  of  the  music  to  these  plays  are 
extant.  The  Passion  music  borrowed  its 
form  from  the  contemporary  sacred  drama, 
and  the  German  Passion  music,  which 
reached  its  climax  with  Bach,  was  devel- 
oped through  these  old  forms  and  the  in- 
fluence of  the  Italian  oratorio  into  a  sin- 
gular compound,  both  simjile  and  intricate. 
S.   Gregory  Naziauzen  (330-390)  was  the 


delssolm  and  Robert  Franz,  have  denied  it  i  first  to  arrange  the  history  of  the  Passion 
altogether.     It  has  been  published  by  H. 
Durffel  (Breitkopf    &  Hiirtel,  Lcipsic   and 
Brussels,  1887).     See   Prieger,    Echt   oder 
unccht?  (Berhu,  1889). 

The  Passion  nach  dem  Evangelisten  Mar- 
cus, in  two  jiarts,  was  first  given  in  St. 
Thomas's  Church,  Leii^sic,  on  Good  Friday, 
1731.  The  text,  which  is  by  Picander,  is 
thought  to  have  been  adapted  to  the  music, 
written  originally  for  the  Traue7--0de  on 
the  Electress  of  Saxony  (1727).  Five  lyric 
pieces  are  preserved  in  this  ode  (Bachge- 
scUschaft,  year  xiii.). 

The  earliest  known  Cantus  Passionis  is 
a  solemn  Plain  Chaunt  Melod}',  which  was 
handed  down  by  tradition,  a  version  of 
which  was  published  at  the  instance  of 
Pope  Sixtus  v.,  by  Giudetti,  under  the  title, 
"Cantus  ecclesiasticus  Passionis  Domini 
nostri  Jesu  Christi  secundum  Matthfeum, 
Marcum,  Lucam,  et  Johanncm "  (Rome, 
1586).  From  the  beginning  of  the  13th 
century  until  the  IGth  the  Passion  was  sung 


in  a  dramatic  form.  In  the  IGth  century 
the  German  text  came  into  general  use. 
The  principal  settings  arc  by  Jakob  Obrecht, 
1538,  in  Georg  Rhau's  collection,  "  Harmo- 
nire  selecfro  quatuor  vocum  de  Passione 
Domini "  (Wittenberg,  1538) ;  Orlando  di 
Lasso,  for  five  voices  (Patrocinimn  Musices, 
vol.  iv.,  Munich,  1575) ;  Jakob  Reiner  (1559- 
(?)  IGOG),  three  Passions  (Proske's  Library)  ; 
Johann  Walther,  St.  Matthew  and  St.  John, 
1530,  fi'om  the  four  Gospels,  in  German, 
1552  ;  Balthasar  Resinarius,  1541 ;  a  MS. 
in  the  Royal  Library,  Vienna,  Meissen, 
1559  ;  Antonius  Scadellus,  about  15G0 ; 
Clemens  Stephani,  text  by  Buchau,  Nurem- 
berg, 1570  ;  Ludwig  Daser,  Munich,  1578  ; 
Jakob  Gallus,  copy  in  Kr)nigsberg,  1587  ; 
Bartholomiins  Gese,  1588,  published  in  F. 
Commer's  "Musica  Sacra,"  voL  vi.  (Berlin) ; 
Three  Passions  after  Matthaus  in  Matt. 
Ludecus's  Vesperale  e  Mattutinale,  1589  ; 
Johann  Machold,  Erfurt,  1593,  MS.  in  Kr.- 
nigsberg ;    Melchoir    Vulpius,     1C13 ;    Th. 


93 


PASSION 


Mancimis,  1620,  reprinted  in  Sehuberlein's  ] 
Scliatz  des  liturgischen  Chor  imd  Gemein- 
degesangs,  part  ii.,  362  ;  Christoph  Deman- 
tius,  Freiburg,  1631,  copy  of  MS.  in  Pirna ; 
Christoph  Schultz,  Leipsic,  1653  ;  Heinrich 
Schiitz,  Siebeu  Worte  des  Erlosers  am 
Kreuz,  16-15,  published  by  Riedel  (Leipsic, 
1870) ;  Historia  des  Leidens  und  Sterbcns 
unsers  Herrn  und  Heilandes  lesu  Christi 
(1665-66) ;  Giovanni  Sebastiani,  KOnigs- 
berg,  1672,  MS.  in  Konigsberg;  Johann 
Theile,  Liibeck,  1673 ;  Funcke,  Liineburg, 
1683,  MS.  in  Liineburg;  J.  C.  Eothe, 
Sondershausen,  1697,  MS.  in  Sonders- 
hausen  ;  Reinhardt  Keiser,  test  by  Hunold, 
Der  blutige  und  sterbende  Jesus,  Ham- 
burg, 1701 ;  on  Brockes'a  text,  ib.,  1712  ; 
Handel,  text  by  Postel,  ib.,  1704  ;  text 
by  Brockes,  ib.,  1716  ;  The  Messiah,  Dublin, 
1711 ;  Gottfried  Heinrich  Stoelzel,  Prague, 
1715  ;  Telemanu,  Hamburg,  1716 ;  Mar- 
kus-Passion,  1725 ;  Mattheson,  Hamburg, 
1718  ;  Johann  Kuhnan,  Leipsic,  1721 ; 
Kramer,  Arnstadt,  1735  ;  Karl  Heinrich 
Graun,  Der  Tod  Jcsu,  text  by  Ramber,  Ber- 
lin, 1756 ;  by  J.  F.  Doles,  same  test,  Leip- 
sic, 1759 ;  Karl  Philipp  Emanuel  Bach, 
22  Passions  ;  Chi-istoph  Ehrcgott  Weinlig, 
Leipsic,  1780 ;  J.  H.  Rolle,  8  Passion.s, 
1780  ;  J.  Abr.  P.  Schulz,  Christi  Tod,  Co- 
penhagen, 1792  ;  J.  G.  Schicht,  Die  Feier 
der  Christen  auf  Golgotha  and  Das  Ende 
des  Gerechten,  Leipsic,  1785  ;  F.  Schneider, 
Gethsemane  und  Golgotha,  1838  ;  E.  F. 
Ricliter,  Clu'istus  der  Eloser,  Leipsic,  March 
8,  1819  ;  and  Fricdrich  Kiel,  Berlin,  1871. 
Oratorios :  Chi'isto  al  limbo  and  La  morte 
del  giusto,  by  Giac.  Perti,  Bologna,  1698  ; 
La  morte  di  Chiisto,  by  Ant.  Gianettini, 
Vienna,  1704  ;  La  morte  vinta  sul  Calvario, 
by  "M.  Ant.  Ziani,  text  by  P.  A.  Bernard oni, 
ib.,  1706  ;  and  La  passiono  uelF  orto,  by 
the  same,  ib.,  1708  ;  La  passione  di  Christo, 
by  Attilio  Ariosti,  ib.,  1709  ;  Christo  nell' 
orto,  by  J.  J.  Fux,  test  by  Pariati,  ib.,  1718  ; 
La  deposizione  della  croce  di  Gosii  Christo, 
by  the  same,  ib.,  March  23,  1728  ;  La  pas- 
sione di  Gesti  Christo,  by  Antonio  Caldara, 


text  by  Metastasio,  ib.,  April  4,  1730  ;  same 
text  by  Gius.  Venturelli,  Modena,  1735  ;  La 
virtti  appie  deUa  croce,  by  J.  A.  Hasse, 
Dresden,  1737  ;  I  pellegrini  al  sepolcro,  ib., 
1742  ;  La  deposizione  della  croce  di  Gesil 
Christo,  text  by  Pasquini,  Dresden,  1744 ; 
same  title,  by  Ad.  Schiirer,  ib.,  1755 ;  by 
J.  Gottfried  Naumann,  ib ,  1769  ;  by  Ign. 
Holzbauer,  Mannheim,  1773  ;  La  morte  di 
Christo,  by  Jos.  Mysliwcczck,  about  1775  ; 
by  Ant.  Salieri,  Vienna,  1776 ;  by  Josef 
Schuster,  Dresden,  1778  ;  by  Luc.  Xavier 
dos  Santos,  Lisbon,  1783  ;  by  Giovanni  Pai- 
siello,  Warsaw,  1784,  Bologna,  1790 ;  G. 
Andreozzi,  Naples,  1792  ;  S.  Mayr,  Forli, 
1794 ;  Die  sieben  worte  des  ErlOsers  am 
Ivreuz,  Vienna,  by  Haydn,  1798  ;  I  peWe- 
grini  al  sepolcro,  J.  G.  Naumann,  Dresden, 
1798  ;  by  Gius.  Niccolini,  Naples,  1799  ;  by 
Dom  Cercia,  about  1800  ;  Christus  am  Oel- 
berge,  by  Beethoven,  1815  ;  by  F.  Pacr, 
about  1810  ;  by  Pietro  Raj,  Monza,  1807  ; 
by  Josef  Weigl,  text  by  Carpani,  Vienna, 
1811 ;  by  F.  Morlacchi,  Dresden,  1812  ;  by 
Michael  Costa,  Naples,  1827  ;  by  Josef 
Eisner,  Warsaw,  1844 ;  and  Franz  Liszt, 
Chnslus,  Rome,  1867. — Spitta,  Bach,  ii. 
307-400;  do.  (BeU),  ii.  477-569;  Bitter, 
Bach,  i.  315-423  ;  Mosewius,  J.  S.  Bachs 
Matthaus  -  Passion  musikalisch  -  ilsthetisch 
dargestellt  (Berlin,  1852) ;  Wintcrfcld,  Der 
evangehche  Kirchengesang,  iii.  364 ;  Bit- 
ter, Gesehichte  des  Or.atoriums,  198  ;  Poole, 
Bach,  88  ;  La  Mara,  Mus.  Studienkiijjfe,  iv. 
104;  Grove,  ii.  540,  663;  Allgem.  mus. 
Zeitg.,sssi.  234,  258,  601';  sxxiii.  265,  285, 
302 ;  xxsv.  257,  294,  323  ;  Berliner  mus. 
Zeitg.  1829).  65,  73,  79,  89,  97,  121 ;  (1830), 
105,  153,  157  ;  Neue  Zeits.,  xiv.  99  ;  xviii. 
57,  61,  65,  69,  73,  77,  85  ;  (1887),  374,  558  ; 
Hanslick,  Concertwesen  in  Wien,  ii.  242  ; 
Hensel,  The  Mendelssohn  Family,  i.  170  ; 
AthenfEum  (1854),  469;  (1858),  i.  409; 
(1872),  i.  409  ;  Bitter,  Emanuel  und  Fricde- 
mann  Bach,  i.  274  ;  Vierteljahrsschrift  fiir 
Musikwissenschaft  (1888)  iv.  471  ;  Monats- 
hefte  fiir  Musikgesehichte,  iii.  97  ;  v.  77  ; 
xi.  71,  87;  Ai-rey  von  Dommer  Handbuch 


94 


PASSIONE 


der  mus.  Geschichte,  243  ;  Eeissmann,  Ge- 
scbiclate  der  Musik,  ii.  18G3 ;  Sebastian!, 
Kurze  Nachricbt  wie  die  Passion,  etc.,  ge- 
sungen  wird  (1686),  in  the  Koyal  Library  of 
Konigsberg. 

PASSIONE  DI  GESU  CRISTO,  LA, 
oratorio  in  two  parts,  text  by  Metastasio, 
music  by  Salieri,  first  performed  by  the 
Tonkiiustler  -  SocietJit,  Vienna,  in  1777. 
Same  text,  oratorio  by  Caldara,  Vienna, 
1730  ;  and  German  translation,  music  by 
Eberlin,  at  the  Convent  of  the  Benedictines, 
Salzburg,  1755. 

PASSIONE,  LA,  symphony,  in  F  minor, 
by  Haydn,  sujjposed  to  have  been  written 
in  1773.  I.  Adagio  ;  II.  Allegro  di  molto  ; 
in.  Menuet;  IV.  Presto.  Eieter-Bieder- 
mann's  Catalogue,  No.  1. — Pohl,  Haydn,  ii. 
265. 

PASTORALE  EN  MUSI  QUE,  LA, 
French  opera,  text  by  the  Abbe  Perrin,  mu- 
sic by  Cambert,  first  rej^resented  privately 
at  Issy,  April,  1689.  It  was  the  first  French 
ojjera. — CK'ment  et  Larousse,  516. 

PASTORAL  SYIMPHONY.  See  Sinfonia 
pastorale. 

PASTORAL  SYMPHONY,  a  short  com- 
position for  strings,  in  Handel's  Messiah, 
inserted  to  introduce  the  scene  of  the 
"  Shejjherds  abiding  in  the  fields."  This 
air,  marked  Pifa  in  Handel's  MSS.  and  in 
Smith's  transcriptions,  is  an  ancient  Cala- 
brian  melody  which  Handel  heard  played 
by  the  peasants,  called  Pifferari,  on  the 
Piffero  (fife)  in  the  streets  of  Rome  during 
his  visit  there  in  1709.  It  was  scored  for 
strings  only,  with  a  third  violin  part,  which 
has  often  been  left  out.  When  the  name  Pas- 
toral Symphony  was  given  to  it  is  not  known. 
Wright,  Randall,  and  Abell's  edition  of  the 
Messiah  (Loudon,  1768)  bears  the  word 
Pifa  ;  but  Arnold's  earlier  edition  calls  it 
"  Sinfonia  Pastoralle."  Dr.  Rimbault,  in 
his  edition  of  the  Messiah  for  the  Handel 
Society  of  London  (Loudon,  1850),  gives 
the  origin  of  the  air,  and  says  it  was  in- 
cluded in  a  MS.  collection  of  hymns  (1630). 
Similar  tunes,  under  the  title  of  Partheuia, 


are  contained  in  Playford's  "  Musick's  Hand- 
maid "  (1678),  and  in  Crotch's  "  Specimens 
of  Various  Styles  of  Music,"  where  the  air 
is  called  a  Siciliana.  This  title  is  given  also 
to  short  orchestral  movements  in  other  ora- 
torios by  Handel. — Rockstro,  Handel,  55, 
237  ;  Schcelcher,  Handel,  28-1 ;  Grove,  ii.  671. 
PASTOR  FIDO,  IL  (The  Faithful  Shep- 
herd), Italian  opera  in  three  acts,  text  by 
Giacomo  Rossi,  music  by  Handel,  first  rep- 
resented at  the  Queen's  Theatre,  London, 
Nov.  26,  1712.  The  subject  was  taken  from 
a  pastoral  by  Battista  Guarini,  represented 
and  published  in  Venice  in  1590.  The 
greater  part  of  the  original  autograph  has 
been  lost ;  but  fragments  of  the  second  and 
third  acts,  and  the  final  chorus,  dated  Lon- 
don, Oct.  24,  1712,  arc  in  the  second  vol- 
ume of  "  Songs  and  Sketches  "  in  Bucking- 
ham Palace,  where  the  conducting  score, 
with  the  exception  of  the  overture,  may  be 
found.  Several  of  the  airs  were  used  again 
for  later  ojaeras,  and  many  oboe  passages  in 
the  aria,  "Ritorna  adesso  Amor  con  la  Spe- 
ranza,"  were  introduced  into  the  overture  to 
Esther.     Original  cast : 

Mirtillo  (S.) Cavaliere  Valeriano. 

Amarilli  (S.) Margarita  de  I'Jiipine. 

Eurilla  (S) La  Pilotti  Schiavonetti. 

Silvio  (A.) Signor  Valentini. 

Doriuda  (A.) Mrs.  Barbier. 

Tirenio  (B.) Richard  Leveridge. 

The  opera  was  revived  by  Handel  at  Covent 
Garden,  Nov.  9,  1734.  "  Favourite  songs 
in  Pastor  Fido  "  were  published  by  Walsh 
(London,  1734).  The  opera  was  first  pub- 
lished by  the  Hiindelgesellschaft,  with  a  res- 
toration of  the  overture,  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel 
(Leipsic,  1876).  Other  operas  of  the  same 
title :  In  English,  by  Sir  Richard  Faushaw, 
Loudon,  1646  ;  by  E.  Settle,  ib.,  1677  ;  in 
Italian,  after  Guarini,  music  by  Luigi  Pie- 
tragrua,  Venice,  1721  ;  by  Apollini,  Venice, 
1739;  by  Salieri,  text  by  da  Ponte,  Vienna, 
1789.— Chrysander,  Hiiudel,  ii.  363 ;  Rock- 
stro, 76  ;  Schffilcher,  167  ;  Ck'ment  et  La- 
rousse, 516  ;  Burney,  iv.  234,  377. 


95 


PATIENCE 


PATIENCE,  ffisthetic  English  opera  in 
two  acts,  text  by  Gilbert,  music  by  Sullivan, 
first  represented  at  the  Opi'ra  Comique, 
Strand,  London,  April  25,  1881,  with  the 
following  cast : 

Patience  (S.) Miss  Leonora  Braham. 

Bunthorne  (T.) Mr.  Grossmith. 

Lady  Jane  (A.) Miss  Alice  Baruett. 

Ai-chibald  Grosvenor  (B.) . Mi'.  II.  Barrington. 

It  is  a  droll  satii-e  on  sestheticism,  and  was 
very  successful  in  London  and  in  New 
York,  where  it  was  first  given  at  the  Stand- 
ard Theatre,  Sept.  22,  1881.  Published  by 
Cliappoll  &  Co.  (Loudon,  1881). — Atheureum 
(1881),  i.  GOl  ;  Academy  (1881),  i.  32C  ;  Pall 
j\Iall  Budget  (April  29,  1881)  ;  New  York 
Tribune  (Sept.  23,  1881). 

PATRIE,  overture  for  orchestra,  by 
Georges  Bizet,  first  performed  at  the  Con- 
cert Populairo,  Paris,  iu  1871.  This  is  one 
of  Bizet's  last  works,  and  it  was  given  at 
the  composer's  memorial  concert,  Paris, 
Oct.  31, 1875.  Pubhshed  by  Eiirstner  (Ber- 
hn,  1874). 

PATlilE,  oder  die  Erben  des  weissen 
Berges  (The  Heirs  of  the  White  Mountain), 
hymn  for  mixed  chorus  to  words  by  Halck, 
music  by  Dvoi-:'ik,  originally  published  as 
op.  4,  reissued  as  op.  30  by  Novello  &  Co. 
(London). — Grove,  iv.  G23. 

PAT  HIE,  French  opera,  text  by  Sardou, 
nuisic  by  Paladilhe,  first  rei^resented  at  the 
Oi)ora,  Paris,  Dec.  IC,  18SC.  It  was  well 
received. 

PATRIOTIC  HYMN,  by  An tonin  Dvorak. 
See  ratric. 

PATTISON,  JOHN  NELSON,  born,  of 
American  parentage,  at  Niagara  Falls,  New 
York,  Oct.  22,  1815,  stDl  Uviug,  1890. 
Pianist,  early  showed  musical  talent,  and  at 
fifteen  had  some  reputation  as  a  performer  ; 
soon  after  he  went  to  Europe,  and  again  in 
18G2,  and  studied  in  Berlin,  Leij^sic,  Paris, 
and  Loudon,  and  has  had  as  teachers  Liszt, 
Thalberg,  Henselt,  and  von  Billow  on  the 
pianoforte,  and  Haupt  in  harmony.  Since 
his  second  return  to  America  he  has  per- 


formed in  more  than  800  concerts  in  the 
United  States  ;  and  has  made  concert  tours 
with  Parepa  Eosa, 


Al- 
and 


Among 


Miss  Kellogg, 
bani,  Lucca, 
others. 

his  more  notable 
performances 
were  his  recitals 
at  the  Centennial 
Exhibition,  Phila- 
delphia ;  he  has 
played  also  with 
-'  ■  success   at    the 

concerts  of  the  New  York  and  Brooklyn 
Philharmonic  Societies.  His  works  consist 
of  more  than  200  compositions ;  among 
them  the  following :  In  the  Forest,  The 
Dawn  of  Day,  Dreamland,  The  Village  IMill 
"WTieel,  Marche  militaire,  for  the  piano- 
forte ;  Concert  overture,  in  A  minor,  for 
grand  orchestra,  performed  iu  Berlin,  and 
by  Thomas's  Orchestra  iu  New  York  ;  Niag- 
ara, grand  symphony  for  orchestra  and  mil- 
itary baud ;  Concerto  fantaisie-romantique, 
for  pianoforte  and  orchestra. 

PATTISON,  THOM.iS  IVIEE,  bom  at 
Warrington,  England,  Jan.  27,  1815,  still 
living,  1890.  Organist  of  St.  Paul's  church, 
Wan-iugton,  smce  18G9.  Works  :  The 
Happy  Valley,  opera  ;  The  Ancient  Mar- 
iner, cantata,  1885  ;  Lay  of  the  Last  Min- 
strel, do.,  1885  ;  Anthems ;  Organ  and 
pianoforte  music. 

PAUER,  ERNST,  born  in  Vienna, 
21,  182G,  still  living, 
1890.  Pianist,  sou  of 
the  general  superin- 
tendent of  the  L u- 
theran  churches  o  f 
Austria,  and  pupil 
o  f  Theodor  Dirzka, 
of  Wolfgang  Amadeus 
Mozart  the  younger, 
and  of  Sechter  in 
Vienna,  then  of  Franz 

Lachner  in  Munich.     He  became  director 
of  musical  societies  iu  Maiuz  iu  1847,  and 


Dec. 


96 


PAUKENSCHLAG 


played  in  London  with  success  in  1851.  In 
1852  he  married  the  singer  Miss  Andrea 
of  Frankfort-on-the-Main,  and  then  settled 
in  London.  In  18G1  he  began  giving  his- 
torical recitals  of  pianoforte  music,  played 
within  a  few  years  iu  Holland,  Leipsic, 
Munich,  and  Vienna,  and  was  made  Aus- 
trian court  pianist  iu  18GG.  From  1870  he 
lectured  on  the  history  of  music  in  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland ;  succeeded  Cipriani 
Potter  in  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music  ;  in 
ISTGhecame  in'ofessor  at  the  National  Train- 
ing School  for  Music  at  Kensington  Gore  ; 
and  in  1878  was  a  member  of  the  musical 
board  of  Cambridge  University,  being  made 
examiner  the  nest  year.  He  has  rendered 
great  service  by  publishing  editions  of  clas- 
sical composers.  Hanslick  calls  him  the 
first  pastor  of  German  music  in  Loudon. 
Works — Operas  :  Don  Riego,  Mannheim, 
1849 ;  Die  rothe  Maske,  ib.,  1850  ;  Die 
Brautsehau  Friedrichs  des  Grossen,  ib., 
18G1.  Symphony  in  C  minor,  oj).  50 ; 
Quartet,  quintet,  jiianoforte  music,  and 
songs  ;  Arrangements  of  Schumann's  sym- 
jjhonies  and  Mendelssohn's  pianoforte  con- 
certos. He  edited :  Alte  Klavier-Musik  ; 
Alte  Meister ;  Old  English  Composers  for 
the  Virginals  and  Harpsichord ;  classical 
composers,  from  Bach  and  Handel  to  Schu- 
mann, in  Augener's  edition  ;  New  Gradus 
ad  Parnassum,  containing  100  studies, 
some  by  himself  ;  Primer  of  the  Pianoforte, 
and  Elements  of  the  Beautiful  in  Music 
(187G)  ;  and  Primer  of  Musical  Forms 
(1878).— Grove  ;  Vl^irzbach  ;  Mendel  ;  Rie- 
mann  ;  Fetis ;  do.,  Supplement,  ii.  311  ; 
Hanslick,  Concertwesen  in  "Wien,  326. 

PAUIvENSCHLAG,  SINFONIE  MIT 
DEM,  iu  G,  by  Haydn.  I.  Adagio  cauta- 
bile,  vivace  assai ;  H.  Andante  ;  IH.  Menu- 
etto  ;  rV.  Allegro  di  molto.  It  is  known 
in  England  and  America  as  the  Sui'^srise 
Symphony.  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel  edition. 
No.  G ;  Peters,  No.  4 ;  London  Philhar- 
monic Catalogiie,  No.  3. 

PAUKENWIRBEL,  SINFONIE  MT 
DEM,  in   E-flat,   by  Haydn,   supposed   to 


have  been  written  in  1795.  I.  Adagio,  Al- 
legro con  spirito  ;  H.  Andante  ;  HI.  Menu- 
etto  ;  IV.  Allegro  con  spirito.  Breitkopf  & 
Hilrtel's  edition.  No.  1  ;  Peters,  No.  1 ; 
London  Philharmonic  Catalogue,  No.  8. 

PAUL  ET  VIRGINIE,  French  opera  in 
three  acts,  text  by  Dubreuil,  music  by  Le- 
sueur,  first  represented  at  the  Theatre  Fey- 
deau,  Paris,  Jan.  13,  1794  The  libretto  is 
founded  on  the  romance  of  Bernardin  de 
Saint-Pierre,  but  the  story  is  greatly 
changed.  The  hymn  of  the  Indians  to  the 
rising  sun,  "  Divin  soleil,  ame  du  monde," 
was  long  sung  at  concerts  after  the  opera 
had  been  withdrawn  from  the  stage. — Cle- 
ment et  Larousse,  517. 

PAUL  ET  VIRGINIE,  French  opera  in 
three  acts  and  seven  tableaux,  text  by  Mi- 
chel Carre  and  Jules  Barbier,  music  by 
Victor  Masse,  first  represented  at  the  Ojjera 
National  Lyrique,  Paris,  Nov.  15,  187G. 
The  libretto  is  from  Bernardin  de  Saint- 
Pierre's  romance.  Original  cast :  Paul,  M. 
Capoul  ;  Virgiuie,  Mile  Cijcile  Ritter  ;  Mme 
de  La  Tour,  Mme  Sallard  ;  Marguerite,  Mme 
Teoni ;  Meala,  Mme  Engally  ;  M.  de  Saiute- 
Croix,  M.  Melchisedech ;  Domingue,  M. 
Bouhy  ;  M.  de  La  Bourdonnais,  M.  Bonnefoy. 
This  oj)era  is  one  of  Masse's  best  works. 
It  was  given  at  Covent  Garden,  Loudon,  in 
Italian,  with  M.  Capoul  as  Paul  and  Mile 
Albaui  as  Virginie,  June  1,  1878,  and  first 
iu  New  York,  March  28,  1883.  The  score, 
dedicated  to  M.  Capoul,  was  published  by 
Theodore  Michaelis  (Paris,  1878)  and  by 
Chappell  tt  Co.  (Loudon).  Other  operas  of 
the  same  title,  in  French  :  By  Rudolj)he 
Kreutzer,  text  by  Favieres,  Paris,  Jan.  15, 
1791  ;  by  Lesueur,  text  by  Dubreuil,  ib., 
Jan.  13,  1794  ;  by  Denis  Robert,  Port  Louis, 
Mauritius,  Oct.  30,  187G.  Iu  Italian :  Paolo 
e  Virginia,  by  Angelo  Tarchi,  Venice,  1789  ; 
by  Pietro  Guglielmi,  text  by  Palomba,  Na- 
ples, about  1790,  Milan,  Jan.  3,  1830  ;  by 
Miglioi-ucci,  Milan,  1813  ;  by  Mario  Aspa, 
Rome,  April  29,  1843.  In  Spanish :  Pablo 
y  Virginia,  by  Jose  Rogel,  Madrid,  1861. 
Paul    and    Virginia,    English     ballet,    by 


97 


PAULUS 


William  Eeeve  and  Mazzinghi,  London, 
1800 ;  and  Paul  und  Virginia,  German  bal- 
let, by  Wenzel  Giibricli,  Berlin,  about  1840. 
— Glomeut  et  Lai-ousse,  864 ;  Atbenseura 
(1876),  ii.  696;  (1878),  i.  742;  Academy 
(1878),  i.  519. 

PAULUS  (St.  Paul),  oratorio  in  two  parts, 
text  compiled  from  the  Bible  by  Filrst, 
Sclmbring,  and  Mendelssohn,  music  by 
Mendelssohn,  op.  36,  first  jjerformed  at  the 
Lower  Rhine  Festival,  Diisseldorf,  May  22, 
1836,  under  the  composer's  direction.  It  was 
sung  by  Frau  Fischer-Achten  (S.) ;  Friiuleiu 
Grabau  (A.) ;  Herr  Schmetzer  (T.) ;  and  HeiT 
Wersing  (B.).  Mendelssohn  received  a  com- 
mission to  write  this,  his  first  oratorio,  from 
the  Ciicilien-VereLn  of  Frankfort  in  1831. 
The  music  was  begun  in  March,  1834,  when 
its  composer  was  iu  his  twenty-sixth  year. 
The  oratorio  contains  an  overture  iu  A  mi- 
nor, and  forty-five  numbers.  Its  chief  sub- 
jects are  the  martyrdom  of  Saint  Stephen, 
the  conversion  of  Saint  Paul,  and  the  latter's 
subsequent  career.  The  choral  inserted 
on  the  death  of  Stephen  was  by  Georg 
Neumark,  who  also  wrote  the  original 
words.  After  the  first  perfoi-mance  Men- 
delssohn revised  the  work,  cutting  out 
fourteen  numbers,  and  it  was  again  given 
at  Liverpool,  under  Sir  George  Smart's 
direction,  Oct.  3,  1836.  It  was  first  per- 
formed in  London  by  the  Sacred  Harmonic 
Society,  March  7  and  Sept.  12,  1837  ;  at 
the  Birmingham  (England)  Festival,  under 
Mendelssohn,  Sept.  20,  1837  ;  in  Leipsic, 
March  16,  1837  ;  in  Berhn,  Oct.  6,  1837  ; 
in  Dresden,  Dec.  8,  1837  ;  in  Vienna,  March 
1,  1839  ;  and  in  Paris,  March  19,  1847.  It 
was  first  sung  in  New  York  by  the  Sacred 
Harmonic  Society,  Oct.  29,  1838,  and  by 
the  Oratorio  Society,  Nov.  9,  1875,  and  first 
by  the  Handel  and  Haydn  Society,  Bos- 
ton, Jan.  22,  1843.  Published  by  Simrock 
(Bonn,  1837) ;  by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel  (Leip- 
sic, 1837)  ;  and  by  Novello,  English  trans- 
lation by  W.  Ball.  An  oratorio  in  Italian, 
San  Paolo  in  Ateue,  text  by  Pasquini,  music 
by  Bouno,  was  given  in  Vienna  iu   1740. 


—  Lampadius,  Mendelssohn,  47 ;  Reiss- 
mann,  173  ;  Rockstro,  61  ;  Hensel,  The 
Mendelssohn  Family,  ii.  331 ;  Goethe  and 
Mendelssohn,  189 ;  Hand,  Aesthetic  der 
Toukunst,  ii.  576  ;  Schumann,  Gesammelte 
Schriften,  ii.  68  ;  Bitter,  Geschichte  des  Ora- 
toriums,  5-22  ;  Neue  Zeitschr.,  vii.  75,  147  ; 
X.  87;  xiii.  150;  Cacilia,  xix.  201  ;  xx.  135; 
Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xxxviii.  410,  807  ;  xxxix. 
209,  497,  513,  534,  705,  821 ;  xli.  250  ;  xliv. 
380 ;  Grove,  ii.  271,  555,  675  ;  Atheuieum 
(1837),  708  ;  (1871),  i.  310  ;  (1S72),  ii.  817  ; 
Chorley,  Modern  German  Music,  i.  22  ;  Up- 
ton, Standard  Oratorios,  208 ;  Clement  et 
Larousse,  518. 

PAUSCH,  EUGEN,  born  at  Neumarkt, 
Bavaria,  in  1758,  died  there  after  1838. 
Church  composer,  instructed  in  music  while 
a  choir-boy  in  the  church  at  Neuburg  ;  en- 
tered in  1777  the  Cistercian  Order  at  "Wal- 
derbach,  where  he  taught  music  and  con- 
ducted the  choir.  After  the  suspension  of 
the  abbeys  in  Bavaria,  he  was  for  a  short 
time  director  of  the  seminary  at  Amberg  ; 
theu  returned  to  his  native  town.  Works  : 
6  masses,  7  motets,  and  1  Requiem,  for  4 
voices,  2  violins,  2  horns,  organ,  and  bass 
(Dillingen,  1790)  ;  Te  Deum,  for  4  voices, 
organ,  and  orchestra  (Augsburg,  1791)  ; 
Psalmi  vespertini,  etc.  (ib.,  1792) ;  6  missse 
breves,  solemnes  tamen,  etc.,  op.  4 ;  Misste 
breves  ac  solemnes,  etc.,  op.  5.  In  manu- 
script :  12  operettas,  and  other  music. — Fe- 
tis  ;  Schilling. 

PAm'RE  DA:ME  i\LARGUERITE.  See 
Dame  blanche. 

PAm\-ELS,  JEAN  ENGELBERT,  born 
in  Brussels,  Nov.  26, 1768,  died  there,  June 
3,  1804.  Violinist,  pupil  of  van  Malder, 
and  in  harmony  of  Witzthumb,  then  in 
Paris  of  Lesueur  in  composition.  He  ob- 
tained a  position  at  the  Italian  ojsera,  but 
in  1790  went  to  Strasburg,  where  he  was 
chef  d'orchestre  at  the  theatre.  In  1791  he 
returned  to  Binissels,  appeared  with  success 
as  a  virtuoso  in  a  concerto  of  his  own  com- 
position, and  became  solo  violinist  at  the 
theatre,  and   iu   1794  maitre  de  chapelle. 


PAVESI 


111  1799  he  established  permanent  concerts, 
the  technical  perfection  of  which  contrib- 
uted much  to  the  advancement  of  music 
in  Belgium.  Works — Oj)eras  ;  La  mai- 
sonette dans  les  bois,  L'auteur  malgre  lui, 
Lcoutine  et  Fonrose,  aU  given  at  Brussels, 
about  1791-1800  ;  Concerto  for  violin  and 
orchestra  ;  do.  for  horn  and  orchestra  ;  3 
quartets  for  strings ;  6  duos  for  violins  ; 
3  polonaises  for  soprano  and  orchestra ; 
L'amitie,  duet  for  soprano  and  tenor,  with 
orchestra.  In  manuscript  :  Symj)honies, 
concertos  for  violin,  masses,  etc. — Fetis  ; 
Mendel  ;  Kiemanu. 

PAVESI,  STEFANO,  born  at  Casaletto 
Vaprio,  near  Cremona,  Jan.  22,  1779,  died 
at  Crema,  July  28,  1850.  Dramatic  com- 
poser ;  studied  at  the  Conservatorio  dei 
Turchini,  Naples,  until  the  Revolution  of 
1799,  when  he  was  imprisoned  and  finally 
sent  to  Marseilles  ;  thence  he  went  to  Di- 
jon and  joined  a  regimental  band,  with 
which  he  returned  to  Italy  for  the  Marengo 
campaign.  He  seized  the  Ofiportunity  of 
returning  to  Venice,  where  he  began  in 
1802  writing  for  the  theatre,  and  was  soon 
engaged  as  composer  by  all  the  leading 
theatres  in  Italy.  He  wrote  most  of  his 
ojjeras  for  Venice,  where  he  lived  chieflj', 
although  he  was  appointed  maestro  di  cap- 
pella  at  Cremona  in  1818,  to  succeed  Gaz- 
zaniga.  "Works  :  L'  avvertimento  ai  gelosi, 
L'  anonimo,  Venice,  1803  ;  I  castelli  in 
aria,  Verona,  ISOi  ;  L'  accortezza  materna, 
L'amor  coutrastato,  Venice,  1801 ;  L'  amo- 
re  prodotto  dall'  odio,  Padua,  1801: ;  Fingallo 
e  Comala,  Amare  e  nou  voler  esser  amante, 
Venice,  1805  ;  II  trionfo  d'  EmQio,  Mi- 
lan, 1805  ;  II  giuocatore,  Erminia  o  la  Ves- 
tale,  Rome,  1806  ;  Napoleoue  il  Grande  al 
tempio  deir  immortalita,  cantata.  La  sor- 
presa,  L'  amor  vince  1'  inganno,  Venice, 
1806  ;  Sapersi  sciegliere  uu  degno  sposo, 
L'  alloggio  militare,  ib.,  1807  ;  I  baccanali, 
Leghorn,  1807  ;  La  festa  della  rosa,  L'  amor 
perfetto,  I  Cherusci,  Venice,  1808  ;  L'  Ai-is- 
todemo,  Naples,  1808  ;  II  servo  padrone,  B 
maldiceute,  Bologna,  1809  ;  Le  Amazzoni, 


Bergamo,  1809  ;  II  Corradino,  Venice, 
1810  ;  Elisabetta,  regina  d'  lughilterra, 
Turin,  1810 ;  Trajano  in  Dacia,  Milan,  L'or- 
fanella  di  Ginevi-a,  ossia  Ai-minia,  1810  ;  II 
Giobbe,  oratorio,  Bologna,  1810 ;  Ser  Marc' 
Antonio,  La  contadina  abruzzese,  II  monas- 
tero,  Milan,  1811  ;  La  Nitteti,  Turin,  1812  ; 
Tancredi,  Milan,  1812  ;  Amore  e  generosita, 
L'  ostregario,  II  Teodoro,  Venice,  1812  ;  La 
forza  dei  simpatici,  Una  gioruata  pericolosa, 
ib.,  1813  ;  Ii'ene  e  Filandro,  Naples,  1813  ; 
L'  Agatina,  Milan,  1814  ;  La  Celanira,  Ven- 
ice, 1815  ;  La  fiera  di  Brindisi,  Modena, 
1815  ;  Le  Danaide  romane,  Venice,  1816  ; 
La  gioventii  di  Cesare,  Milan,  1817  ;  II  ti- 
ranno  geloso,  Venice,  1818  ;  I  jiitocchi  for- 
tunati,  Venice,  1819  ;  II  trionfo  di  Gedeone, 
oratorio,  Modena,  1819  ;  Don  Gusmano,  ib., 
1819  ;  B  gran  naso,  Najjles,  1820  ;  Eugenia 
degli  Astolfi,  Naples,  1820  ;  L'  Arminio  o 
r  eroe  germano,  Venice,  1821  ;  L'  Andro- 
macca,  Milan,  1822  ;  L'  Lies  d'  Almeida, 
Anco  Marcio,  Naples,  1822  ;  L'  Egilda  di 
Proveuza,  Venice,  1823  ;  I  cavalieri  del 
nodo,  Naples,  1823  ;  Andano  e  Dartulla,  ib., 
1825  ;  B  solitario  ed  Elvida,  Naples,  182G  ; 
Antigono  e  Lauso,  Milan,  1827  ;  La  donna 
bianca  d'  Avenello,  ib.,  1830  ;  Feuella  o  la 
muta  di  Portici,  Venice,  1831  ;  L'  incognito ; 
La  fiera  ;  La  gloria,  cantata.  He  published 
also  a  quantity  of  church  music  and,  with 
Gazzaniga,  a  collection  entitled  :  Salmi,  Can- 
tici  ed  Inni  Cristiani  del  Conte  L.  Tadini, 
posti  in  musica  populare  (Milan). — Sanse- 
verino,  Biog.  di  Stefano  Pavesi  (Jlilan,  1851) ; 
Fetis ;  do..  Supplement,  ii.  312  ;  Mendel  ; 
Schilling. 

PA  VILLON  DES  FLEUES  LE,  ou  les 
pecheura  de  Grenade,  comedie-lj'rique  in 
one  act,  test  by  E.  C.  Guilbert  de  Pixero- 
court,  music  by  Dalayrac,  first  represented 
at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris,  May  13,  1822. 
It  was  a  posthumous  arrangement  of  the 
Pavilion  duCalife,  ou  Almanzoret  Zobeide, 
opera  in  two  acts,  text  by  Descliamj)a  and 
Morel,  music  by  Dalayrac,  first  given  at  the 
Opera,  Paris,  April  11,  1804.— Clement  et 
Larousse,  519. 


687351 


PATER 


PAYER,  HIERONTlVrDS,  born  at  Meid- 
ling,  near  Vienna,  Feb.  15,  1787,  died  at 
Wieburg,  near  Vienna,  September,  1845. 
Dramatic  and  church  comijoser,  instructed 
bj'  his  father,  otherwise  self-taught ;  was  at 
first  organist  in  his  native  village,  went  to 
Vienna  in  181G  to  teach  music,  and  was 
made  Kapellmeister  at  the  Theater  an  der 
Wien.  In  1818  he  made  a  concert  tour 
through  Germany,  accepted  a  call  to  Amster- 
dam as  Kapelmeester  in  1824,  but  went  to 
Paris  in  1825,  and  for  eight  years  was  much 
sought  as  a  pianoforte  and  singing  teacher, 
also  conducted  the  German  opera,  founded 
there  during  the  last  year  of  his  sojourn. 
In  1832  he  retui'ned  to  Vienna,  and  became 
Kapellmeister  at  the  new  oijeraiu  the  Josef- 
stadt  Theater.  A  stroke  of  paralysis  in 
1838  reduced  his  resources  to  the  income 
from  his  lessons,  which  left  him  in  naiTow 
circumstances  during  the  remainder  of  his 
life.  Works — Operas  :  Hochlands  Fiirsten, 
given  at  Amsterdam  ;  La  folle  de  Glaris, 
Paris,  Odeou  ;  La  croix  de  feu,  ib.  Op- 
erettas :  Der  wildc  Jiiger  ;  Der  hohle  Baum  ; 
Das  Sternenmiidchen  ;  Die  musikalische 
Akademie ;  Die  Trauer ;  Die  Einsame  ; 
Coco,  vaudeville.  Six  masses  ;  motets,  gi'ad- 
uals,  Tautum  ergo,  etc. ;  3  concertos  for 
pianoforte  ;  Octet  for  do.,  flute,  2  horns, 
and  strings  ;  Quintet  for  do.,  flute,  and 
strings ;  Trio  for  do.  and  strings ;  Many 
overtures,  marches,  rondos,  etc.,  for  mili- 
tary baud  ;  Serenades  for  flute  and  guitar 
concertante  ;  do.  for  mandolin  and  guitar ; 
Many  waltzes,  minuets,  and  other  dances  ; 
Organ  and  ^^ianoforte  music,  etc. — Allgem. 
wiener  mus.  Zeitg.  (1846),  Nos.  5  and  6  ;  do., 
384  ;  Fetis  ;  SchilUng  ;  Seyfried,  Denk- 
steine,  etc.  (Vienna,  1848),  95  ;  "Wurzbach. 

PAZZA  PER   AIMORE,  LA.     See  Nina. 

PEACE,  ALBERT  LISTER,  born  at 
Huddersfleld,  England,  in  1845,  still  living, 
1890.  Organist  and  church  composer.  He 
was  appointed  organist  of  the  parish  church 
of  Holmfirth  in  1854,  when  only  nine  yeai-s 
old,  and  subsequently  held  a  similar  posi- 
tion in  other  churches  iu  that  neighbour- 


hood.    He  settled  in  Glasgow  in  186G  as 
organist  of  Trinity  Congregational  Church, 

,. ~  and  soon  after  became 

organist  of  the  Univer- 
sity :  organist  at  St. 
Andrew's  Hall,  1877  ; 
do.,  Glasgow  Cathe- 
dral, 1879.  Mus.  Bac, 
Oxford,  1870;  Mus. 
Doc,  ib.,  1875. 
"Works:  Psalm 
cxxxviii.,  1870  ;  The 
Narrative  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  cantata, 
1875.  Morning,  Communion,  and  Evening 
Services  ;  Anthems  ;  Organ  arrangements, 
etc. — Grove. 

PE.ARCE,  STEPHEN  AUSTEN,  born 
near  Loudon, 
England,  Nov. 
7,  1836,  still 
living,  1890. 
Organist,  pupil 
at  Cambridge 
of  John  Larkiu 
Hopkins.  In 
1859  he  was  '■ 
graduated  at 
New  College, 
Oxford  Univer- 
sity, as  Mus. 
Bac,  and  iu  1864  as  Mus.  Doc.  During 
the  same  year  he  visited  America,  and 
on  his  return  to  England  became  org.in- 
ist  and  musical  director  at  St.  Katharine's 
Royal  CoUegiate  Church,  Loudon,  and 
later  of  St.  John's  Church.  In  1872  he 
again  went  to  America,  where  he  has 
since  remained.  He  has  been  instructor 
of  vocal  music  in  Columbia  College,  New 
York,  and  has  lectured  on  harmony  and  the 
science  of  music  at  the  General  Theological 
Seminary  ;  on  the  music  of  all  nations  at  the 
Peabody  Institute,  Baltimore  ;  and  on  clas- 
sical music  at  Johns  Hopkins  University. 
In  1874  he  became  musical  editor  of  the 
New  York  "  Eve&ing  Post,"  and  he  has  con- 
tributed many  articles  on  music  to  periodi- 
cals.    He    has   been   organist    of    several 


'-  \  '  ..y 


100 


PEAESALL 


churches  in  New  York,  among  them,  in 
1870-85,  of  the  Collegiate  Church,  48th 
Street  and  Fifth  Avenue,  in  1885-88  of  Ziou 
Church,  and  now  (1890)  of  the  Church  of 
the  Ascension.  Works :  La  belle  Ameri- 
caiue,  opera  in  three  acts ;  Allegro  agitato 
in  D  minor,  for  orchestra  ;  Overture  in  E 
minor,  for  orchestra,  written  for  the  Crystal 
Palace  Classical  Concerts,  London  ;  The 
Psalm  of  Praise,  an  ecclesiastical  cantata  ; 
Celestial  Visions,  dramatic  oratorio  for 
eight-part  chorus,  soli,  full  orchestra,  and 
organ  ;  Pianoforte  music  ;  Church  choral 
music  ;  Organ  music  ;  Songs.  He  is  author 
also  of  a  pocket  Dictionary  of  Musical 
Terms  in  twenty-one  languages. 

PEAESALL,  EGBERT  LUCAS,  born  at 
Clifton,  England,  March  14,  1795,  died  at 
Wartensee,  on  Lake  Constance,  Aug.  5, 
1S5G.  Vocal  composer  ;  was  educated  for 
the  bar  but  left  it  in  1825  and  went  to  live 
in  Mainz,  where  he  became  the  jsuijil  of 
Panny  in  composition.  He  revisited  Eng- 
land in  1829,  then  settled  in  Carlsruhe  in 
1830,  and  at  Wartensee  in  1832.  Works  : 
Requiem  ;  Madrigals  for  4,  5,  G,  and  8 
voices  (Loudon,  1840)  ;  8  Glees  and  madri- 
gals (ib.,  18G3) ;  24  Choral  Songs,  edited 
by  J.  Hullah  (ib.,  1SG3)  ;  Ballet  Opera 
Choruses  (ib.,  1878)  ;  Psalms  and  Anthems  ; 
Part-songs,  among  them :  "Thehardy  Norse- 
m.au's  house  of  yore,"  "A  king  there  was 
in  Thule,"  "  O  who  will  o'er  the  downs  so 
free?,"  and  "Sir  Patrick  Spens."  He  pub- 
lished also  Catholisches  Gesangbuch  (18G3), 
founded  on  that  of  St.  Gall,  which  is  still 
in  use,  though  mostly  in  MS. — Grove  ;  Fe- 
tis.  Supplement,  ii.  313. 

PEARSON  (Peerson,  Pierson),  MARTIN, 
born  in  latter  half  of  IGth  century,  died  in 
Loudon  in  1G50.  Vocal  composer,  master 
of  the  children  in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  in 
1G03  ;  Mus.  Bac,  Oxford,  1G13.  He  was  one 
of  the  contributors  to  Leighton's  "Teares 
or  Lamentacions,"  etc.  (1614).  Works  :  Pri- 
vate ]\Iusicke,  or  the  First  Booke  of  Ayres 
and  Dialogues,  containing  Sougs  of  4,  5, 
and  6  Parts  of  severall  sorts,  etc.   (1G04) ; 


Mottects  or  Grave  Church  Musique,  etc., 
with  organ  part,  which  for  want  of  Organs 
can  be  performed  on  Virginals,  Base  Lute, 
BandoraorIi-ishHarpe(1630)  ;  also  a  Mourn- 
ing Song  of  sixe  parts. — Grove  ;  Fetis. 

PEASE,  ALFRED  HUMPHREYS,  born 
in  Cleveland,  Ohio, 
May  G,  1838,  died  in 
St.  Louis,  Missouri, 
July  13,  1882.  Pian- 
ist, educated  at  Ken- 
yon  College,  Ohio  ; 
studied  the  pianoforte 
in  Berlin  under  Theo- 
dor  KuUak  and  von 
Billow,  composition 
under  Richard  Wiier.st, 
and  scoring  under  Wieprecht.  After  three 
years  he  made  a  short  visit  to  the  United 
States,  and  returned  to  Germany  for  three 
years'  further  study.  On  his  final  return  he 
made  extended  concert  tours,  playing  with 
success  in  most  of  the  important  cities 
and  towns.  Works  :  Reverie  and  Andante, 
Andante  and  Scherzo,  Eomanze,  Concerto 
(1875),  all  for  orchestra,  given  with  success 
by  Theodore  Thomas  ;  Manj'  pianoforte 
compositions,  arrangements,  etc.  ;  Songs. 

PECHATSCHEK  (Pechaczec,  Pechaeek), 
FEANTISEK,  the  elder,  born  at  Wilden- 
schwert,  Bohemia,  in  17G3,  died  in  Vienna, 
Sept.  2G,  181G.  Violinist,  first  instructed  in 
his  native  town,  then  at  Weisswasser,  Si- 
lesia, j)upil  of  Lambert,  and  of  Dittersdorf. 
In  1783  he  went  to  Vienna,  and  in  1790- 
1805  was  Kapellmeister  at  one  of  the  thea- 
tres. He  was  the  Strauss  of  his  time,  being 
especially  notable  as  a  comjjoser  of  dance 
nmsic.  Works  :  2  operas  ;  12  operettas  ; 
about  30  ballets  ;  Several  masses  and  other 
church  music  ;  12  symphonies  for  orches- 
tra ;  Overture  for  do.;  Music  for  violin, 
with  other  instruments  ;  Many  waltzes, 
Liindler,  eeossaises,  minuets,  etc.,  for  or- 
chestra, or  for  pianoforte,  violin,  etc. — Dla- 
bacz  ;  Fctis  ;  Wurzbach. 

PECHATSCHEK,  FRANZ,  the  younger, 
born  in  Vienna,  July  4,  1793,  died  iu  Carls- 


101 


PECHEDES 


ruhe,  Sept.  15,  1840.  Violin  virtuoso  and 
composer,  son  and  joupil  of  the  above,  after- 
wards pupil  of  FOrster  in  composition  ;  j)er- 
formed  at  the  imperial  court  when  only  ten 
years  old,  and  in  1803  made  a  concert  tour 
with  his  father  to  Prague.  For  a  time 
second  Kapellmeister  at  the  Theater  an  der 
Wien  in  Vienna,  he  went  to  Hanover  in 
1818  as  first  violinist  in  the  court  orchestra, 
gave  many  concerts  in  various  cities  of  Ger- 
many in  1821-25,  and  was  called  to  Carls- 
ruhe,  in  1826,  as  Conzertmeister.  Works  : 
Concertino  for  violin  and  orchestra,  op.  IG  ; 
Polonaises  for  do.,  or  pianoforte  ;  ThOmes 
varies,  do.  ;  Rondos,  do.  ;  Pot-poui-ris,  do.  ; 
Quartets  for  strings  ;  Duo  concertant  for  2 
violins,  etc. — Fetis  ;  Wurzbach. 

PfiCHEUES  DE  PERLES,  LES  (The 
Pearl  Fishers),  French  opera  in  three  acts 
and  four  tableaux,  text  by  Cormon  and  Mi- 
chel CaiTc,  music  by  Georges  Bizet,  first 
represented  at  the  Theatre  Lyrique,  Paris, 
Sejjt.  30,  1863.  The  story  is  of  Ltila,  a 
vestal  virgin,  who  is  stationed  on  a  high 
rock  jutting  out  over  the  sea,  where  she 
prays  to  the  gods  to  protect  the  pearl 
fishers.  She  is  closely  veiled,  and  no  man 
may  approach  her.  Zurga  and  Nadii-,  two 
fishermen,  climb  the  rock,  and  Nadir  tells 
his  love,  which  is  accepted  by  Lt'ila.  They 
are  surjjrised,  captui-ed,  and  condemned  to 
death ;  but  they  escape  through  aid  from 
Zurga,  who  sets  fire  to  the  fishermen's 
cabins.  The  music  is  wi-itten  in  the  mod- 
ern school,  and  the  iusti-umentation  is  well 
worked.  Mile  Luontine  de  Maesen,  Ismacl, 
and  Moriui  appeared  in  the  original  cast. 
Published  by  Bote  &  Bock  (Berlin,  1863). 
— Clement  et  Larousse,  521. 

PECHEURS,  LES  (The  Fishermen),  co- 
medie  in  one  act,  text  by  the  Mai-quis  de  la 
Salle,  music  by  Gossec,  first  represented  at 
the  Comedie  Italienne,  Paris,  June  7,  1760. 
It  was  one  of  Gossec's  most  successful 
works. — ClL'ment  et  Larousse,  520. 

PEDRELL,  FELIPE,  born  in  Catalonia, 
contemporary.  Pianist,  and  dramatic  com- 
l)oser.     Works  :  El  ultimo  Abeucerrajo,  op- 


era, Barcelona,  1874 ;  Quasimodo,  do.,  ib., 
1875  ;  Mass  for  3  voices  and  choruses,  with 
orchestra,  organ,  and  harp  ;  Pianoforte  mu- 
sic and  songs. — Fetis,  Supplement,  ii.  314. 

PEDROTTI,  CARLO,  born  in  Verona, 
Italy,  Nov.  12,  1817,  still  living,  1890. 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Domeuico  Fo- 
roni ;  was  conductor  of  the  Italian  opera 
in  Amsterdam  in  1840-45,  then  lived  for 
several  j-ears  in  his  native  city,  and  in 
18G8  was  called  to  Turin  as  du-ector  of 
the  Liceo  Musicale,  maestro  concertatore, 
and  maestro  di  cappella  of  the  Teatro 
Regio.  In  1872  he  established  popular 
concerts,  which  prospered  rapidly,  and 
are  still  successful.  Works :  Lina,  Clara 
del  Mainland,  Verona,  1840  ;  Matilde,  Am- 
sterdam, 1841  ;  La  figlia  del  arciere,  ib., 
1844 ;  Romea  di  Moufort,  Verona,  1846 ; 
Fiorina,  ib.,  1851  ;  II  parrucchiere  della 
reggeuza,  ib.,  1852  ;  Gelmina,  o  col  fuoco 
non  si  scherza,  Milan,  1853  ;  Genoveffa  del 
Brabante,  ib.,  1854  ;  Tutti  in  maschera,  Ve- 
rona, 1856 ;  Isabella  d'  Arragona,  Tiu-iii, 
1859  ;  La  guerra  in  quattro,  Milan,  1861  ; 
Mazeppa,  Bologna,  1861 ;  Marion  de  Lormc, 
Trieste,  1865  ;  H  favorito,  Turin,  1870  ;  Ole- 
ma  la  schiava,  Modena,  1872. — Futis,  Sup- 
plement, ii.  314  ;  Mendel ;  Riemaun. 

PEELLAERT,  AUGUSTIN  PHILIPPE 
MARIE  GmSLAIN,  Baron  DE,  born  in 
Bniges,  March  12,  1793,  died  at  Saint- 
Josse-ten-Noode-lez-Bruxelles,  April  16, 
1876.  Dramatic  composer,  jjupil  at  Lille 
of  d'Ennery,  and  in  Paris  of  IMomigny  and 
PaOr.  He  entered  the  army,  and  retired 
as  lieutenant -colonel.  Works:  L'amaut 
troubadour  (1815),  not  performed  ;  Le  sor- 
cier  par  hasard,  given  at  Ghent,  1819 ; 
L'heure  du  rendez-vous,  Brussels,  1821  ; 
Agnes  Sorel,  ib.,  1823 ;  Le  Barmecide,  ib., 
1824  ;  Teniers,  ib.,  1825  ;  L'exile,  ib.,  1827  ; 
Songe  et  realito  (1829),  not  given  ;  Faust, 
Brussels,  1834 ;  Le  coup  de  pistolet,  ib., 
1836  ;  Louis  de  Male,  ib.,  1838  ;  Le  barigel ; 
Monsieur  et  Madame  Putiphar,  Brussels, 
1857  ;  Le  manage  par  testament ;  Regilde  ; 
Castor  et  Pollux.    Operettas :  Les  trois  clefs ; 


PEER 


Trois  centre  un  ;  Thucla  ;  Sans  dot ;  La  si- 
rcne.  Several  masses  ;  2  trios  for  jJianoforte 
and  strings  ;  More  than  100  vocal  melodies. 
— Fetis ;  do.,  Supj)lement,  ii.  315  ;  Peellaert, 
Cinquante  ans  de  souvenirs  (Binissels,  1867). 

PEER  GYNT,  entr'acte  music  and  dances 
to  Hendrik  Ibsen's  comedy  of  "Peer  Gynt," 
by  Edvard  Grieg,  op.  23.  Published  by 
Peters  (Leipsic,  1881).  Arranged  for  piano- 
forte for  four  Lands.  It  was  first  given  in 
New  York,  at  Cbickering  Hall,  by  Theo- 
dore Thomas,  Jan.  24,  1889.— Mus.  Woch- 
enblatt  (1884),  511. 

PELLEGRINI  AL  SEPOLCRO,  I  (The 
Pilgrims  at  the  Sepulchre),  Italian  ora- 
torio, test  by  Pallavicini,  music  by  Johann 
Adolpli  Hasse,  first  performed  in  Dresden 
in  1742.  The  Pilgrim's  chorus  from  this 
oratorio  was  given  in  Berlin  in  November, 
1844.  The  original  score,  in  the  KOnig- 
liche  Bibliothek,  Berlin,  was  published  by 
J.  A.  Hiller,  German  translation  by  Eschen- 
bach  (Leipsic,  1784).  Oratorio  of  the  same 
title  by  Johann  Gottlieb  Naumann,  Dres- 
den, 1798. — Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xxxi.  243. 

PELLET,  ALPHONSE,  born  at  Uzus 
(Gard),  Oct.  18,  1828,  still  living,  1890. 
Dramatic  composer,  first  instructed  by  his 
father,  who  was  organist  of  the  cathedral 
at  Uzes  ;  then  pupil  at  the  Paris  Conserva- 
toire of  Colet  and  of  Hah'vy.  In  1849  he 
settled  at  Nimes,  where  he  became  director 
of  the  Conservatoire  and  organist  of  the 
Basilica.  Works  :  Les  deux  avares,  Nimes, 
18G4  ;  L'ours  et  le  j)acha,  ib.,  18G5  ;  Salsifi, 
ou  les  incouvenients  de  la  grandeur,  ib., 
186G  ;  Futaille  a  vendre,  saynete,  ib.,  1868 ; 
Deux  locataires,  ib.,  1873  ;  Sous  les  pal- 
miers,  ib.,  1878  ;  Oratorio  ;  About  20  can- 
tatas ;  Quintet  for  strings ;  Quartet  for  pi- 
anoforte and  strings;  Trio  for  do.;  Sonata 
for  pianoforte  and  violoncello  ;  2  series  of 
melodies  for  do.  ;  Collection  of  sacred  mu- 
sic ;  Pianoforte  pieces,  etc. — Fetis,  Supple- 
ment, ii.  316. 

PENA  TIRANNA  10  SENTO,  alto  aria 
of  Dardano,  in  D  minor,  with  accompani- 
ment of  oboe  solo,  bassoon,  three  violins,  i 


viola,  and  bass  (senza  cembalo),  in  Handel's 
Amadigi,  Act  IT.,  Scene  5.  Published  also 
separately,  with  the  accompaniment  tran- 
scribed by  Otto  Dresel  (Leipsic,  Breitkopf 
&  Hiirtel). 

PENDANT  LA  NUIT  JAI  PARfi  MA 
CHAUrafcRE.     See  Ame  en  peine. 

PENDU!  PENDU!  See  rostillon  do 
Longjumeau. 

PENFIELD,  SmTH  NEWELL,  born,  of 
American  parent- 
age, in  Oberlin, 
Ohio,  April  4, 
1837,  still  living, 
1890.  Organist 
and  pianist,  piupil 
in  New  York  of 
James  Flint ;  then 
studied,  in  Leip- 
sic, pianoforte  un- 
der Moscheles, 
Reiuecke,  Papperitz,  and  Plaidy,  organ  un- 
der Richter,  and  harmony  and  theory  under 
Hauptmann  ;  later,  in  Paris,  under  Delioux. 
After  his  return  to  America  he  resided  in 
Rochester,  New  York  ;  then  in  Savannah, 
Ga.,  where  he  founded  the  Savannah  Con- 
servatory of  Music,  and  the  Mozart  Club  ; 
later,  lived  for  six  years  in  Brooklyn,  where 
he  founded  the  Arion  Conservatory,  and 
since  1882  has  resided  in  New  York.  In 
1884  the  degree  of  Mus.  Doc.  was  given 
him  by  the  University  of  the  City  of  New 
York,  and  in  1885  he  became  president  of 
the  Music  Teachers'  National  Association  ; 
he  is  now  organist  of  the  Broadway  Taber- 
nacle Church.  Works  :  Psalm  xviii.,  can- 
tata, for  soli,  chorus,  and  orchestra  ;  Over- 
ture for  orchestra ;  String  quintet ;  Anthems ; 
Pianoforte  pieces ;  Songs. 

PENNA,  LORENZO,  born  in  Bologna, 
Italy,  in  1613,  died  at  Imola,  Oct.  20,  1693. 
Church  composer  and  didactic  writer,  en- 
tered the  Carmelite  monastery  at  Parma, 
became  its  maestro  di  cappella,  and  later 
occupied  the  same  position  in  the  cathedral 
at  Imola.  Works  :  Messe  piene  a  quattro 
ed  otto  voci  se  place,  libro  primo,  op.  9  (2d 


103 


PENTENPJEDEE 


ed.,  Bologna,  1677) ;  Galena  del  sacro  Par- 
Dasso  ;  Messe  piene  con  stromenti  ad  libi- 
tum, libro  secondo  (ib.,  1670)  ;  II  sacro 
Parnasso  deUi  Salmi  festivi,  etc.,  op.  8 ; 
Salmi  1381-  tutto  1'  anno  ed  una  Messa,  etc. 
(1669).  He  published  also  a  treatise :  Li 
primi  albori  musicali  per  li  principianti 
della  musica  figurata,  etc.  (1679),  and  Diret- 
torio  del  canto  fermo  (1689). — Fetis  ;  Men- 
del ;  Riemann. 

PENTENRIEDER,  FRANZ  XAVER, 
born  at  Kaufbem-en,  Bavaria,  Fob.  6,  1813, 
died  in  Munich,  July  17,  1867.  Dramatic 
and  church  composer,  j)upil  of  Kalcher  and 
Stunz  in  Munich,  where  ho  entered  the 
choir  of  the  Frauenkirche.  He  became 
court  Kapellmeister,  court  organist,  choir 
director  at  St.  Ludwig's,  and  Repetitor  at 
the  royal  theatre.  Injuries  received  from 
being  run  over  by  a  carriage  resulted  hi 
such  serious  consequences  that  he  passed 
the  last  years  of  his  life  in  an  insane  asylum. 
Works  :  Die  Nacht  auf  Paluzzi,  opera,  given 
on  aU  the  principal  stages  of  Germany  ; 
Das  Haus  ist  zu  verkaufen,  do.,  Leipsic, 
18i6  ;  Cantatas,  masses,  motets,  etc. — Men- 
del ;  Riemann. 

PENTHESELEA,  overture  for  orchestra, 
in  G,  to  lileist's  drama  of  the  same  title,  by 
Goldmark,  op.  31,  first  jDcrformed  in  Vi- 
enna, Dec.  26,  1880.  Published  by  Schott 
(Mainz,  Loudon,  and  Brussels,  1881) ;  by 
Leede  (Leijisic).  An-anged  for  the  piano- 
forte for  foiu-  hands. — Mus.  "SVochenblatt 
(1881),  92. 

PEPUSCH,  JOHAXX  CHRISTOPH, 
born  in  Berlin  in  1667,  died  in  London,  Julj- 
20,  1752.  Dramatic  composer,  jjupil  at 
Stettin  of  Gottlieb  Kliiigenberg,  and  of 
Grosse,  a  Saxon  organist.  He  was  a  musi- 
cian at  the  Prussian  court  in  1681-97,  was 
in  Holland  in  1698,  and  about  1700  went  to 
London,  where  he  became  a  member  of  the 
orchestra  at  Druiy  Lane.  In  1707  he  ad- 
apted the  music  of  Thomyi-is,  Queen  of 
Scythia,  and  of  other  operas,  adding  recita- 
tives and  songs.  He  devoted  much  time  to 
the  study   of  ancient  music,  and   in    1710 


.'?-£. 


aided  in  establishing  the  Academy  of  An- 
cient Music.  In  1712  he  became  organist 
and  composer  to 
the  Duke  of  Chan- 
dos  at  Cannons, 
where  he  preceded 
Handel;  in  1713 
he  took  the  degree 
of  Mus.  Doc.  at 
Oxford,  and  soon 
after  became  mu- 
sic director  of  Lin- 
coln's luu  Theatre. 
In  1724  he  joined  Dr.  Berkeley  in  his  scheme 
of  a  college  in  the  Bermudas,  but  was  ship- 
wrecked and  returned  to  England.  Soon 
afterwards  he  married  Mai-guei-ite  do  1'  Ejsiue 
the  singer,  and  in  1731  became  organist  of 
the  Charter  House,  a  position  he  held  until 
his  death.  His  wife,  who  brought  him  a 
fortune  of  .£10,000,  died  in  1716.  Pepusch, 
though  pedantic,  was  skilled  in  musical 
science,  and  was  one  of  the  chief  authorities 
on  music  in  England  previous  to  Handel. 
He  is  best  known  by  his  scoring  and  ar- 
rangement of  the  Beggar's  Opera.  Works  : 
Venus  and  Adonis,  masque,  1715  ;  Apollo 
and  Dajjhne,  and  The  Death  of  Dido, 
masques,  1716  ;  The  Union  of  the  Three  Sis- 
ter Ai-ts,  masque  for  St.  Ceciha's  Day,  1723  ; 
The  Beijgar's  Opera,  1727  ;  Polly,  opera, 
1729  ;  The  Wedding,  ballad  opera,  1734  ; 
Ode  to  the  Memory  of  the  Duke  of  Devon- 
shire, 1707  ;  Ode  for  the  Princess  of  Wales's 
Birthday,  1715-16  ;  6  English  cantatas 
(London,  1712)  ;  Sonatas  and  concertos 
for  strings  and  wind  instruments  ;  Anthems 
and  motets.  He  published  also  a  Short 
Treatise  on  Harmony  (London,  1730  ;  2d 
ed.,  1731)  ;  and  edited  Corelli's  Sonatas  in 
score. — Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Burney,  Hist.,  iv. 
634  ;   Mendel. 

PERABO,  (JOHANN)  ERNST,  born  in 
Wiesbaden,  Germany,  Nov.  14,  1845,  still 
living,  1890.  Pianist,  the  youngest  of  ten 
children,  all  of  whom  followed  the  profession 
of  music ;  began  when  five  years  old  to 
study  under  his  father.     In  1852  he  went  to 


IM 


PEKANDI 


America  with  his  parents,  and  two  years 
later  made  his  first  pubhc  appcarnncc  at  a 
concert  in  New 
York.  After  two 
years  spent  in 
Dover,  New  Hamji- 
shire,  he  studied 
the  viohn  in  Boston 
under  William 
Schultze,  andjilayed 
at  a  concert  under 
Carl  Zerrahn's  di- 
rection. He  lived 
next  in  Chicago,  and  then  in  Washington, 
returning  finally  to  New  York,  whence,  in 
1858,  he  went  to  Europe.  In  18G2  he 
entered  the  Leipsic  Conservatorium,  where 
he  studied  the  pianoforte  under  Moscheles 
and  E.  F.  Wenzel  ;  harmony  under  Pap- 
peritz,  Hauptmann,  and  Eichter  ;  and  com- 
position under  Eeinecke.  In  1865  he  re- 
turned to  America,  and  after  a  concert 
tour  in  the  West  settled  in  18GG  in  Boston. 
He  has  played  often  in  public,  and  has  a 
high  reputation  as  a  pianist  and  teacher  of 
the  pianoforte.  In  1878-79  he  again  visited 
Leipsic,  to  study  further  under  Wenzel. 
Many  of  his  works  are  transcrijitions  and 
arrangements  for  the  jjianoforte  ;  among 
them  the  following :  Lowe's  ballads,  The 
Dance  of  Death,  Melek  at  the  Spring,  The 
Secluded  ;  First  movement  of  Rubinstein's 
Ocean  Symphony,  and  the  overture  to  Di- 
mitri  Donskoi ;  First  movement  of  Schu- 
bert's unfinished  sj-mj^hony  ;  10  selections 
from  lolanthe,  op.  H.  Among  his  original 
compositions,  mostlj-  for  the  jaianoforte,  are  : 
Moment  musical,  op.  1  ;  Scherzo,  op.  2  ; 
Prelude,  op.  3  ;  Waltz,  op.  4  ;  Three  studies, 
op.  9,  1880  ;  Peusees,  op.  11,  1884  ;  Circum- 
stance, or  Fate  in  a  Human  Life,  op.  13, 
1887  ;  Songs. 

PERANDI,  MAECO  GIUSEPPE,  born  in 
Eome,  beginning  of  the  17th  century,  died 
in  Dresden,  Jan.  12,  1675.  Church  com- 
poser, entered  the  service  of  the  Elector  of 
Saxony  between  1G51  and  1G56,  and  was 
appointed  Kapellmeister  in  1663.     Works  : 


Die  Historia  von  der  Geburt  des  Herrn  und 
Heilandes  Jesu  Christi ;  Passion  des  Evan- 
gelisten  St.  Marcus  ;  6  masses  for  5  voices, 
with  trumpets  and  drums  ;  3  Magnificat  for 
5  and  9  voices ;  15  concertos  for  3-6  voices, 
with  instruments ;  15  madrigals  for  2-5 
voices ;  3  symjihonipc.  With  Bontempi  he 
also  composed  a  German  opera,  Dajibne, 
given  in  Dresden,  1672. — ^Mendel. 

PERDONO  E  TI  COm^IANGO.  See 
Norma. 

PEEEIEA,  DOJIINGOS  NUNES,  bora 
at  Lisbon  about  the  middle  of  the  17th  cen- 
tury, died  at  Camarate,  near  Lisbon,  March 
29, 1729.  Church  composer,  for  many  years 
mestre  da  capella  of  the  cathedral  at  Lisbon. 
Works :  Responsorios  da  Semana  Santa,  for 
8  voices ;  Do.  dos  officios  de  defuntos,  for 
do. ;  Li(;oens  de  defuntos,  for  4  voices  ;  Con- 
fitebor,  Laudate  jjueri,  for  8  voices  ;  Vilhan- 
cicos  e  motetes,  for  4,  6,  and  8  voices. — Vas- 
concellos. 

PERELLI,  NATALE,  born  in  Lombardy 
about  1815.  Dramatic  composer,  jjupil  at 
the  Conservatorio,  Milan.  Works :  Gale- 
otto  Manfredi,  opera,  Pavia,  1839  ;  Osti  et 
non  osti,  do.,  Genoa,  1840  ;  II  coutrabban- 
diere,  Turin,  1842. 

PEREZ,  DAYIDE,  born  in  Naples,  of 
Spanish  parents,  in  1711,  died  in  Lisbon 
in  1778.  Church  and  dramatic  comjioser, 
pupil  at  the  Conservatorio  di  Loreto  of  An- 
tonio Galli  on  the  violin,  becoming  a  virtu- 
oso on  that  instrument,  and  of  Francesco 
Mancini  in  counterpoint.  He  went  in 
1739  to  Palermo  as  maestro  di  caj^jiella  of 
the  cathedral.  There  he  wrote  his  first 
oj)eras,  and  soon  acquired  great  reputation 
in  Italy  ;  he  comjjosed  for  all  the  leading 
cities,  and  in  1752  went  to  Lisbon,  where, 
after  the  great  success  of  his  Demofoonte, 
the  king  bestowed  on  him  the  Order  of 
Christ,  and  appointed  him  royal  mestre  de 
capella.  In  1755  he  ojiened  the  new  theatre 
in  Lisbon  with  his  Alessandro  nell"  Indie, 
procuring  for  it  the  best  singers  from  Italy ; 
went  to  London  in  the  same  year,  and  pro- 
duced his  Ezio,  with  great  success.     Fetis 


:05 


PERFALL 


ranks  his  compositions  next  to  those  of 
Jommelli.  AYorks — Operas  :  L'  eroismo  di 
Scipione,  Palermo,  1741 ;  Astartea,  Medea, 
L'  isola  incantata  (Palermo),  La  clemenza 
di  Tito,  Naples,  1749 ;  Semiramide,  Rome, 
1750;  Furnace,  ib.j  Merope,  Genoa,  1751; 
Didone  abbandonata,  ib.;  Alessandro  nell' 
Indie,  ib. ;  Zenobia,  Turin,  1751;  Demetrio, 
ib.,  1752  ;  Demofoonte,  ib.;  Artaserse,  Adri- 
ano  in  Siria,  ib.,  1755  ;  L'  eroe  cinese,  ib., ' 
1753  ;  Ipermnestra,  ib.,  1754 ;  Olimpiade, 
ib.;  Ezio,  London,  1755  ;  Solimanno,  Lis- 
bon, 1757 ;  Euea  in  Italia,  1759 ;  Giulio 
Cesare,  1762.  A  fine  edition  of  bis  Matu- 
tini  de'  morti,  his  best  sacred  work,  was 
published  while  he  was  in  London.  Other 
church  music :  Mass  for  8  voices  and  or- 
chestra ;  do.  for  5  voices  and  orchestra ; 
Motets  for  4  voices  ;  2  Salve  Regina  for  do. ; 
Resjjonses  for  do. ;  Psalms  for  3  voices  and 
chorus. — Grove;  Futis;  Buruey,  Hist.,  iv. 
570  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling  ;  Gerber  ;  Hogarth, 
Mus.  Hist.,  i.  225. 

PERF.y:,L,  K.\RL,  Freiherr  VON,  born 
in  Munich,  Jan.  29,  1824,  still  living,  1890. 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Hauptmauu  at 
Leipsic  (1848) ;  left  the  government  service 
in  1850,  and  assumed  the  direction  of  the 
Miinchener  Liedertafel.  In  1854  he  found- 
ed the  Oratorio  Societj',  which  he  conducted 
until  18G4,  when  he  was  appointed  court 
music  iutendant.  In  1SG7  he  became  in- 
tendant  of  the  royal  theatre,  in  which  posi- 
tion he  has  made  the  Munich  opera  one  of 
the  most  prominent.  Works — Oj)eras:  Sa- 
kuntala,  Munich,  1853  ;  Das  Konterfei,  ib., 
18G3  ;  Raimoudiu  (also  as  Mclusine),  ib., 
1881 ;  Junker  Heinz,  ib.,  188G  ;  Barbarossa, 
melodrama  ;  Dornroschen,  Milrchen  for  soli, 
chorus,  and  orchestra  ;  Undine,  do. ;  Riibe- 
zahl,  do. — Eiemann. 

PERGOLESI  (Pergolese),  GIOVANNI 
BATTISTA,  born  at  Jesi,  Roman  States, 
Jan.  3,  1710,  died  at  Pozzuoli,  March  IG, 
1736.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil,  when 
very  young,  at  the  Conservatorio  dei  Poveri 
di  Gesti  Cristo,  Naples,  on  the  violin  of 
Domenico  de  Matteis.     He  soon  attracted 


notice  at  the  conservatory  by  the  curious 
and  unheard-of  passages  he  imjirovised 
while  practising, 
chromatic  p  r  o  - 
gressions  based 
upon  harmonic 
successions  being 
then  unknown. 
Such  seemed  to  be 
his  originality, 
that  he  was  placed 
under  Gaetano 
Greco  to  study 
counterpoint  (harmony  having  hardly  risen 
to  the  dignity  of  a  separate  study  at  that 
time) ;  he  continued  his  contrapuntal  studies 
for  a  while  under  Durante,  and  then  under 
Francesco  Feo.  He  made  rapid  progress, 
but  soon  formed  a  style  of  his  own,  retaining 
only  as  much  of  the  contrapuntal  science  he 
had  learned  as  could  be  subordinated  to  me- 
lodious and  expressive  writing.  His  first 
composition  worthy  of  the  name  was  an 
oratorio,  La  couversione  di  San  Guglielmo, 
which  was  given  (with  comic  interludes)  at 
the  cloister  of  S.  Agnello  in  1731,  before 
Pergolesi  had  left  the  conservatorj-.  After 
leaving  the  conservatory  he  studied  vocal 
composition  under  Vinci,  and  possibly  also 
under  Hasse.  His  first  opera.  La  Sallustia, 
was  given  in  1731,  but  had  no  more  than  a 
succi'3  d'estime.  Two  other  ojjcras  also 
failed,  and  starvation  would  probably  have 
been  his  fate  had  not  the  Prince  of  Stegli- 
ano,  first  equerry  to  the  King  of  Naples, 
taken  an  active  interest  in  him  and  heljied 
him  to  get  work.  After  a  great  earthquake 
in  Naples,  a  solemn  mass  was  voted  to  the 
patron  saint  of  the  city,  and  Pergolesi  was 
commissioned  to  write  the  music.  He  ac- 
cordingly wrote  a  mass  and  vespers  for  ten- 
part  chorus  and  double  orchestra,  which 
was  soon  followed  by  a  second  mass  for 
double  chorus  and  two  orchestras  (to  which 
the  composer  afterwards  added  parts  for 
two  more  choruses),  which  was  much  ad- 
mired by  Leo.  About  this  time  Pergolesi 
wrote  also  thirty  trios  for  two  violins,  vio- 


106 


PERGOLESI 


loncello,  and  bass,  dedicated  to  the  Prince 
of  Stegliano.  In  the  winter  of  1731  the 
workl-famous  La  serva  padrona,  was  writ- 
ten and  produced.  Its  success  at  first  was 
not  overwhelming',  but  it  was  the  only  gen- 
uine success  Pergolesi  had  during  his  hfc- 
time.  Several  other  operas  followed  it,  but 
they  were  all  regarded  by  the  public  as 
failures.  In  1734  he  went  to  Loreto  as  ma- 
estro di  cappella.  After  the  failure  of  a  new 
oj)era,  Flaminio  (1735),  the  Confraternity  of 
San  Luigi  di  Palazzo,  who  had  for  years 
been  in  the  habit  of  giving  Alessandro 
Scarlatti's  Stabat  Mater  on  every  Friday  in 
March,  ordered  a  new  one  of  Pergolesi  for 
ten  ducats  (about  $8.75).  He  immediately 
set  to  work,  but  was  soon  called  off  to  Rome 
to  write  an  opera  for  the  Teatro  Tordiuone. 
His  fame,  which  was  now  sjsreadiug  beyond 
Najjles,  seems  to  have  been  almost  wholly 
due  to  the  high  esteem  in  which  contem- 
porary musicians  held  his  works,  for  the 
public  almost  ignored  them.  But  at  Rome 
L'  Olimpiade  failed  with  a  crash,  while  Du- 
ni's  Neroue  (a  far  inferior  work,  as  its  com- 
poser admitted)  made  a  resounding  success. 
Pergolesi  returned  to  Loreto,  in  disgust 
with  the  stage,  and  resumed  work  on  the 
Stabat  Mater.  But  his  health,  which  had 
long  been  undermined  by  excesses  of  the 
gallant  sort,  now  gave  way,  and  consumjj- 
tion  declared  itself.  He  moved  to  Pozzuoli, 
near  Najsles,  and,  although  really  far  too  ill 
to  work,  he  persisted  in  composing  a  can- 
tata, Orfeo  e  Euridice,  a  Salve  Regina,  and 
in  finishing  the  Stabat  Mater,  iu  spite  of 
the  urgent  entreaties  of  his  old  master  Feo, 
who  counselled  rest.  He  died  a  few  days 
after  the  completion  of  the  Stabat.  He 
was  buried  in  the  precincts  of  the  Pozzuoli 
Cathedral,  where,  a  century  later,  the  Mar- 
quis de  Villarosa  and  the  Cavaliere  Cori- 
glano  raised  a  monument  to  his  memory. 
His  death  was  an  almost  immediate  signal 
for  a  boundless  enthusiasm  for  his  works 
all  over  Italy,  and  twenty-four  years  later 
in  France.  L'  Olimpiade  was  revived  at 
Borne  with  overwhelming  success.     Indeed, 


Pergolesi's  high  renown  was  entirely  post- 
humous, a  fact  unparalleled  in  the  annals 
of  Italian  music.  Pergolesi  is  to  be  re- 
garded as  virtually  the  father  of  "  modern  " 
music  in  Italj' — perhaps  even  in  Europe. 
In  his  music  the  contrapuntal  element  steps 
for  the  first  time  definitely  into  the  back- 
ground, and  the  melodic-harmonic  element 
asserts  its  supremacy.  The  step  from  Leo 
and  Feo  to  Pergolesi  is  somewhat  like  that 
from  the  younger  Bachs  to  Gluck  and 
Haydn.  Pergolesi's  chief  merits  were  great 
pathos,  sweetness,  and  depth  of  expression. 
Of  contrapuntal,  or  even  melodic  invention, 
he  did  not  give  surjjassing  evidence,  but  it 
should  be  remembered  that  he  died  at  the 
age  of  twenty-six,  and  that  there  is  no 
calculating  the  splendour  of  development 
which  awaited  his  genius  had  he  but  lived 
longer.  Although  in  originality  of  concep- 
tion his  works  pale  somewhat  beside  the 
more  mature  productions  of  other  com- 
posers, if  we  compare  them  with  what  other 
great  men  had  written  before  the  age  of 
twenty-six,  we  shall  see  that  the  comparison 
is  rather  in  Pergolesi's  favour  than  against 
hiiu.  In  fact,  his  Serva  padrona  was  the 
model  of  nearly  all  Italian  opere  buffe  that 
followed  it. 

Works — I.  Operas  :  San  Guglielmo  d' 
Aquitania,  Naples,  1731  ;  La  Sallustia,  3 
acts,  ib.,  1731 ;  Amor  fa  1'  uomo  cieco,  1 
act,  ib.,  1731 ;  Recimero,  3  acts,  ib.,  1731  ; 
La  serva  padrona,  2  acts,  ib.,  Teatro  San 
Bartolomeo,  1731,  and  Paris,  Theatre 
Italien,  Oct.  4,  1746 ;  II  maestro  di  mu- 
sica,  2  acts,  Najjles,  1731 ;  II  geloso  scher- 
nito,  ib.,  1732  ;  Lo  frate  innamorato,  in 
Neapohtan  dialect,  ib.,  1733 ;  II  prigio- 
niero  superbo,  3  acts,  ib.,  1733  ;  Adriano  iu 
Siria,  ib.,  1734  ;  Livietta  e  Tracolo,  ossia  la 
contadina  astuta,  ib.,  1734  ;  Flaminio,  3  acts, 
ib.,  1735  ;  L'  Olimpiade,  3  acts,  Rome,  1735. 

H.  Church  music  :  Kyrie  cum  gloria,  4 
voc,  with  orchestra  (Vienna,  Haslinger) ; 
Mass,  5  voc,  with  orch.;  do.  for  two  5-part 
choruses  and  double  orch.;  Dixit,  4  voc, 
strings,  and  organ  ;  do.,  double  chorus  and 


107 


PERI 


orch.  ;  Miserere,  4  voc.  and  orch.  (Paris, 
Plejel) ;  Confitebor,  4  voc.  ;  2  Domine  ad 
adjuvaudum,  4  and  5  voc;  Laudate,  5  voc. 
with  orcL.;  Lsetatus  sum,  2  soprani  and  2 
basses ;  do.,  5  voc. ;  Laudate,  one  voice 
with  instruments  ;  Salve  Regiua,  one  voice, 
strings,  and  organ  (Paris,  Leduc  and  Por- 
ro) ;  Slahal  Mater,  for  soprano  and  con- 
tralto, strings,  and  organ  (Paris,  Bonjour 
and  Porro) ;  Dies  ira3,  for  soprano  and  con- 
tralto, and  strings ;  jMass,  2  voc,  and  or- 
gan ;  do.,  in  D,  4  voc,  with  orchestra ; 
Oratorio  sacro  per  la  nascita  del  Reden- 
tore. 

ni.  Chamber  and  concert  music :  Orfeo, 
cantata  for  one  voice  and  orchestra  (in  Cho- 
ron's  Principes  de  composition  des  £coles 
d'ltalie) ;  5  cantatas  for  sopi-ano  with  clavi- 
chord ;  30  trios  for  2  violins  and  violoncello, 
with  a  figured  bass  for  harpsichord  (24  of 
these  were  published  in  London  and  Am- 
sterdam); Two  movements,  6  voc,  from 
Psalms  are  in  the  FitzwiUiam  Music  (Lon- 
don, Novello) ;  Air  in  F  minor,  for  clavier, 
is  in  Clauss-Szarvady's  Klavierstiicke  (Leip- 
sic,  Senff) ;  Mass,  and  a  Kyrie,  and  Gloria, 
10  voc,  are  in  MS.  in  the  FitzwiUiam 
Librai-y ;  3  jjsalms,  a  Stabat  Mater,  a  Salve, 
and  a  mass  are  in  the  British  Museum,  Add. 
MSS.,  No.  5044. — ViUarosa,  Lettera  biogra- 
fica,  etc.,  Naples  (1831) ;  do.,  IMcmorio  dei 
compositori  di  musica  del  licgno  di  Napoli 
(Naples,  1840),  141 ;  Belasis,  Biografia  di 
Pergolese  ;  Fctis  ;  Grove. 

PERI,  ACHILLE,  born  at  Reggio  d'  Emi- 
lia, Italy,  Dec  20,  1812,  died  there,  March 
28,  1880.  Dramatic  composer  ;  was  at  first 
maestro  di  cappella  of  an  Italian  opera 
troupe  at  Marseilles,  afterwards  at  the  Tea- 
tro  Grande  in  his  native  city.  Works  :  Una 
visita  a  Bedlam,  IMarseilles,  1839  ;  II  soli- 
tario,  Reggio,  1841  ;  Dirce,  ib.,  1843  ;  Ester 
d'Engaddi,  Parma,  1843  ;  Taucreda,  Genoa, 
1848  ;  I  fidanzati,  ib.,  185G  ;  Vittore  Pisani, 
Reggio,  1857  ;  Giuditta,  biblical  drama, 
Milan,  18G0  ;  L'  e.spiazione,  ib.,  18G1  ;  Or- 
fano  e  Diavolo  ;  Rienzi,  Milan,  1862. — Fo- 
tis ;  do.,  Supplement,  ii.  321. 


PERI,  JACOPO,  caUed  II  Zazzerino,  born 
in  the  latter  half  of  the  16th  century  in 
Florence,  died  (?).  He  studied  music  under 
Cristoforo  Malvezzi,  of  Lucca,  and  became 
maestro  di  cappella  to  Fernando,  Duke  of 
Tuscany,  and  later  to  Cosimo  II.  de'  Me- 
dici. He  married  a  rich  noblewoman  of 
the  house  of  Fortini,  by  whom  he  had  a 
son  who  showed  great  mathematical  talent, 
and  was  jjut  to  study  under  Galileo  Galilei, 
but  eventually  ruined  himself  by  dissipation. 
This  was  the  young  man  of  whom  Galileo 
used  to  speak  as  "  il  mio  demone."  In 
spite  of  the  trouble  given  him,  and  the  fre- 
quent disgrace  brought  ui)on  his  household 
by  his  son,  Peri  continued  to  move  in  the 
highest  Florentine  society.  He  soon  as- 
sociated himself  with  Giovanni  Bardi,  conte 
di  Vernio,  Vincenzo  Galilei,  Piero  Strozzi, 
Jacopo  Corsi,  the  poet  Ottavio  llinucciui, 
and  the  composer  Giulio  C'accini,  in  the 
great  Renaissance  movement  known  as  the 
Florentine  Music  Reform  of  the  17th  cen- 
tury (see  Ambros,  iv.  147)  which  resulted 
in  the  establishment  of  the  so-called  stile 
rajjpresentativo,  and  the  foundation  of  the 
lyric  drama.  He  followed  Caccini's  epoch- 
making  Nuove  Musiche  with  a  similar 
work  of  his  own,  Le  varie  musiche  del  Si- 
gnor  Jacopo  Peri,  etc.,  less  rigidly  solemn 
than  Caccini's  in  the  declamatory  portions, 
but  also  less  elaborate  in  ornamentation. 
He  was  the  first  to  develop  this  new  style 
of  vocal  chamber  music  into  actual  dramatic 
composition  in  his  setting  of  Riuucciui'a 
drama  Dafne,  which  is  properly  accounted 
the  first  opera,  and  was  brought  out  in 
private  at  the  Palazzo  Corsi  in  1594  (not 
1597,  as  given  in  Grove,  and  as  stated  by 
Marco  da  Gagliano  ;  the  work  was  given 
during  the  Carnival  of  three  successive 
years,  and  da  Gagliano  probably  heard  only 
the  last  performance).  This  was  soon  fol- 
lowed by  his  setting  of  the  same  poet's 
Euridice.  Singularly  enough.  Peri  did  not 
try  to  follow  up  these  successes,  perhaps 
from  lack  of  opportunity ;  certainly  he 
wrote  no  more  operas.     He  left  Florence, 


108 


PEEKINS 


for  some  unknown  reason,  and  in  1601  was 
appointed  maestro  di  eappella  to  the  Duke 
of  Ferrara.  His  latest  publication  was  the 
Varie  musicbe.  Works  :  Dafne,  j^astoral 
ojiera,  Florence,  Palazzo  Corsi,  1594  (all 
trace  of  this  work  is  lost)  ;  Euridice,  do., 
Florence,  1600  ;  Le  varie  musiche  del  Si- 
gnor  Jacojjo  Peri  a  una,  due  e  tre  voci  con 
alcuni  spirituali  in  ultimo,  per  cantare  nel 
clavicembalo  e  chitarrone  e  ancora  maggior 
isarte  di  essa  per  sonare  semplicemente 
nel  orgauo  (Florence,  Marescotti,  1609). 
Three  madrigals,  4  voc,  are  printed  in 
Kiesewetter's  "  Schicksale  und  Beschaf- 
fenheit  des  weltlicheu  Gesauges "  (1841). 
— Ambros,  iv.  201,  253  et  seq.  ;  Grove  ; 
Eiemaun. 

PEEIONS.HENEY  SOUTH  WICK,  born, 
of  American  parentage,  in  Stockbridge,  Ver- 
mont, March  20,  1833,  still  living,  1890. 
Son  and  j)upil  of  Orson  Perkins  (singing 
master,  1802-82)  ;  graduated  in  1861  at  the 
Boston  Music  School.  In  18G7-71  he  was 
president  of  the  Iowa  Normal  Academy  of 
Music,  Iowa  City  ;  in  1867-68  professor  of 
music  in  the  State  University  of  Iowa ;  in 
1870-74  president  of  the  Kansas  Normal 
Academy  of  Music,  Leavenworth  ;  in  1887- 
88  president  of  the  Illinois  Music  Teachers' 
Association  ;  in  1888  secretary  and  treasurer 
of  the  Music  Teachers'  National  Association. 
In  1875-76  he  went  to  Eurojie,  and  studied 
methods  of  conducting  and  teaching.  He 
is  well  known  as  a  conductor  of  musical 
conventions,  festivals,  and  normal  music 
schools ;  resides  in  Chicago.  Works :  Sweet 
and  Low,  Sleep  in  Peace,  She  said  she'd  be 
my  Bride,  and  other  quartets  ;  Trust  her 
not,  quintet ;  Make  your  Home  beautiful, 
Little  Wanderer,  My  Mariner,  Alone,  There's 
Peace  on  the  Deep,  and  other  songs.  He 
is  the  compiler  also  of  several  collections, 
such  as  :  The  Nightingale  (1860)  ;  Sabbath 
School  Trumpet  (1864)  ;  Church  Bell  (1867) ; 
Song  Echo  (1871) ;  Sunnyside  (1875)  ;  Shin- 
ing River  (1875)  ;  Palms  of  Victory  (1880) ; 
Song  Wave  (1882)  ;  Soul  Songs  (1885) ;  and 
several  books  of  instruction. 


PERKINS,  WILLIAM  OSCAR,  born  at 
Stockbridge,  Vermont,  May  23,  1831,  still 
living,  1890.  Son  and  pupil  of  Orson  Per- 
kins and  brother  of  the  preceding  ;  after 
studying  with  American  musicians  he  went 
to  Europe,  and  took  lessons  in  singing  of  J. 
Q.  Wetherbee,  London,  and  of  G.  Periui, 
Milan.  On  his  return  home  he  devoted 
himself  to  teaching,  conducting,  and  com- 
posing. He  visited  Eurojie  again  in  1871- 
72  ;  received  the  degree  of  Mus.  Doc.  from 
Hamilton  College  in  1879.  He  has  pub- 
lished about  forty  books  of  compilations, 
containing  many  of  his  own  compositions, 
such  as  Choral  Harmony  (1859)  ;  Perkins's 
Anthem  Book  (1874)  ;  The  Temple  (1879)  ; 
Choral  Choir  (1882) ;  The  Peerless  (1883), 
etc.  His  youngest  brother,  Julius  Edson 
Perkins  (1845-75),  bass  singer  and  pianist, 
married  in  1874  Mario  Roze,  who  after- 
wards became  the  wife  of  Henry  Mapleson. 

PER  LE  PORTE  DEL  TORMENTO, 
duet  for  soprano  and  contralto  (Elmira  and 
Sosarme),  in  E  major,  with  accomjaauiment 
of  strings  complete,  in  Handel's  Sosarme, 
Act  n.,  Scene  8.  Published  also  separately, 
with  the  accompaniment  filled  out  by  Rob- 
ert Franz  (Leii^sic,  Kistner). 

PERLE  DU  BEfiSIL,  LA  (The  Pearl  of 
Brazil),  drame  lyrique  in  three  acts,  text  by 
Gabriel  and  Sylvain  Saint-Etienne,  music 
by  Fc'licien  David,  first  rejsresented  at  the 
Theatre  Lyrique,  Paris,  Nov.  22,  1851. 
This  was  the  composer's  first  dramatic  work 
The  admiral  Salvador  has  captured  in  Bra- 
zil a  young  gii-1  Zora,  whom  he  educates 
and  intends  to  marry.  He  sets  sail  with 
her,  and  discovers  that  she  has  a  lover,  Lo- 
renz,  a  young  lieutenant  who  had  disguised 
himself  as  a  sailor  to  accompany  them.  A 
severe  storm  compels  the  ship  to  seek  shel- 
ter in  a  harbour  of  Brazil,  where  they  are 
attacked  by  the  natives.  Zora  chants  a 
hymn  to  the  Great  Spirit,  and,  recognizing 
their  comjsatriot,  the  Brazilians  make  peace. 
Zora  is  rewarded  by  permission  fi-om  the 
admiral  to  marry  Lorenz.  The  original 
cast   was :    Zora,  Mile   Duez ;   Lorenz,   M. 


109 


PERNE 


Soyer ;  Admiral  Salvador,  M.  Boucbe. 
The  opera  was  revived  at  the  Theatre  Ly- 
rique,  Paris,  in   March,   1858,  with    Mme 


Emma   Nevada. 

Miolan-Carvallio,  and  at  the  Ojn'ra  Coiuiquo, 
1883,  with  Mme  Emma  Nevada  aa  Zora. — 
Cli'racnt  et  Larousse,  524 ;  Eevue  et  Gaz. 
mus.  de  Piiris  (1858),  83. 

PERNE,  FRANVOIS  LOUIS,  born  in 
Paris  in  1772,  died  there,  May  2G,  1832. 
Composer  and  erudite  writer  on  music ; 
educated  at  the  maitrise  of  Saiiit-Jacques- 
de-la-Boucherie,  where  he  studied  harmony 
and  counterpoint  under  the  Abbe  d'Haudi- 
mout.  In  17!)2  he  became  a  chorus  singer 
at  the  Opera,  but  in  1799  exchanged  to  play 
the  double-bass  in  the  band.  In  1811  he 
succeeded  Catel  as  professor  of  harmony 
at  the  Conservatoire,  in  181G  became  in- 
spector, in  1820  librarian,  and  in  1822 
retired  to  reside  on  an  estate  near  Laon  ; 
removed  to  Laon  in  1830,  and  in  1832  re- 
turned to  Palis.  He  was  a  profound  stu- 
dent of  ancient  music,  and  expended  a  vast 
amount  of  labour  in  investigating  the  mu- 


sic of  the  Greeks  and  of  the  Middle  Ages. 
Works :  Messe  de  Sainte-Cecile,  1800  ;  Vivat 
rex,  mass  for  four  voices,  1811 ;  Veni  Cre- 
ator, for  three  voices  ;  G  sonatas  for  piano- 
forte ;  Domine,  salvum  fac  regem,  variations 
for  do.;  2  methods  for  ijianoforte  ;  Cours 
d'harmonie  et  d'accompagnement  (1822). 
He  published,  also  :  Exposition  de  la  Semci- 
ographie,  ou  Notation  musicale  des  Grecs 
(Paris,  1815) ;  Chansons  du  Chatelain  de 
Coucy  (Paris,  1830) ;  and  other  didactic  and 
historical  works. —  Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Rie- 
maun. 

PEEOTTI,  GIOVANNI  AG  O  ST  IN  0, 
born  at  Vercelli,  April  12,  17G9,  died  in 
Venice,  June  28,  1855.  Dramatic  and 
church  composer,  brother  and  pupil  of  the 
following,  then  in  Bologna  pui:)il  of  Mattel ; 
went  to  Vienna  in  179G  aa  accomj)anist  at 
the  Italian  opera,  and  to  Loudon  in  1798, 
in  the  same  capacity.  In  1801  he  settled  in 
Venice,  where  in  1812  ho  became  substitute, 
and  in  1817  successor,  to  Furlanetto  as  ma- 
estro di  cappella  at  S.  Mai'co.  Works  :  La 
coutadina  nobile,  given  at  Pisa,  1795  ;  Ales- 
saiidro  e  Timoteo,  rearrangement  of  Sarti's 
opera,  London,  1800.  Ballets ;  Church 
and  chamber  music. — Fetis  ;  Riemann. 

PEROTTI,  GIOVANNI  DOMENICO, 
born  at  Vercelli,  Italy,  in  17G0,  died  there 
after  1820.  Dramatic  and  church  composer, 
pupil  of  Fiorini  in  Milan,  and  of  Padre  Mar- 
tini in  Bologna ;  on  his  return  to  Vercelli 
he  was  appointed  maestro  di  cappella  at 
the  cathedral.  Works :  Zemira  e  Gondarte, 
given  at  Alessandria,  1788  ;  Agesilao,  Rome, 
1789  ;  Much  church  music  for  the  service 
in  Vercelli  Cathedral. — Fetis. 

PERPETUUM  ilOBILE  (Perpetual 
^Motion),  rondo  in  Weber's  Sonata  in  C, 
for  pianoforte,  op.  21,  completed  in  Berlin, 
Aug.  18,  1812,  and  dedicated  to  Madame  la 
Grande-Duchesse  Marie  Paulowna  of  Saxe- 
Weimar.  The  Rondo,  which  is  the  last 
movement,  is  dated  "  L'infatigable,  compo- 
nirt  June  11th  and  July  15th."  Published 
separately  as  "Perpetuum  Mobile,"  by 
Schlesinger   (Berlin) ;    by   Simrock   (Bonn 


JIO 


PER  PIETA 


and  Berlin) ;  and  by  Haslinger  (Vienna) ; 
as  "  Mouvement  perpctuel,"  by  Brandus  & 
Dufour  (Paris);  as  "Allegro  brillant,"  by 
Augener  &  Co.  (London)  ;  as  "  Brilliant 
Rondo,"  by  Cba^jpell  &  Co.  (London),  and 
Cramer  &  Co.  (ib.) ;  as  "Moto  continuo," 
by  Chappell  &  Co.  (London) ;  and,  "  II  moto 
l^erpetuo,"  by  Eicordi  (Milan).  The  Rondo 
Las  been  rearranged  by  Henselt  witb  mod- 
ei'n  difficulties,  and  adapted  by  Brahms  as 
a  study  for  the  left  hand.  Pagauini  also 
wrote  Moto  perpetuo,  Allegro  de  concert 
for  the  violin,  op.  11. — Jahns,  Weber  Yer- 
zeichuiss,  159  ;  Benedict,  Weber,  140. 

PER  PIETA,  BELL'  IDOL  MIO,  aria 
for  soprano  with  orchestra,  in  E-flat,  text 
from  Metastasio's  Artaserse,  music  by  Mo- 
zart, composed  in  Milan  in  1770,  Breitkopf 
&  Hiirtel,  Mozart  Werke,  Serie  vi..  No.  G. 
— Kuchel,  Verzeichniss,  No.  78. 

PER  PIETA,  NON  EICERCATE,  rondo 
for  tenor  with  orchestra,  in  E-flat,  text  from 
Anfossi's  opera,  II  curioso  iudiscreto,  music 
by  Mozart,  composed  in  Vienna,  June  21, 
1783.  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Mozart  Werke, 
Serie -vi.,  No  27. — Kochel,  Verzeichniss,  No. 
420  ;  Andro,  No.  59. 

PER  QUESTA  BELLA  MANO,  aria  for 
bass,  with  orchestra,  accomj)animent  and 
contrabass  obligato,  in  D,  by  Mozart,  com- 
posed for  Franz  Gerl  in  Vienna,  March  8, 
1791.  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Mozart  Werke, 
Serie  vi..  No.  46.  It  was  sung  at  the  Lon- 
don Philharmonic  in  1887. — KOchel,  Ver- 
zeichniss, No.  612  ;  Andre,  No.  89 ;  Jahu, 
Mozart,  iii.  287. 

PER  QUESTE  TUE  MANINE.  See  Don 
Giovanni. 

PERRY,  EDWARD  BAXTER,  born,  of 
American  parentage,  in  Haverhill,  Massa- 
chusetts, Feb.  14,  1855,  still  living,  1890. 
Pianist  ;  when  two  years  old  he  was  made 
totally  blind  by  accident ;  from  his  sixth  to 
his  nineteenth  year  he  studied  the  piano- 
forte in  Boston,  and  in  1875-78  studied  in 
Berlin,  Frankfort,  Stuttgart,  and  Weimar, 
under  Kullak,  D.  Prucknei-,  and  Liszt.  On 
his  return  he  settled  in  Boston  and  devoted 


two  years  to  concert  work,  but  had  to  aban- 
don it  on  account  of  an  injury  to  his  right 
wrist,  and  in  1881-83  was  jirofessor  of  pi- 
anoforte at  Oberlin  Conservatory.  In  1883- 
85  he  was  again  in  Europe,  appeared  in 
concerts  with  success,  and  at  Frankfort  re- 
ceived instruction  from  Clara  Schumann. 
Since  1885  he  has  been  instructor  in  the 
Tremont  School  of  Music,  Boston,  and  is 
well  known  as  a  concert  pianist  in  New 
England  and  the  Middle  and  Western 
States.  His  works  consist  chiefly  of  com- 
positions for  the  pianoforte,  and  songs. 

PERRY,  GEORGE,  born  at  Norwich, 
England,  in  1793,  died  in  London,  March 
4,  18G2.  Organist,  jjupil  of  Beekwith, 
settled  in  London  in  1822,  and  was  at  first 
director  of  music  in  Haymarket  Theatre  and 
organist  of  Quebec  Chaj)el.  In  1832-47  he 
was  concert-master,  and  in  1848  conductor, 
of  the  Sacred  Harmony  Society.  From 
1846  he  was  organist  of  Trinity  Church, 
Gray's  Inn  Road.  Works  :  Morning,  Noon, 
and  Night,  oj^era,  1822.  Oratorios  :  Elijah 
and  the  Priests  of  Baal,  1818  ;  The  Fall  of 
Jerusalem,  1830  ;  TheDeathof  Abel ;  Heze- 
kiah ;  Belshazzar's  Feast,  cantata,  1836. 
Overture  to  the  Persian  Hunters  ;  Anthems. 

PERSEE,  tragedie-lyrique  in  five  acts 
and  prologue,  text  by  Quinault,  music  by 
Lully,  first  represented  at  the  Acadomie 
Royale  de  Musique,  Paris,  Ajn-il  17,  1G82. 
It  is  one  of  the  composer's  best  operas.  The 
prologue  celebrates  Virtue,  Innocence,  and 
Fortune.  The  first  act  presents  plaj's  in 
honour  of  Juno  ;  the  second,  the  gardens 
and  palace  of  Cepheus,  King  of  Ethiopia 
and  father  of  Andromeda,  whom  Perseus 
resolves  to  deliver.  He  receives  a  shield 
from  Minei-va  and  a  casque  from  Pluto  ;  in 
the  third  act  vanquishes  the  Gorgon,  and 
in  the  fourth  rescues  Andromeda.  The 
last  act  shows  their  marriage,  and  the  apo- 
theosis of  Cej^heus,  Cassiopea,  Perseus, 
and  Andromeda.  Original  cast :  Persee,  M. 
Dumesnil  ;  Phinee,  M.  Beaumavielle  ;  Ce- 
phee,  M.  Dun  ;  Andromede,  Mile  Aubry  ; 
Merope,    Mile   Marthe   du   Rochois ;    and 


lU. 


peesEe 


Meduse,  Mile  Desvoyes.  Thevenard  sang 
the  part  of  PhiiiOe  with  great  effect  Pub- 
lished by  Ballard  (Paris,  1682  ;  2d  ed.,  1722). 
Same  text,  music  by  Bernard  de  Bui-y,  Dau- 
vergne,  Franccour,  and  Rebel,  Paris,  1770  ; 
and  Persee  et  Andromode,  ballet  by  Mehul, 
ib.,  June  8,  1810.  Italian  operas  on  the 
same  subject :  Perseo,  by  Aiidrea  Mattioli, 
Venice,  1GG5  ;  by  Antonio  Draghi,  text  b}' 
Aurelio  Amalteo,  Vienna,  1GG9  ;  Le  azioni 
fortunate  di  Perseo,  by  do.,  ib.,  1G91 ;  An- 
dromeda, text  by  Bernardoni,  composer  un- 
known, ib.,  Feb.  21,  1702  ;  by  Sacchini, 
Loudon,  177-1  ;  by  Jouo  de  Sousa  Carvalho, 
Lisbon,  1779  ;  and  II  ritorno  di  Perseo,  by 
Paisiello,  Naples,  1792.  Also  an  Hungarian 
ballet,  Perseus  iind  Andromeda,  by  George 
Druzecki,  Presburg,  about  1790. — Clement 
et  Larousse,  525. 

PERSEE,  tragt'die-lyrique  in  three  acts, 
arranged  by  Miu-montel  from  Quinault's  text, 
nmsic  bj'  Philidor,  first  represented  at  the 
Academie  lloyale  de  Musique,  Paris,  Oct.  27, 
1780.  Oiiginal  cast  :  Persee,  M.  Legi-os  ; 
Andromede,  Mile  Levasseur  ;  Mt'duse,  Mile 
Durancy  ;  Cassiopi^'e,  j\Ille  Duplant ;  Phinee, 
M.  Larrivee  ;  and  Mercure,  M.  Laine. — La- 
jarte,  i.  319. 

PEKSIANI  (Persiano),  GIOSEFFO,  born 
at  Ilecanati,  Papal  States,  in  180-4,  died  in 
Paris,  Aug.  14,  18G9.  Dramatic  composer, 
pupil  of  Tritto  at  the  royal  college  of  music, 
Naples.  About  1837  he  went  to  Paris,  and 
after  1838  jiassed  several  j-ears  in  Spain. 
"Works  :  Piglia  il  mondo  come  viene,  opera 
bufTa,  Florence,  182G  ;  L'  inimico  generoso, 
ib.,  182G  ;  Attila,  Pamia,  182G  ;  Danao,  re 
d'  Argo,  Florence,  1827  ;  Gaston  de  Foix, 
Venice,  1828  ;  Costantino  in  Aries,  ib.,  1829 ; 
Eufemio  di  Messina,  Florence,  1829  ;  II 
solitario,  Milan,  1829  ;  I  Saraceni  in  Cata- 
nia (a  new  version  of  Eufemio  di  Messina), 
Padua,  1832  ;  Ines  de  Castro,  Naples,  1835  ; 
H  fantasma,  Paris,  1813  ;  L'  orfana  savo- 
jarda,  Madrid,  1846.— Ft'tis. 

PERSUIS,  LOUIS  LUC  LOISEAU  DE, 
born  at  Metz,  July  4,  1769,  died  in  Paris, 
Dec.  20, 1819.     Dramatic  composer  and  vio- 


linist, pupil  of  his  father,  who  was  master 
of  the  choristers  of  the  cathedral.  He  en- 
tered the  orchestra  of  the  theatre,  lived  in 
Avignon  as  teacher  of  violin,  and  in  1787 
went  to  Paris,  where  he  produced  an  ora- 
torio, Le  passage  de  la  mer  Rouge,  at  the 
Concerts  Spirituels.  He  was  first  violinist 
at  the  Theatre  Montansier  in  1790  and  at 
the  Oj^era  in  1793,  chef  de  chant  at  the 
Oi^era  in  1804,  chef  d'orchestrc  in  1810, 
succeeding  Rey  ;  he  became  also  professor 
of  violin  at  the  Conservatoire  when  it  was 
founded  in  1795,  but  lost  this  post  in  1802. 
In  1814  he  became  inspector-general  of  the 
Opera,  and  in  1817,  through  coui-t  influ- 
ence, sufierseded  Choron  as  director.  He 
had  meanwhile  been  appointed  conductor 
of  the  court  concerts,  and  in  1810-15  was 
conductor  of  the  orchestra  at  the  Acade- 
mic. Afterwards  maitre  de  chapelle  to  Louis 
XVin.  in  1814,  succeeding  Lesueur  as  super- 
intendent of  the  Royal  Chapel.  He  exhib- 
ited great  ability  as  a  conductor,  but  his 
music,  though  it  met  with  considerable  suc- 
cess in  its  day,  is  now  forgotten.  Order 
of  St.  Michael,  1819  ;  Legion  of  Honour, 
Works — Operas  ;  Estelle,  1783  ;  La  nuit 
espagnole,  1791  ;  Phanor  et  Angela,  1798  ; 
Fanny  Morna,  1799  ;  Leonidas  (with  Gres- 
nick),"  1799 ;  Le  fruit  defendu,  1800  ;  Mar- 
cel, 1801  ;  Chant  de  victoire  en  I'honneur 
de  Napoleon,  1806  ;  L'inauguration  de  la 
Victoire  (with  Lesueur),  1807  ;  Le  triomphe 
de  Trajan,  1807  ;  Jerusalem  delivrue,  1812  ; 
Chant  franyais,  1814  ;  L'heureux  retour 
(with  Berton  and  Kreutzer),  1815  ;  Les 
dieux  rivaux  (with  Spontini),  181G.  He 
wrote  also  music  for 
i  ballets  (some  in  col- 

iLc*,^  labo  ration  with 
^  ^^  -^  Kreutzer) :  Le  retour 
'^  d'Ulysse,  1807 ;  Nina, 

1813  ;  L'epreuve  villageoise,  1814  ;  L'heu- 
reux retour,  1815 ;  Le  carnaval  de  Venise, 
1816.  His  church  compositions  in  MS. 
are  in  the  Conservatoire  Library. — Fetis  ; 
do..  Supplement,  ii.  32G  ;  Riemanu  ;  Men- 
del. 


119 


PEETI 


PERTI,  JACOPO  ANTONIO,  born  in 
Bologua,  June  6,  1661,  died  there,  April  10, 
175G.  Church  composer,  puijil  of  Padre 
Petronio  Franceschini.  In  1680  he  con- 
ducted a  mass  of  his  own  for  solo,  chorus, 
and  orchestra,  in  San  Petronio,  and  in  1681 
was  made  a  member  of  the  Accademia  Filar- 
monica,  Bologna,  of  which  he  was  six  times 
priucipe.  He  was  maestro  di  cajDjDella  of 
San  Petronio  till  his  death.  Among  his 
pupils  were  Aldovi-andini,  Laureuti,  Pis- 
tocchi,  and  Torelli.  He  was  the  friend  and 
companion  of  Padre  Martini.  Works — Op- 
eras, all  given  in  Venice  :  Atide,  1679  ;  Mar- 
zio  Coriolano,  1683  ;  Flavio,  1686  ;  Rosaura, 
1689  ;  L'  incoronazioue  di  Dario,  1689 ; 
Brenno  in  Efeso,  1690 ;  L'  ingauno  sco- 
perto  per  vendetta,  1691 ;  Furio  Camillo, 
1692  ;  Nerone  fatto  Cesare,  1693  ;  Laodicea 
e  Berenice,  1695.  Church  works  :  Cantate 
morali  e  spirituali,  1688  ;  Messe  e  salmi 
concertati,  1735.  The  Abbate  Santini  pos- 
sessed a  fine  collection  of  his  music.  There 
is  an  Adoramus  Te  by  Perti  in  the  Fitzwill- 
iam  Library,  Cambridge,  and  Novello  has 
included  two  fine  choruses  by  him  in  his 

"  Sacred  Music,"  vol.  ii.  He  wrote  two  or- 
atorios, Giesu  al  sepolcro,  and  La  morte  di 
Giesti,  1718.— Burney,  Hist.,  iv.  51  ;  Rie- 
manu  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

PESCETTI,  GIOVANNI  BATTISTA, 
born  in  Venice  in  1704,  died  there  in  1766. 
Organist,  and  dramatic  and  church  com- 
poser, pupil  of  Lotti ;  was  appointed  in  1762 
organist  of  the  second  organ  in  S.  Marco. 
He  was  in  London  in  1737^0.  Works— Op- 
eras :  II  jjrototipo,  Venice,  1726  ;  La  canta- 
trice,  ib.,  1727  ;  Dorinda,  ib.,  1729  ;  I  tre 
defensori  della  patria,  ib.,  1730  ;  Narcisso  al 
fonte,  ib.,  1731 ;  H  vello  d'oro,  London,  1737  ; 
Demetrio,  ib.,  1738  ;  Alessandro  nell'  Indie, 
Venice,  1740 ;  Tullio  Ostilio,  1740  ;  Ezio, 
1747 ;  Diana  ed  Endimione,  cantata,  Lon- 
don, 1739.  Church  music  ;  9  sonatas  for 
pianoforte. — Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 


PESSARD,  fiMILE  LOUIS  FORTUNE, 

born  in  Paris,  May  29,  1843,  still  living, 
1890.  Dramatic 
composer,  pupil 
of  Bazin  and  Ca- 
rafa  at  the  Con- 
servatoire, where 
he  obtained  the 
second  prize  in 
1861,  and  the 
first  in  1862 ; 
grand  prix  de 
Rome,    1866. 

He  is  inspector  of  vocal  music  in  the  public 
schools  of  Paris.  Legion  of  Honour,  1879. 
Works — Operas  :  La  cruche  cassee,  given  at 
the  Opera  Comique,  1870  ;  Le  char,  ib., 
1878  ;  Le  capitaine  Fracasse,  Theatre  Ly- 
rique,  1878.  Solemn  mass  for  2  voices  with 
organ  ;  Ave  Maria,  with  organ,  violin,  and 
violoncello  ;  Mater  Salvatoris ;  Suite  for 
orchestra ;  March  for  do.  ;  Quintet  for 
wind  instruments  ;  Trio  for  pianoforte  and 
strings  ;  Pianoforte  music,  and  songs. — Fe- 
tis, Supplement,  ii.  327 ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz., 
333. 

PETER  SCHMOLL  UND  SEINE 
NACHBARN  (Peter  Schmoll  and  his  Neigh- 
bours), German  comic  opera  in  two  acts, 
text  by  Joseph  Turks,  from  Carl  Gottlob 
Cramer's  novel  of  the  same  title  (Rudolstadt, 
1798-99),  music  by  W^eber,  represented 
at  Augsburg,  in  March,  1803.  It  was  writ- 
ten in  Salzburg,  when  Weber  was  a  pupil 
of  Michael  Haydn,  who  recommended  this 
work  of  the  young  composer.  It  was  re- 
hearsed in  Salzburg  in  June,  1802,  and  was 
probably  first  given  there.  The  libretto  is 
laid  in  the  time  of  the  French  Revolution, 
and  is  arranged  as  a  Singspiel  with  spoken 
dialogue.  The  music  as  a  whole  is  some- 
what crude,  but  the  harmonies  are  original 
and  the  instrumentation  novel  and  full  of 
colour,  exhibiting  the  individuality  of  the 
composer.  He  has  used  also  several  obso- 
lete instruments  to  characterize  the  situa- 
tions of  the  play.  The  music  of  Minette's 
song  in  the  first  act  was  again  used  for  the 


113 


PETERSEN 


song,  "Wircl  Philomele  trauern,"  in  Abu 
Hassan  and  for  the  last  song  in  the  finale 
of  the  third  act  of  Oberon.  Characters  rep- 
resented: Peter  Schmoll,  Bast,  and  Greis 
(B.)  ;  Oberbereiter  and  Niclas  (T.)  ;  and 
ilinette  (S.).  The  original  MS.  is  in  the 
iwssession  of  Max  von  Weber,  and  a  copy 
is  owned  by  F.  W.  Jiihns.  The  opera  was 
not  published.  Weber  rescored  and  partly 
rewrote  the  overture  in  E-flat  in  1807,  and 
it  was  published  by  Gombart  (Augsburg)  ; 
also  for  jjianoforte  for  two  and  for  four 
hands  by  Schlesinger  (Berlin) ;  full  score, 
Peters  (Leipsic),  and  by  Kichault  (Paris). 
— Jiihns,  Weber,  Verzeichniss,  No.  8  ;  Weber, 
Weber,  i.  65,  73  ;  Grove,  iv.  410. 

PETERSEN,  KAKL  AUGUST,  born  in 
Hamburg,  May  27,  1801,  died  (?).  Flutist, 
son  and  pupil  of  the  following  ;  abandoned 
his  instrument  for  the  violin  and  pianoforte, 
both  of  which  he  taught  in  Hamburg,  after 
having  travelled  through  Denmark  and 
Sweden.  Works  :  Polonaise  for  jDianoforte, 
with  orchestra  ;  Duos  for  violins  ;  Rondo 
for  violin  and  pianoforte;  Sonata  for  do.; 
Polonaises,  rondos,  divertissements,  etc. 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

PETERSEN,  PETER  NIKOLAS,  born 
at  Bederkesa,  near  Bremen,  Sept.  2,  17G1, 
died  in  Hamburg,  Aug.  19,  1830.  Virtuoso 
on  the  flute,  self-taught,  joined  a  band  of 
travelling  musicians  when  still  a  boy,  and 
at  the  age  of  seventeen  entered  a  militia 
regiment  in  Hamburg  as  oboe  player.  In 
course  of  time  he  began  to  teach,  and  hav- 
ing appeared  in  public  for  the  first  time  in 
1791,  retained  favour  as  the  foremost  flutist 
of  Hamburg  for  thirty  years.  He  also  made 
important  improvements  in  his  instrument. 
Works  :  Etudes  pour  la  flute,  2  books  ;  Ada- 
gio et  variations  pour  la  flute  et  piano  ;  Re- 
cueil  de  duos  pour  deux  flutes  ;  Methode 
de  flQte.— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

PETIT,  ADRIEN  (called  Coclicus,  also 
Petri),  born  in  Germany  about  1500,  died 
probably  there.  Pupil  of  Josquin  Despres, 
having  gone  to  France  in  his  youth ;  he 
travelled  afterwards,  and  seems  to  have  re- 


sided in  Italy,  but  returned  to  his  native 
country.  Works  :  Musica  reservata  ;  Con- 
solationes  ex  psalmis  Davidicis,  4  voc.  (Nu- 
remberg, 1552)  ;  Motets  in  the  collections 
of  Adrien  Leroy  and  Ballard  ;  Treatise  on 
music  (Nuremberg,  1552). — Fetis  ;  Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

PETIT  CHAPERON  ROUGE,  LE  (Little 
Red  Riding-hood),  opera-comique  in  three 
acts,  text  by  Theaulon,  music  by  Boieldieu, 
first  rejjresented  at  the  Theatre  Feydeau, 
Paris,  June  30,  1818.  The  libretto  is  an 
adaptation  of  the  old  fairy  tale  of  Perrault. 
Red  Riding-hood  in  the  opera  becomes 
Rose  d'Amour,  a  simple  peasant  girl,  who 
on  her  way  to  visit  an  old  hermit  is  attacked 
by  the  wolf,  who  is  the  Baron  Rodolphe. 
He  possesses  a  magic  ring,  the  power  of 
which  no  woman  is  able  to  resist,  but  by 
virtue  of  her  red  hood,  which  is  a  talisman, 
Rose  d'Amour  escapes.  The  Baron  hurries 
to  the  hermit's  abode,  and  waits  for  her  in 
disguise.  Rose  d'Amour  is  again  saved, 
this  time  by  the  hermit,  who  returns  to  his 
home  and  discovers  that  she  is  the  Baron's 
niece.  Rose  d'Amour  is  afterwards  given 
in  marriage  to  Count  Roger,  who  had  won 
her  heart  in  the  guise  of  a  shepherd.  The 
opera  showed  a  marked  advance  in  Boiel- 
dieu's  style,  and  the  orchestration  was  richer 
than  that  of  his  former  works.  The  Petit 
Chaperon  rouge  was  given  in  Vienna  under 
the  title  of  Rothkiippchen,  March  27,  1819  ; 
in  Berlin,  July  7,  1819  ;  and  in  Dresden, 
Dec.  10,  1823.  It  was  revived  at  the  Opera 
Comique,  Paris,  in  18G0.  The  score  was 
dedicated  to  Louis  X\TII.,  and  published 
by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  and  by  Peters  (Leip- 
sic). Same  title,  melodrama  by  Schaffuer, 
Paris,  Feb.  28,  1818. — Clement  et  Larousse, 
526  ;  Hanslick,  Moderne  Oper,  96  ;  Allgem. 


mus.  Zeitg.,  xx.  571. 

PETIT  DUG,  LE  (The  Little  Duke), 
opera-comique  in  three  acts,  text  by  Hemi 
:  Meilhac  and  Ludovic  Hak'vy,  music  by 
Lecocq,  first  represented  at  the  Theatre  de 
la  Renaissance,  Paris,  Jan.  25,  1878,  with 
Mile  Jeanne  Granier  as  le  petit  due.     It 


114 


PETITE 


was  first  given  in  English  at  the  Islington 
Philharmonic  Theatre,  London,  April  27, 
1878  ;  and  first  in  New  York,  March  17, 
1879.  Published  by  Brandus  &  Co.  (Paris, 
1878).— Clement  et  Larousse,  933  ;  Athe- 
nffium  (1878),  i.  1G4. 

PETITE  ilADEJMOISELLE,  LA,  opera- 
eomique  iu  three  acts,  text  by  Meilhac  and 
Halevy,  music  by  Lecocq,  first  represented 
at  the  Theatre  de  la  Renaissance,  Paris, 
April  12,  1879.  The  scene  is  in  and  near 
Paris  in  1G52.  The  petite  mademoiselle  is 
a  young  widow,  the  Countess  Cameroni, 
whom  Mazarin  wishes  to  marry  to  the 
brother  of  the  dead  count.  She  refuses, 
joins  the  Fronde,  and  travels  to  Paris  under 
the  passport  of  Mme  Douillet.  Aided  by 
the  capitaine  de  Manicamp,  she  passes 
through  the  garrison  and  arrives  in  Paris. 
He  follows,  takes  her  prisoner,  and  after- 
wards marries  her.  This  opera  was  given 
in  English  as  Madelon  at  the  Casino,  New 
York,  Dec.  5,  1887.  PubUshed  by  Bote  & 
Bock  (Berlin,  1879). — Eevue  et  Gaz.  mus. 
de  Paris  (1879),  123  ;  Clement  et  Larousse, 
934. 

PETITE  MARIEe,  la,  opera-bouflfe  in 
three  acts,  text  by  Eugene  Leterrier  and 
Albert  Vanloo,  music  by  Lecocq,  first  rep- 
resented at  the  Theatre  de  la  Renaissance, 
Paris,  Dec.  21,  1875,  with  great  success. 
— Clement  et  Larousse,  8G7  ;  Atheuseum 
(187G),  i.  29. 

PETIT  SOUPER,  LE  (The  Little  Sup- 
per), opera-comique  in  one  act,  by  Dalayrac, 
first  rej^reseuted  at  the  Theatre  de  la  Cour, 
Paris,  in  1781.  Same  title,  ojjera-comique, 
text  by  Violet  d'Epagny,  music  by  Dourlen, 
given  at  the  Feydeau,  Paris,  Feb.  22,  1822. 

PETRELLA,"eRRICO,  born  in  Palermo, 
Dec.  10, 1813,  died  in  Genoa,  April  7,  1877. 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Saverio  del 
Giudice  on  the  violin,  and,  at  the  Couserva- 
torio  San  Pietro  a  Majella,  of  Jlichele  Costa, 
Bellini,  Furno,  Ruggi,  and  of  Zingarelli.  He 
produced  his  first  opera,  II  diavolo  color  di 
rosa,  1829,  while  studying  at  this  school, 
and  rapidly  became  one  of  the  most  cele- 


brated dramatic  composers  of  Italy,  second 
only  to  Verdi.  His  oj^eras  enjoyed  great 
pojDularity  for  twenty- 
five  years.  Works : 
II  giorno  deUe  nozze  ; 
Pulclnella  morto  e 
non  morto,  Naples, 
1832  ;  Lo  scroccone, 
ib.,  183G  ;  I  pirati 
spagnuoli,  ib.,  1837  ; 
Le  miuiere  di  Freim- 
berg,  ib.,  1839  ;  Le 
precauzioui,  ib.,  1851 ; 
Elena  di  Tolosa,  ib.,  1852  ;  Marco  Visconti, 
ib.,  1854  ;  Elnava,  o  1'  assedio  di  Leida, 
Milan,  1855  ;  lone,  ossia  I'ultimo  giorno  di 
Pompeji,  ib.,  1858  ;  II  duca  di  Scilla,  ib., 
1859  ;  Morosina,  Naples,  1860  ;  II  foUetto 
di  Gresy,  ib.,  18G0  ;  Virginia,  ib.,  18G1  ;  La 
contessa  d'  Amalfi,  Turin,  186-1 ;  Celinda, 
Naples,  18G5  ;  Caterina  Howard,  Rome, 
1866  ;  I  promessi  sposi,  Lecco,  1866  ;  Gio- 
vanna  H.  di  Napoli,  Naples,  1869  ;  Manfredo, 
ib.,  1872 ;  Bianca  Orsini,  ib.,  1874  ;  Cimo- 
docea,  Diana,  ossia  la  fata  di  Pozzuoli,  not 
given. — Fetis,  Supplement,  ii.  328  ;  Mendel. 

PETROBELLI,  FRANCESCO,  born  at 
Bologna  about  1C35.  Church  composei-, 
maestro  di  cappella  of  the  cathedral  at 
Padua.  Works :  Motetti  e  Litanie  della 
B.  V.  (Autwerji)  ;  Salmi  a  quattro  voci  con 
stromenti  obligati  (Venice,  1662)  ;  Musiche 
sacre  concertate,  etc.  (Bologna,  1670) ;  Can- 
tate  a  una  e  due  voci,  etc.  (ib.,  1676)  ;  Mo- 
tetti, Antifone  e  litanie  della  B.  V.  a  2 
voci  (ib.,  1677) ;  Musiche  da  camera  (Ven- 
ice, 1682)  ;  Psalmi  breves  octo  vocibus  (ib., 
1684) ;  Salmi  dominicali  a  8  voci  (ib.,  1686) ; 
Scherzi  musicali,  etc.  (ib.,  1693). — Fetis  ; 
Mendel. 

PETZOLD,  EUGEN  KARL,  born  at 
Ronneburg,  Saxe-Altenburg,  Nov.  7,  1813, 
died  Jan.  22,  1889.  Organist,  jjujiil  of  Can- 
tor Hasenmeyer  on  the  iiiauoforte,  then  at 
the  Thomasschule  in  Leipsic  of  Weinlig  in 
theory,  later  of  David  on  the  violin,  of 
Julius  Knorr  and  August  Klengel  on  the 
pianoforte,   of  Pohlenz  iu  singing  and  on 


us 


PEVERNAGE 


tbe  organ,  and  of  Mendelssolin  in  score- 
reading.  In  1837  he  founded  the  Phil- 
harmonic Society,  in  1838-39  was  Kapell- 
meister of  the  Stadttheater  at  Bautzen,  and 
in  ISiO  went  to  Switzerland  as  musical 
instructor  at  an  institute.  Having  visited 
Paris  in  1841,  he  became  in  1842  organist 
and  music  director  at  Murten  and  in  1844 
at  Zofingen,  Canton  Aargau  where  he  ac- 
tively promoted  musical  cultui-e  by  the 
establishment  of  regular  subscription  con- 
certs, oratorio  performances,  etc.  In  1874 
he  retired  from  public  life,  retaining  only 
his  position  as  organist.  In  1845  he  visited 
Italy,  and  in  1851  London.  Works  :  Music 
to  Goethe's  Faust ;  do.  to  Schiller's  Wil- 
helm  Tell  ;  Concert  compositions  for  solo, 
chorus,  and  orchestra ;  do.  for  various  solo 
instruments ;  Church  music  ;  Pianoforte 
pieces  ;  Songs  and  choruses. — Mendel,  Er- 
giinz.,  334. 

PEVERNAGE,  ANDRfi,  born  at  Cour- 
trai,  Flanders,  in  1543,  died  in  Antwei-p, 
Jul}-  30,  1591.  Chui'ch  composer,  jjupil  at 
the  maitrise  of  his  cathedral,  where  he  was 
chorister,  and  of  which  he  became  maitre  de 
chapelle  at  the  age  of  twenty.  In  1574  he 
married,  and  moved  to  Antwerp  as  choir- 
master of  the  cathedral,  and  led  an  active 
life  in  composing,  editing  a  collection  of 
other  authors'  works,  and  giving  at  his 
own  house  weekly  performances  from  the 
best  masters.  "Works  :  5  books  of  sacred 
motets  (Antwerp,  1574-91) ;  5  masses  (ib., 
1593)  and  7  books  of  motets  (ib.,  1602). 
The  British  Museum  has  a  book  of  chan- 
sons, and  two  imjjerfect  cojjies  of  Harmo- 
nic celeste,  a  collection  of  madrigals  ed- 
ited by  him,  in  which  seven  of  his  own 
appear  (1583).  Eituer  mentions  sixteen 
detached  pieces  in  various  collections  of 
the  time.  Two  have  been  jirinted  in  mod- 
ern type,  an  Ode  a  Sainte-Cecile,  O  Virgo 
generosa  (Commer.  col.  op.  mus.  Batav:,  vol. 
vii.,  Berlin),  and  a  9-part  Gloria  in  excel- 
sis,  in  the  Csecilia  of  von  Oberhoflfer  (Lux- 
emburg, 1863). — Fetis  ;  Riemann  ;  Mendel ; 
Schilling  ;  Gerber  ;  Ambros,  Gesch.,  iii.  31G  ; 


Van  der  Straeten,  i.  127-129  ;  ii.  243-244  ; 
iii.  5  ;  vi.  5G,  178. 

PEZEL  (Pezelius),  JOHANN,  born  in 
Austria  in  the  first  half  of  the  17th  centurj-. 
Instrumental  composer,  canon  of  the  Order 
of  St.  Augustine,  entered  in  1672  a  monas- 
tery in  Prague,  but  left  it  in  the  year  fol- 
lowing and  went  to  Bautzen,  Saxony,  where 
he  embraced  Protestantism,  and  became 
town  piper ;  afterwards  lived  in  the  same 
capacity  at  Leipsic.  He  is  one  of  the  few 
composers  who,  in  the  17th  century,  cul- 
tivated exclusively  instnimental  music. 
Works  :  Musica  vesijertina  Lipsiaca,  for  1- 
5  voices  (Leipsic,  1669) ;  Hora  decima,  for 
5  voices  (ib.,  1669) ;  Musikalische  Arbeit 
zum  Abblasen,  bestehend  in  40  Sonetten 
mit  5  Stimmen  (ib.,  1670) ;  Arien  iiber  die 
iiberfliissigen  Gedanken  (ib.,  1673 ;  Mu- 
sikalische Seelenerquickungen  (ib.,  1675)  ; 
Bicinia  variorum  instrumentorum,  etc.  (ib., 
1674) ;  Intraden  in  zwei  Theileu  (ib.,  1676) ; 
DeliciiB  musicales,  etc.  (Frankfort,  1678) ; 
Intraden  a  4,  nehmlich  mit  einem  Cornet 
und  drei  Trombonen  (Leipsic,  1683) ; 
Fiinfstimmige  blasende  Abendmusik,  etc. 
(Frankfort,  1684) ;  Musikahsche  Gemiiths- 
ergotzungen,  etc.  (1685) ;  Opus  musicum 
sonatorum,  etc.  (Fi-ankfort,  1686)  ;  Musica 
cui-iosa  Lipsiaca,  etc.  (Leipsic,  1686).  His 
only  vocal  composition  is :  Jahrgang  tlber 
die  Evangelia  von  3-5  Vokalstimmen,  etc. 
(Leipsic,  1678).  He  published  also:  Ob- 
scrvationes  musicse  (Leijisic,  1678-83)  ;  In- 
felix  musicus  (ib.,  1678) ;  Musica  politico- 
practica  (ib.,  1678). — Fetis ;  Gerber  ;  Men- 
del ;  Reissmaun,  Gesch.,  ii.  300  ;  Riemann. 

PFEIFFER,  GEORGES  JEAN,  born  at 
Versailles,  Dec.  12,  1835,  still  Uving,  1890. 
Pianist  and  instrumental  composer,  son  and 
pupil  of  the  pianist  Clara  Virginie  Pfeiffer, 
and  in  composition  pupil  of  Maleden  and 
Damcke.  He  won  immediate  success  as  a 
virtuoso,  played  in  London  in  1862,  and  is 
much  sought  as  a  teacher.  His  composi- 
tions rank  among  the  best  of  the  modern 
French  school.  He  is  a  partner  in  the  firm 
of   Pleyel,  Wolfif  &  Cie,  Paris,  pianoforte 


116 


PFINGSTEN 


makers.  Works :  3  concertos  for  piano- 
forte and  orchestra  ;  Allegro  symj^lionique 
for  do.  ;  Symphony  for  orchestra  ;  Jeanne 
d'Arc,  symphonic  poem  ;  Agar,  lyrical  scenes 
for  soli,  chorus,  and  orchestra ;  Overture  to 
Le  Cid  ;  Quintet  for  pianoforte  and  strings  ; 
Trio  for  do. ;  Sonatas  for  do. ;  Le  capitaine 
Eoch,  comic  opera ;  Romances,  waltzes, 
mazurkas,  sonatas,  etudes,  and  many  other 
pieces  for  pianoforte. — Fetis  ;  do..  Supple- 
ment, ii.  331  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  335. 

PFINGSTEN  (Whitsuntide),  cantata,  text 
by  Immergriiu,  music  by  Ferdinand  Hiller, 
op.  119.  Published  by  Kistner  (Leipsic, 
1860-67). 

PFINGSTEN  IN  FLORENZ,  operetta  in 
three  acts,  text  by  Eiegeu,  Zell,  and  Genee, 
music  by  Alphons  Czibulka,  first  repre- 
sented in  Vienna,  Dec.  20,  1884.  An  Eng- 
lish version,  entitled  Amorita,  translation 
by  Sidney  Rosenfeld  and  Leo  Goldmark, 
was  given  at  the  Casino,  New  York,  Nov. 
16,  1885. 

PH^DRA,  music  to  the  tragedy  of  Prince 
Georg  of  Prussia  (G.  Conrad),  by  Wilhelm 
Taubert,  first  performed  in  Berlin  in  1868. 
Operas  on  this  subject,  in  Italian  :  Fedra 
incoronata,  text  by  Vissai'i,  composer  un- 
known, Munich,  1662  ;  Fedra,  by  Gluck, 
Milan,  1744  ;  by  Giovanni  Paisiello,  Naples, 
1788  ;  by  Niccolini,  Rome,  1804  ;  by  Ferdi- 
nando  Orlandi,  Padua,  1820  ;  by  Simon 
Mayr,  text  by  Eomanelli,  Milan,  Dec.  26, 
1820  ;  by  John  Fi-anc  Westmoreland,  Flor- 
ence, Nov.  17,  1824 ;  and  in  French,  Phedre, 
text  by  F.  B.  Hoffman,  music  by  Lemoiue, 
at  the  Academie  Royale  de  Musique,  Paris, 
Nov.  21,^  1786. 

PHAETON,  tragedie-lyrique  in  five  acts 
with  prologue,  text  by  Quinault,  music  by 
Lully,  first  represented  at  Versailles,  Jan. 
6,  1683  ;  at  the  Academic  Royale  de  Mu- 
sique, Paris,  April  27,  1683.  This  work 
was  received  with  immense  applause,  and 
became  such  a  favourite  that  it  was  called 
"  I'opera  du  peuple."  It  was  played  every 
night  until  July  30,  1683,  when  Lully  closed 
the  theatre,  on  the  announcement  of  Maria 


Theresa's  death.  The  prologue,  the  sub- 
ject of  which  is  the  return  of  the  Golden 
Age,  in  praise  of  Louis  XIV.,  is  written  for 
two  characters,  Saturne  and  Astree.  The 
opera  contains  many  brilliant  scenes,  and 
the  temple  of  Isis,  the  palace  of  the  Sun, 
and  Phaeton's  ride  and  fall  were  represented 
with  great  magnificence.  The  music  ranks 
among  Lully "s  best  compositions.  The  op- 
era was  revived  in  1742.  Published  by 
Ballard  (Paris,  1683  ;  2d  ed.,  1713).  This 
work  occasioned  several  parodies,  one  of 
which  was  entitled  Le  cocher  maladroit. 
Other  operas  on  the  same  subject :  In  Ital- 
ian, Fetonte,  by  J.  H.  Kapsberger,  Rome, 
1630  ;  by  Pietro  ParaJisi,  London,  Dec.  17, 
1747  ;  by  Karl  Heinrich  Graun,  text  by 
Villati,  Beriin,  March  29,  1750  ;  and  by  Jom- 
melli,  Stuttgart,  June  11,  1769.  Phaeton, 
English  tragedy  by  Gildon,  with  music  by 
Daniel  Purcell,  London,  1698;  and  The 
Fall  of  Phaeton,  English  opera  by  Thomas 
Augustine  Arne,  ib.,  1736.  In  German : 
Phai-thou  und  Nais,  by  Bachmann,  Dresden, 
about  1790,  and  by  Bierey,  Breslau,  about 
1804.  O  precipicio  de  Phaetonte,  Portu- 
guese opera,  by  Antonio  Joao  da  Silva,  Lis- 
bon, 1738. — Lajarte,  i.  44  ;  Clement  et  La- 
rousse,  528. 

PHAETON,  symphonic  poem,  for  or- 
chestra, in  C,  by  Saint-Saens,  op.  39,  first 
performed  in  Berlin,  Feb.  14,  1876.  Dedi- 
cated to  Mme  Berthe  Pochet,  nee  de  Tiuau, 
and  published  by  Durand  Schoenewerk  & 
Cie  (Paris,  1876) ;  arranged  for  the  piano- 
forte for  four  hands  by  E.  Guiraud. 

PHEDRE,  overture  to  Racine's  tragedy, 
for  grand  orchestra,  in  G  minor,  by  Mas- 
senet, first  j)erformed  at  the  Concerts  Popu- 
laires,  Paris,  March  26,  1876.  It  is  dedi- 
cated to  Joseph  Dupont,  and  published  by 
Schott  (Mainz,  1876). 

PHILEMON  ET  BAUCIS,  ballet-hero- 
ique  in  one  act,  text  by  Chabanon  de  Mau- 
gris,  music  by  Gossec,  first  represented  at 
the  Academic  Royale  de  Musique,  Paris, 
Sept.  26,  1775.  It  was  given  after  Alexia 
et  Daphne,  a  pastorale  in  one  act,  by  the 


PHILEMOjST 


same  authors.  Original  cast :  Philumon, 
M.  Larrivee  ;  Baucis,  'Mile  Levasseur  ;  and 
Jupiter,  M.  Gclin. 

PHILEMON  ET  BAUCIS,  French  opera 
in  thi'ee  acts,  text  by  Barbier  and  Carre, 
music  by  Gounod,  first  represented  at  the 
Theatre  Lyrique,  Paris,  Feb.  18,  18G0. 
The  opera  had  first  been  composed  in  one 
act  for  the  theatre  of  Baden.  The  subject 
is  treated  in  a  half-mythological,  half-bur- 
lesque manner.  The  original  cast  included 
Bataille,  Fromant,  Balanque,  and  IMme  Car- 
valho.  Other  operas  on  the  subject  are  : 
Baucis  e  Filemone,  by  Gluck,  Parma,  17G9  ; 
by  Jotio  Cordeiro  da  Silva,  Lisbon,  1789  ; 
in  French,  by  P.  Alex.  Monsigny,  1771,  not 
given  ;  in  German,  Philemon  und  Baucis, 
Mariouettenoper,  by  Joseph  Haydn,  Esz- 
terhi'iz,  Sept.  2,  1773  ;  Siugspiel,  by  Joh. 
Bi'ihni,  180;j  ;  melodrama,  by  Franz  Stanis- 
laus Spindler,  1800  ;  music  to  Conrad  Gott- 
lieb Pfefiel's  drama,  Philemon  und  Baucis, 
by  Anton  Schweitzer,  Weimar,  1770  ;  bid- 
let  to  the  same,  by  K.  Chr.  Agthe,  Ballen- 
stiidt,  1790 ;  and  music  to  Konrad  Eckhoff's 
drama,  by  Karl  David  Stegmann,  Gotha, 
1777. — Clement  etLarousse,  530  ;  Hauslick, 
Mus.  Stationen,  131. 

PHILIDOE,  ANDRE  DANICAN-,  called 
Philidor  I'aine,  born  in  Paris  about  1G47, 
died  at  Dreux,  Aug.  11,  1780.  Dramatic 
composer,  son  of  Jean  Danican-Philidor 
(1G20-79)  ;  member  of  the  Grande  Ecurie, 
the  Chambre,  and  the  Chapelle  of  Louis 
XrV\  He  played  the  bassoon,  cromorne, 
oboe,  and  tromjjette  marine,  and  competed 
with  LuUy  in  writing  bugle-calls,  fanfares, 
and  military  marches.  He  was  also  libra- 
rian of  the  king's  music  library  from  1G8J: 
until  his  death.  Works  :  Le  canal  de  Ver- 
sailles, opera-ballet,  1GS7  ;  La  princesse  de 
Crete,  do.  Masquerades  :  Le  mariage  de  la 
Couture  avec  la  grosse  Cathos,  1G88  ;  Mas- 
carade  des  Savoyards,  Le  roy  de  la  Chine, 
Marly,  1700  ;  La  noce  do  village  ;  Les  Ama- 
zones  ;  Le  lendemain  de  la  noce  ;  Le  vais- 
seau  marchand  ;  Le  jeu  des  echecs ;  La 
fete  d'Ai'cueil.     Trios,  passe-pieds,   et   me- 


nuets  ;  Suite  de  danses  pom-  les  violons  et 
hautboys  ;  Pieces  a  deux  basses  de  viole, 
basse  de  violon  et  bassou  ;  Pieces  de  trom- 
l^ettes  et  timbaUes  ;  Partition  de  plusieurs 
marches  et  batteries  do  tambour,  etc. — Fetis, 
Supplement,  ii.  334. 

PfflLIDOE,  ANNE  D.ANICAN-,  born  in 
Paris,  April  11,  1G81,  died  there,  Oct,  8, 
1728.  Flutist  and  dramatic  composer,  son 
of  the  i^receding,  was  admitted  to  the  king's 
chamber  music  in  1702,  and  estabUshed 
the  Concerts  Spirituels  in  1725.  Works: 
L'Amour  vainqueur,  pastorale,  1G97  ;  Diane 
et  Endymion,  1G98  ;  Danau,  opera.  Marly, 
1701  ;  Te  Deum,  motet  a  4  voix  et  chante 
sur  mer,  etc.  ;  Pieces  pour  la  flilte,  violons 
et  hautbois,  etc.  (1712).  His  brother  Fran- 
cois, born  at  Versailles,  March  17,  1G89,  was 
also  an  able  flutist,  and  has  left  2  books  of 
Pieces  for  his  instrument  (Paris,  171G, 
1718). — Fetis,  Supplement,  ii.  337. 
PHHJDOR,  FRANgOIS  ANDKfi  DA- 
NICAN-,  born  at 
Dreux  (Eure-et- 
Loir),  Sept.  7, 
172G,  died  in 
London,  Aug.  31, 
1795.  He  was 
the  youngest  sou 
of  Andre  Diuai- 
ean-Philidor,  b  y 
his  second  mar- 
riage. His  talent 
both  for  chess  and 
music  showed  it- 
self at  an  early  age,  although  he  became  tlie 
first  chess-player  in  the  world  before  he  was 
at  all  noted  as  a  musician,  or,  indeed,  before 
be  showed  much  enthusiasm  for  music.  As 
a  boy  he  was  a  page  in  the  Chapelle  du  Eoi, 
and  laid  the  foundations  of  a  good  musical 
education  by  studying  harmony  under  Cam- 
pra.  Wlien  he  left  the  chapelle  he  went  to 
Paris,  where  for  some  time  he  supported 
himself  bj-  lessons  and  copying  music.  But 
the  discouragements  he  met  with  were  such 
that  he  abandoned  music,  and  took  up  chess- 
playing  as  a  profession.     At  the  age  of  eigh- 


iis 


PniLIDOK 


teen  he  was  already  one  of  the  most  formid- 
able players  in  Europe.  In  1745  he  set  out 
on  a  tour,  beating  the  famous  Stamma  in 
Amsterdam.  Thence  he  went  to  Germany, 
staying  some  time,  in  1748,  at  Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle,  to  write  a  book  on  chess.  Lord  Sand- 
wich invited  him  to  the  English  camp  be- 
tween Bois-le-Duc  and  Maestricht,  where 
the  Duke  of  Cumberland  was  so  pleased 
with  him  and  his  play  that  he  invited  him 
to  London  and  to  publish  his  "  Analyse  du  jeu 
des  t'checs,"  the  first  edition  of  which  aji- 
peared  in  1749.  He  won  immense  distinc- 
tion on  this  and  other  visits  to  London, 
especially  at  the  Chess  Club,  which  institu- 
tion afterwards  gave  him  a  regular  pension. 
His  zeal  for  music  sprang  up  suddenly  in 
1754,  when  he  wrote  a  Lauda  Jerusalem, 
hoping  to  get  the  jsost  of  surintendant  de 
la  musique  du  roi  in  Paris,  Diderot  and 
others  of  his  friends  having  done  their  best 
to  persuade  him  that  the  mental  strain  of 
continued  chess-playing  was  injuring  him, 
and  that  music  was  his  true  vocation.  He 
did  not,  however,  get  the  appointment  as 
surintendant ;  but  his  seK-love  would  not 
brook  the  idea  of  failure,  and  he  turned 
his  attention  to  dramatic  composition.  His 
first  opera,  Blaise  le  savetier,  1759  (strictly 
speaking,  his  second ;  his  Diable  a  quatre 
had  failed  in  175G),  was  a  brilliant  success, 
and  was  followed  by  others  equally  fortu- 
nate. But  his  passion  for  chess  continued 
unabated,  and  in  1777  he  returned  to  Lon- 
don. Going  back  to  Paris  in  1779,  he 
found  Gluck  and  Grutry  high  in  popular 
favour,  yet  tried,  nevertheless,  for  fresh  lau- 
rels with  his  Persee  and  Themistocle,  but 
without  his  former  success.  Every  year  he 
would  pass  a  few  mouths  in  London,  inlay- 
ing chess  ;  in  1792  he  got  permission  from 
the  Comitu  du  Salut  Public  to  make  his 
regular  visit  there,  but  he  was  prevented 
from  returning  to  Paris,  and  his  relations 
did  not  succeed  in  getting  his  name  struck 
off  from  the  list  of  emigres  before  his  death. 
Philidor  was  decidedly  a  more  cultivated 
musician  than   his   contemporaries  GriJtry 


and  Monsigny ;  he  was  at  once  more  orig- 
inal, his  harmony  was  more  correct  and  va- 
ried, and  he  gave  far  more  importance  to 
the  chorus  and  the  orchestra  than  they  ;  in 
orchestration  especially  he  was  the  sujoerior 
of  any  French  comjjoser  of  his  day.  But  in 
melodic  grace  and  dramatic  instinct,  both 
Monsigny  and  Gretry  surjjassed  him.  His 
popularity  was  unbounded,  and  he  was  the 
first  composer  ever  called  before  the  curtain 
in  Paris — after  the  first  performance  of  his 
Sorcier,  in  1764.  Works — L  Operas  :  Le 
diable  a  quatre,  four  acts,  Paris,  Opera  Co- 
mique,  Aug.  19,  1756  ;  Le  retour  du  prin- 
temps,  opera-ballet,  December,  1756  ;  Blaise 
le  savetier,  one  act,  Opera  Comique,  March 
9,  1759  ;  L'huitre  et  les  plaideurs,  ou  le 
tribunal  de  la  chicane,  one  act.  Theatre  de 
la  Foire  Saint-Laurent,  Sept.  18,  1759  ;  Le 
quiproquo,  two  acts,  Comedie  Italienne, 
March  6,  1760  (afterwards  reduced  to  one 
act,  as  Le  volage  fixe) ;  Le  soldat  magicieu, 
one  act,  Theatre  de  la  Foire  Saint-Laurent, 
Aug.  14, 1760  ;  Le  jardinier  et  son  seigneur, 
one  act,  Feb.  18,  1761,  revived  at  the  The- 
atre Lyrique,  May  1,  1763  ;  Le  marcchal- 
ferrant,  two  acts.  Theatre  de  la  Foire  Saint- 
Laurent,  Aug.  22,  17G1 ;  Sancho  Pan<;a  dans 
son  ile,  one  act,  Comedie  Italienne,  July  8, 
1762  ;  Le  bilcheron,  ou  les  trois  souhaits, 
one  act,  ib.,  Feb.  28,  176.3  ;  Les  fetes  de  la 
paix  (intermezzo,  written  on  the  conclusion 
of  peace  with  England),  1763  ;  Le  sorcier, 
two  acts.  Theatre  Italien,  Jan.  2, 1764 ;  Tom 
Jones,  three  acts,  ib.,  Feb.  27,  1765  ;  Er-ne- 
linde,  princesse  de  Norvege,  three  acts,  Aca- 
demie  Eoyale  de  Musique,  Nov.  24,  1767, 
and  revived  as  Sandomir,  jjrince  de  Dane- 
mark,  Dec.  11, 1773  ;  Le  jardinier  de  Sidon, 
two  acts.  Theatre  Italien,  July  18,  1768  ; 
L'amant  deguise,  ou  le  jardinier  su25pose, 
one  act,  ib.,  Sejit.  3,  1769  ;  La  rosiere  de 
Salency  (with  several  others),  ib.,  Oct.  25, 
1769  ;  La  nouvelle  ecole  des  femmes,  three 
acts,  ib.,  Jan.  22,  1770  ;  Le  bon  fils,  one 
act,  ib.,  Jan.  11,  1773  ;  Zelime  et  Melide,  ou 
les  fausses  infidelites,  ib.,  Oct.  30,  1773; 
Berthe,  three  acts  (with  Botson  and  Gos- 


PHILIDOK 


sec),  Brussels,  1775  ;  Les  femmes  Tengees, 
one  act,  Paris,  Theatre  Italian,  March  20, 
1775  ;  Le  puits  d'amour,  ou  les  amours  de 
Pierre  le  Long  et  Blancbe  Bazu,  one  act, 
May  1,  1779  ;  Persee,  three  acts,  Academie 
Royale  de  Musique,  Oct.  24,  1780  ;  Le  dor- 
meur  eveiUe,  1783 ;  JJamitie,  au  village, 
three  acts,  Tht-atre  Italien,  Oct.  31,  1785 ; 
Thumistocle,  three  acts,  Fontainebleau,  Oct. 
13,  1785,  and  Academie  Royale  de  Musique, 
May  23,  1786  ;  La  belle  esclave  (not  per- 
formed) ;  Le  mari  comme  il  les  faudrait  tous, 
one  act,  1788  ;  Bclisaire,  three  acts  (Act  11. 
is  said  to  be  by  Berton),  Theatre  Italien, 
Oct,  3,  1796.  n.  Church  music :  Lauda 
Jerusalem,  motet,  performed  at  the  Concert 
Spirituel,  Paris,  Feb.  2,  1755  ;  Mass  for  the 
anniversary  of  Eameau's  death,  Oratou-e, 
Paris,  1766  ;  Te  Deum,  Concert  Spirituel, 
Paris,  Aug.  15,  1786 ;  and  many  motets 
performed  at  the  Concerts  Spirituels,  but 
not  jjublished.  HI.  Miscellaneous  works : 
L'Art  de  la  modulation,  quartets  for  two 
violins,  oboe,  and  bass,  dedicated  to  M.  le 
due  d'Ayen  (Paris) ;  Ariettes  periodiques, 
for  one  voice  with  accompaniment  of  violin, 
viola,  bass,  oboe,  and  horn,  and  also  a  sim- 
ple accompaniment  of  violin  and  bass,  pub- 
lished by  Philidor  and  Trial  every  fifteen 
days.  Philidor's  include :  1.  Le  triomphe 
de  la  jeunesse  ;  2.  Les  rigueurs  d'Hortense  ; 
3.  Le  pure  de  famille  ;  4.  Le  printemps  ;  5. 
Le  poUtique ;  5  bis.  A  quelque  chose  malheur 
estbon;  6.  Aus sons amoureuxdes musettes; 
7  and  7  bis.  Venus,  venes  sous  ces  bosquets 
charmauts,  La  restitution  ;  8.  La  vie  cham- 
petre  ;  9.  L'image  de  la  guerre ;  10.  L'iudiffe- 
rent;  11.  L'amant  malheureux  ;  12.  La  ber- 
gere  coquette  ;  L'ete,  song  for  one  voice  with 
two  violins,  viola,  and  bass ;  Six  ariettas 
composed  for  Sauvigny's  Histoire  amoureuse 
de  Pierre  le  Long  et  de  sa  tres-honoree 
dame  Blanche  Bazu  ;  and  Carmen  seculare, 
an  ode,  Loudon,  1779.  Philidor  also  pub- 
lished a  book  on  chess.  Analyse  du  jeu  des 
echecs  (London,  1749). — Reflexions  sur  un 
prospectus  oti  Ton  propose  par  souscription 
lapartitioncompleted'Ernelinde,  byT.     .     . 


F.  (Paris,  1768) ;  Lettre  a  M.  le  Chevalier 
de  .  .  .  a  I'occasion  du  nouvel  opera 
(Ernelinde),  (ib.,  1868) ;  Piot,  Particularites 
inedites  concernant  les  reuvres  musicales 
de  Gossec  et  de  Philidor  ;  ]fipitre  a  M.  A. 
Phihdor,  by  a  Citoyen  (Paris,  1780) ;  Lar- 
din,  Philidor  peint  par  lui-meme  (Paris, 
1847) ;  Fetis,  vii.  ;  Clement,  IMus.  celebres, 
101  ;  La  France  musicale  (Dec.  22,  1867,  to 
Feb.  16,  1868) ;  Allen,  Life  of  Philidor. 

PHILIDOR,  PIERRE  DANICAN-,  born 
in  Paris,  Aug.  22,  1681,  died  there  (or  at 
Versailles),  Sept.  1,  1731.  Flutist,  son  and 
pupil  of  Jacques  Philidor  (called  Philidor 
le  cadet,  brother  of  Andre,  born  in  Pai-is, 
May  5,  1657,  died  at  Versailles,  May  29, 
1708),  also  pupil  of  his  uncle  Andre  ;  at  first 
oboe  player  of  the  Grande  Ecurie,  then  of 
the  Chapelle  (1704),  he  became  flutist  of  the 
chamber  music  in  1712,  and  viola  player  in 
1716.  Works:  Pastorale,  Marly,  1697;  6 
suites  a  deux  fliites,  etc.  (Paris,  1717, 1718) ; 
Trio,  contenant  6  suites,  etc.  (ib.). — Fetis, 
Supplement,  ii.  338. 

PHILIPPE  DE  MONS.     See  Blonte. 

PHTTJPPE  ET  GEORGETTE,  opera- 
comique  in  one  act,  text  by  Monvel,  music 
by  Dalayrac,  first  represented  at  the  Come- 
die  Italienne,  Paris,  Dec.  28,  1791.  This 
work  was  given  in  Berlin,  Feb.  14,  1805,  in 
a  German  translation  by  A  W.  Schlegel. 
— Clement  et  Larousse,  530. 

PHILIPPS,  PETER  (Petrus  Philippus, 
Pietro  FiUppo),  born  in  England  about  1560, 
died  in  April,  1625.  Contrapuntist,  and 
church  composer  ;  was  canon  of  Bethune  in 
French  Flanders,  became  organist  of  the 
vice-royal  chapel  of  the  Archduke  Albert  and 
Isabella,  governors  of  the  Low  Countries ; 
appointed  in  1610  canon  of  the  Collegiate 
Church  of  Saint- Vincent  at  Soignies.  Bur- 
ney  says  that  the  first  regular  fugue  upon 
one  subject  that  he  had  met  with  was  that 
by  Peter  Philipps,  found,  with  others  of  his 
compositions,  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  Virginal 
Book,  Trinity  College  Librai-y,  Cambridge. 
Hawkins  has  printed  a  four-part  madrigal 
of  his.     Works :  Melodia  Olympica  di  di- 


uo 


PHILLIPS 


versi  eccellentissimi  niusici  a  iv.,  v.,  vi.  e  viii. 
voci  (1591)  ;  reprints  (1594-lGll).  Four 
books  of  madrigals  (1596,  1598,  1603) ;  Mo- 
tets for  5  voices  (1612) ;  do.  for  8  voices 
(1613) ;  Gemmulse  sacrse,  for  2-3  voices 
with  continuo  (1613)  ;  Litanies  for  4-6 
voices  (1623) ;  Paradisus  sacris  cantionibus 
conditus  (1628). — Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Burney, 
Hist.,  iii.  86 ;  Barrett,  English  Church 
Com250sers,  U  ;  Eiemanu  ;  Mendel  ;  Schil- 
ling ;  Gerber. 

PHILLIPS,  PHILIP,  born,  of  American 
parentage,  in  Casadaga,  New  York,  Aug.  13, 
1834,  still  living,  1890.  He  studied  under 
Lowell  Mason,  George  F.  Root,  Adams  Da- 
vis, and  others.  In  1853  he  began  con- 
ducting singing-schools  in  Alleghany,  New 
York,  and  neighbouring  places.  In  1860 
he  published  Early  Blossoms,  a  collection, 
of  which  20,000  were  sold  ;  then  opened  a 
music  shop  in  Cincinnati,  where,  in  1863, 
he  published  Musical  Leaves,  which  had  a 
sale  of  700,000.  During  the  Civil  War  he 
greatly  aided  the  Christian  Commission  by 
services  of  song  in  different  j^arts  of  the 
country.  He  has  made  several  trips  to  Eu- 
rope, conducting  there  nearly  six  hundred 
musical  entertainments  ;  in  a  tour  round 
the  world  he  held  praise  services  in  the 
Sandwich  Islands,  Australia,  New  Zealand, 
Palestine,  Egypt,  India,  and  in  many  Euro- 
pean cities.  In  1866  he  removed  to  New 
York,  where  he  has  since  resided.  His 
other  published  works  are:  Singing  Pil- 
gi-im,  1865  ;  Song  Life,  1872 ;  New  Hal- 
lowed Songs,  1872  ;  Singing  Annuals,  1874- 
75-76 ;  Song  Ministry,  1874 ;  Song  Ser- 
mons, 1876 ;  International  Song  Service, 
1887. 

PHILLIPS,  WILLIAM  LOVELL,  born 
in  Bristol,  England,  Dec.  26,  1816,  died  in 
London,  March  19,  1860.  Pianist,  pupil  of 
Potter  at  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music,  and 
on  the  violoncello  of  Liudley.  Professor  of 
composition  at  the  Roj-al  Academy.  Mem- 
ber of  orchestra  of  Her  Majesty's  Theatre, 
Philharmonic  Society,  and  Sacred  Harmonic 
Society.  Conductor  at  the  Olympic  and  Prin- 


cess's Theatres.  Organist  of  St.  Catherine's 
Church,  Regent's  Park.  Works  :  Symphony 
in  P  minor  ;  Cantata  ;  Songs. 

PHILOSOPH,  DER,  symphony  in  E-flat, 
written  by  Haydn  about  1764. 

PHILP,  ELIZABETH,  born  in  Falmouth, 
England,  in  1827,  died 
in  London,  Nov.  26, 
1885.  Vocal  composer, 
pupil  of  Manuel  Garcia, 
Marchesi,  and  Ferdi- 
nand Hiller.  She  de- 
voted herself  to  teach- 
ing and  composed  a 
number  of  meritorious  ' 
songs  and  part-songs, 
many   of    which     have  ' : 

been  popular.  Among  her  first  was  a  ballad 
(1855),  Tell  me,  the  summer  stars,  words 
by  Edwin  Arnold.  She  set  also  six  songs 
from  Longfellow,  The  Water  Babies,  Eliza- 
beth Barrett  Browning's  "  Inclusions,"  Vic- 
tor Hugo's  "  Chant  des  lavandiores,"  and 
Prudhomme's  "Le  souj^ir."  Many  of  her 
songs  and  part-songs  were  sung  by  herself 
and  other  singers  at  her  own  concerts. 

PHILTRE,  LB,  French  opera  in  two  acts, 
text  by  Scribe,  music  by  Auber,  first  rep- 
resented at  the  Acadomie  Royale  de  Mu- 
sique,  Paris,  June  20,  1831.  The  subject 
is  the  same  as  Donizetti's  Elisire  d'  amore. 
Original  east :  Terusine,  Mme  Damoreau  ; 
Guillaume,  M.  Adoljihe  Nourrit  ;  Fonta- 
narose,  M.  Levasseur  ;  and  Joli  Coeur,  M. 
Dabadie.  This  opera  remained  in  the  rep- 
ertory until  1862.  It  was  given  in  Ber- 
lin, Oct.  15,  1831.  Full  score  and  piano- 
forte score  by  Ch.  Rummel,  and  by  V. 
Rifaut,  published  by  Schott  (Mainz,  1833)  ; 
also  by  E.  Troupenas  (Paris,  1833)  ;  Latour 
(London,  1833),  German  translation  by  von 
Lichtenstein. — Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xxxv. 
289 ;  Clement  et  Larousse,  530  ;  Lajarte, 
ii.  138. 

PHCEBUS,  ARISE,  cantata  for  male  cho- 
rus, tenor  solo,  and  orchestra,  text  from 
William  Drummond  of  Hawthornden's 
poem   of  the   same   title,    music   by  John 


m 


PHEOSINE 


Knowles  Paine,  first  performed  in  tbe  Mu- 
sic Hall,  Boston,  by  the  Apollo  Club,  April 
26,  1882.— Upton,  Standard  Cantatas,  289. 
PHROSINE  ET  MfiLIDOE,  French  op- 
era in  three  acts,  text  by  d'Arnault  pure, 
music  by  Mehul,  first  represented  at  the 
Opera  Comique,  Paris,  May  i,  1794. 

PLiCENZA,  PASQU.\LE,  born  at  Casal 
Monferrato,  Nov.  16,  1816,  died  at  Pistoja, 
Oct.  23, 1888.  Dramatic  composer ;  studied 
at  first  the  flute  and  the  bassoon,  and  en- 
tered the  band  of  a  regiment,  of  which, 
within  a  few  years,  he  became  bandmaster. 
In  1859  he  was  commissioned  to  organize 
the  bands  of  several  regiments,  obtained 
the  rank  of  ofiicer,  and  after  having  re- 
signed, held  various  positions  as  maestro 
di  cappella  at  theatres.  Works  :  II  tribunal 
segi-eto,  given  at  Cuneo,  1845  ;  Marinella, 
Turin,  1858  ;  Cii^riano  U  sarto,  Genoa,  1860 
(?)  ;  Monaldcsca,  Turin,  1867. — Fetis,  Sup- 
plement, ii.  342. 

PM.NGERO  LA  SORTE  ^^^^,  soprano 
ai'ia  of  Cleopatra,  in  E  major,  with  ac- 
companiment of  traversa,  two  violins,  and 
bass,  in  Handel's  Giulio  Cesare,  Act  III, 
Scene  3.  Published  also  separately  with 
the  accompaniment  filled  out  by  Otto  Dresel 
(Leipsic,  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel). 

PIATTI,  ALFREDO,  born  in  Bergamo, 
Italy,  Jan.  8,  1822, 
still  living,  1890.  Vir- 
tuoso on  the  violon- 
cello, son  of  the  vio- 
linist Antonio  Piatti 
(died  at  Bergamo, 
Feb.  27,  1878),  pupil 
'if  his  gi-eat-uncle 
Zanetti,  and  in  1832- 
37,  at  the  Conserva- 
torio,  Milan,  j)upil  of 
Merighi.  He  began  playing  in  the  orches- 
tra of  the  theatre  at  seven  ;  and  in  1837 
made  his  first  public  ajipearance  as  a  solo 
performer.  He  went  to  Venice  and  Vienna, 
gave  concerts  in  18-41  in  Frankfort,  in  1843 
in  Munich  with  Liszt,  and  iu  1844  in  Pai-is 
and  Loudon.     He  played  with  success  at 


the  London  Philharmonic  Society's  con- 
cert on  the  same  occasion  with  IMendelssohn, 
and  also  jjlayed  with  him  several  times  in 
private.  In  1845  he  went  to  St.  Peters- 
burg, but  returned  in  184G  to  London,  and 
still  resides  there,  holding  since  1859  the 
position  of  violoncellist  at  the  Pojiular  Con- 
certs. Works :  Concertino  and  two  con- 
certos for  violoncello  and  orchestra  ;  Songs 
with  violoncello  obligate.  He  has  also  done 
good  service  by  arranging  and  producing 
many  forgotten  sonatas  by  Veracini,  Valeu- 
tini,  Locatelli,  Boccherini,  and  other  com- 
posers for  strings  of  the  18th  century. 
— Grove  ;  Fctis  ;  do.,  SuppK-nient,  ii.  342  ; 
Riemann  ;  Mendel  ;  Hanslick,  Concertwesen 
in  Wion,  162. 

PIAZZA,  GIOV.VNXI  BATTISTA,  born 
in  Rome,  second  half  of  16th  century.  Vir- 
tuoso on  several  instruments,  especially 
on  the  viola,  pupil  of  Vincenzo  Ugolino. 
Works:  Canzoni  per  una  viola  (Venice,  1633, 
2d  ed.) ;  do.,  2d  book  (ib.,  1527)  ;  Balletti  e 
correnti  a  una  viola  con  basso  (ib.,  1628) ;  Cia- 
conne,  passacaglie,  balletti,  etc.  (ib.) ;  Can- 
zoni, lib.  v.;  Correnti,  ciaconne,  etc.,  lib.  vi.; 
Canzonette  jjer  una  viola. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

PICCHI,  ERMANNO,  born  at  Impruneta, 
near  Florence,  June  7,  1811,  died  in  Flor- 
ence, April  18,  1856.  Dramatic  composer, 
pupil  of  Ignazio  Colson  in  Florence,  where 
he  was  appointed  in  1850  secretary  of  the 
music  class  at  the  Academy  and  in  1852 
director  of  the  annex  schools.  Works  : 
Marco  Visconti,  opera,  given  in  Florence, 
1838  ;  Don  Crescendo,  opera  buffa  (with 
Fiori),  Modena,  1854  ;  II  domino  bianco, 
Florence,  1855  ;  Ezechia,  oratorio  ;  Masses, 
psalms,  overtures,  concertos,  music  for  mili- 
tary bands,  and  for  j)ianoforte. — Fetis  ;  do., 
Supplement,  ii.  342. 

PICCHIANTI,  LUIGI,  born  in  Florence, 
Italy,  Aug.  29,  1787,  died  there,  Oct.  19, 
1864.  Virtuoso  on  the  guitar  ;  although 
opposed  by  his  family,  made  music  his 
profession  and  studied  counterpoint  under 
Disma  Ugolini.  He  became  one  of  the  edi- 
tors of  the  "  Gazzetta  Musicale  "  of  Florence, 


123 


ncciNJs^i 


ami  in  1852  was  appointed  jsrofessor  of 
counterpoint.  Works  :  Metiiod  for  guitar  ; 
Quartet  for  stringed  instruments,  and  parti- 
menti  for  the  study  of  harmony  and  ac- 
companiment ;  Sonatas,  caprices,  etudes, 
and  themes  varies  for  guitar  ;  Psabn  cix., 
for  8  voices  in  two  choirs  with  orchestra, 
etc.  Didactic  works :  Princiin  generali 
e  ragiouati  della  musica  teorico-pratica 
(Florence,  1854  ;  Milan,  1855) ;  Notizie  della 
vitta  e  delle  opere  di  Luigi  Cherubini 
(Florence,  1843)  ;  and  other  works  on  har- 
mony, composition,  and  accompaniment. 
— Futis  ;  do.,  Sujjplement,  ii.  343  ;  Mendel; 
Schilling. 

PICCINNI,  LUIGI,  born  in  Naples  in 
1766,  died,  between  Paris  and  Passy,  July 
31,  1827.  Dramatic  composer,  son  and 
puijil  of  Nicola  Piccinni,  whom  he  joined 
in  Paris  in  1783,  and  accompanied  again 
to  Naples  in  1791.  He  was  appointed  in 
1796  royal  Kapellmiistare  at  Stockholm,  and 
returned  in  1801  to  Paris.  Works  :  Les 
amours  de  Cherubin,  Paris,  Theatre  de 
Beaujolais,  1784  ;  Suzette  et  Colinet,  ou  les 
amants  heureus  par  stratagems,  ib.,  1786  ; 
La  suite  des  deux  chasseurs  et  la  laitiere, 
ib.,  1788  ;  Les  infidolites  imaginaires.  The- 
atre Louvois,  1790  ;  Gli  accidenti  inaspet- 
tati,  Naples,  1792  ;  L'  aniante  statua,  Venice, 
1793  ;  II  matrimonio   par   raggiro,  Genoa, 

1793  ;    La    notte     imbrogliata,    Florence, 

1794  ;   Ero  e  Leandro,    theatrical   cantata^ 

1795  ;  n  sonnambulo,  Stockholm  ;  Le 
sigisbee,  ou  le  fat  corrige,  Paris,  Theatre 
Feydeau,  1804  ;  L'ainee  et  la  cadette  ; 
Avis  aux  jaloux,  ou  la  rencontre  imprevue, 
1809  ;  Hippomene  et  Atalante,  Opera,  1810  ; 
La  rancune  trompee,  1819. — Fetis. 

PICCINNI,  LOUIS  ALEXANDRE,  born 
in  Paris,  Sept.  10,  1779,  died  there,  April 
24,  1850.  Dramatic  composer,  son  of  Giu- 
seppe and  grandson  of  Nicola  Piccinni,  pu- 
pil of  Hausmann  on  the  pianoforte  and  of 
Lesueur  in  composition,  finally  of  his  grand- 
father. At  first  accompanist  at  the  Theatre 
Feydeau  and  then  at  the  Opera,  he  was 
chef  d'orchestre  at  the  Theatre  de  la  Porte 


Saint-Martin  in  1803-7  and  in  1810-16, 
court  accompanist  in  1804-18,  and  at  the 
Theatre  du  Gymnase  in  1820-24,  and  chef 
de  chant  at  the  Opera  in  1816-26.  The 
privilege  of  theatrical  performances  at  Bou- 
logne was  accorded  him  in  1827,  but  the 
enterprise  did  not  succeed,  and  he  returned 
to  Paris  to  teach  until  1836,  when  he  settled 
at  Boulogne,  with  the  same  object  in  view. 
Afterwards  he  lived  several  years  at  Tou- 
louse, where  he  was  director  of  the  Con- 
servatoire, thence  went  to  Strasburg  to  teach 
singing,  and  while  there  conducted  the  con- 
certs and  music  festivals  at  Baden-Baden. 
In  1849  he  returned  to  Paris.  Works : 
L'amoureux  par  surprise.  Theatre  Feydeau, 
1804  ;  Avis  au  public,  ou  le  physionomiste 
en  defaut,  ib.,  1806  ;  lis  sont  chez  eux,  ib., 
1808  ;  Le  sceptre  et  la  charrue,  ib.,  1817  ; 
La  maison  en  loterie,  Theatre  du  Gymnase, 
1820  ;  Le  Bramine,  ib.,  1822  ;  La  petite 
lampe  merveilleuse,  ib.,  1822  ;  La  fete  fran- 
yaise,  ib.,  1823  ;  Alcibiade  solitaire.  Opera, 
1824  ;  La  prise  de  Jericho,  Strasburg,  1847  ; 
and  more  than  200  melodramas  and  ballets  ; 
romances,  cantatas,  vaudeville  airs  ;  Sonatas, 
pot-pourris,  and  themes  varies  for  jjiano- 
forte.— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

PICCINNI    (Piccini,  Picinni),  NICOLA, 
born    at  Bari,  King- 
dom of  Naples,  Jan. 


16,  1728,  died  at 
Passy,  near  Paris, 
May  7,  1800.  His 
father,  a  musician, 
wished  him  educated 
for  the  church,  but 
the  Bishop  of  Bari 
persuaded  him  in 
1742  to  send  his  son  to  the  Conservatorio 
di  S.  Onofrio,  Naples,  where  the  lad  became 
in  time  a  favourite  pupil  of  Leo  and  Dvirante, 
after  being  first  instructed  by  a  maestrino 
(pupil-teacher).  Piccinni  left  the  Conserva- 
torio in  1754,  after  twelve  years'  study,  and 
brought  out  bis  first  opera,  Le  donne  dis- 
pettose,  at  the  Teatro  de'  Fiorentini  in  Na- 
ples, with  great  success,  in  spite  of  the  fact 


123 


PICCINNI 


that  Logroscino's  opere  buffe  virtually  mo- 
nopolized the  stage  at  that  time.  His  sud- 
den fame,  as  well  as  his  ability  as  a  composer, 
grew  rapidly,  with  subsequent  operas,  until 
in  17G0  his  Cecchiua  carried  everything 
before  it  in  Rome,  and  soon  passed  on  to 
almost  every  lyric  stage  in  Europe.  Four 
years  previously  he  had  married  his  pupil, 
Viuceuza  Sibilla,  an  excellent  singer,  pos- 
sessed of  an  exceedingly  sympathetic  voice 
and  great  personal  beauty.  He  never  al- 
lowed her  to  go  upon  the  stage,  although 
he  said  that  she  sang  his  music  better  than 
anyone  else.  The  fame  of  La  cecchina 
reached  JommeUi's  ears,  and  although  at 
first  inclined  to  pooh-pooh  it  as  mere  boy's 
work,  the  great  master  predicted,  after  he 
had  heard  it,  great  things  of  the  young 
composer.  Piccinui's  next  success  was 
L'  Olimpiade,  and  though  the  text  had 
already  been  set  by  Leo,  Pergolesi,  Galuppi, 
and  Jommelli  himself,  his  oj)era  excelled 
those  of  all  his  predecessors.  Even  in 
these  early  operas  Piccinni  showed  himself 
an  innovator,  uotablj-  in  his  more  dramatic 
treatment  of  the  duet,  and  his  more  ex- 
tended development  of  the  finale,  on  lines 
first  laid  down  by  Logroscino.  He  was, 
indeed,  practically  the  first  opera  eomjjoser 
to  turn  choral  masses  to  dramatic  account 
on  the  stage.  In  1773  a  rivalry  sprang  up 
in  Rome  between  him  and  Anfossi,  who, 
although  an  inferior  conijioser,  had  caught 
the  popular  ear.  The  fickle  Roman  public 
went  over  to  the  new  favourite  en  masse,  and 
an  opera  by  Piccinni  was  hissed  and  had  to 
be  withdrawn.  This  so  outraged  Piccinni 
that  he  returned  to  Najiles,  and  fell  so  ill 
that  his  life  was  despaired  of  ;  but  on  his 
recovery  he  brought  out  I  viaggiatori, 
which  made  almost  as  much  furore  in  Na- 
ples as  La  cecchina  had  in  Rome.  In  1776 
he  was  offered  a  salary  of  G,000  francs,  and 
travelling  expenses,  by  Marie  Antoinette, 
through  La  Borde  and  the  Neapolitan 
ambassador,  General  Caraccioli,  if  he  would 
go  to  Paris  to  uphold  the  standard  of  the 
traditional  opera  against  the  innovations  of 


Gluck.  He  arrived  there  with  his  family 
in  December,  and  set  to  work,  with  Mar- 
montel's  aid  (for  he  did  not  know  a  word 
of  French),  upon  a  text  by  Quinault  which 
Marmontel  had  remodelled.  But  a  good 
while  before  his  opera  was  finished  the 
opponents  of  Gluck  clustered  around  Pic- 
cinni as  around  a  chosen  chami^ion,  and 
when  at  last  his  Roland  came  to  its  first 
performance,  in  1778,  the  famous  Gluekist 
and  Piccinnist  factions  were  already  at 
swords'  points,  and  the  animosity  between 
the  two  23arties  was  so  violent  that  fears 
were  entertained  for  Piccinni's  safety.  The 
success  of  Roland  was,  however,  undoubted, 
and  the  composer  was  carried  home  in 
triumph.  He  was  appointed  director  of 
the  Italian  troupe  that  alternated  with  the 
regular  French  company  at  the  Academie 
de  Musique,  and  was  also  engaged  to  give 
singing-lessons  to  Marie  Antoinette  at  Ver- 
sailles. It  is  a  little  curious  that  both 
Gluck  and  Piccinni,  in  their  world-famous 
rivalry,  should  have  owed  much  to  the 
Queen's  protection  ;  it  is  highly  probable, 
however,  that  Marie  Antoinette  protected 
Gluck  more  from  personal  affection,  as  her 
old  clavecin  teacher  in  Vienna,  while  her 
musical  sympathies  were  more  with  Pic- 
cinni. But  she  certainly  used  her  iufluence 
to  secure  fair  jjlay  for  each.  The  rivalry, 
and  the  two  opposing  factious,  went  on 
until  the  production  of  Gluck's  Iphigeuie 
en  Tauride,  May  18,  1779,  left  the  victory 
with  Gluck.  An  oj^era  by  Piccinni  on  the 
same  subject  was  to  have  been  brought  out 
first,  and  the  two  composers  shown  in 
more  immediate  com2)arison  than  ever  ;  but 
Piccinni  found  the  version  of  the  text  offered 
him  so  bad  that  he  had  to  interrupt  his 
work  ujion  it,  and  hand  it  over  to  Ginguene 
to  be  rewritten,  and  his  Iphigouie  en  Tau- 
ride could  not  be  brought  out  until  Jan. 
23,  1781,  a  year  after  Gluck  had  left  Paris. 
It  had  but  small  chance  of  success  after 
Gluck's  immortal  work,  especially  as  the 
Gluekist  faction  was,  by  that  time,  well  in 
the  ascendant.     But  a  new  rival  sprang  up, 


PICCrNNI 


in  the  f)erson  of  Sacchini,  and  although  Pic- 
cinni's  Didon  was  a  brilliant  success,  and 
some  smaller  operas  won  general  favour, 
the  tide  of  fortune  gradually  tui-ned  tow- 
ard his  rival.  About  1783  Piccinni  was 
made  head  master  of  a  new  school  of  sing- 
ing founded  in  Paris,  but  his  star  was  on 
the  wane,  and  his  new  oj)eras  were  all  fail- 
ures with  the  public.  He  was  a  mau  wholly 
unfitted  for  intrigue,  being  of  a  frank,  ojsen, 
kindly  nature,  fond  of  domestic  life,  and 
bearing  no  one  ill-will ;  in  his  rivalry  with 
Gluck  he  had  been  supported  by  a  powerful 
and  active  faction,  which  left  no  stone  un- 
turned that  could  contribute  to  his  success  ; 
but  when  left  to  himself,  he  had  only  his 
own  genius  to  trust  to.  He  was  not  in  the 
least  embittered  by  his  reverses,  and  when 
Sacchini  died  it  was  he  that  pronounced 
his  funeral  oration,  while  on  Gluck's  death, 
in  1787,  Piccinni  tried  to  raise  funds  by 
subscription  to  found  a  series  of  annual 
concerts  in  his  memory.  On  the  breaking 
out  of  the  Eevolution  in  1789  he  lost  his 
pension,  and  returned  to  Naples,  where  he 
was  well  received,  and  obtained  a  pension 
from  the  king.  But  the  remainder  of  his 
life  was  an  almost  unbroken  series  of 
troubles.  A  daughter  of  his  married  a 
young  Frenchman  of  advanced  liberal  ideas, 
and  he  saw  one  of  his  ojaeras  deliberately 
hissed  on  account  of  his  supposed  Jacobin- 
ism. He  was  placed  under  an-est  by  the 
jirime  minister — more  to  save  his  life  than 
for  any  other  reason— and  remained  im- 
prisoned in  his  own  house  four  years,  in 
great  poverty,  for  all  his  propertj'  in  France 
was  lost,  and  a  friend  whose  paper  he  had 
indorsed  went  into  bankrujatcy.  He 
supported  himself  as  best  he  could  by 
writing  church  music.  In  1798,  after  the 
treaty  of  peace  with  the  French  Kejjublic, 
some  influential  friends  made  it  possible  for 
him  to  go  once  more  to  Paris,  where  he  was 
feted  at  the  Conservatoire,  and  presented 
with  a  sum  of  5,000  francs,  and  a  small  pen- 
sion. But  ill-luck  still  pursued  him  ;  his 
pension  was  irregularly  paid,  and  when  his 


family,  whom  he  had  left  in  Naples,  were 
forced  to  fly  before  Napoleon's  army,  they 
arrived  in  Paris  in  utter  destitution.  He 
had  an  attack  of  paralysis,  which  lasted 
several  months.  On  his  recovery  Napoleon 
gave  him  25  louis  for  a  military  march,  and 
helped  him  in  other  ways  ;  a  sixth  inspec- 
tor's place  was  also  created  at  the  Conserva- 
toire for  his  benefit,  but  severe  illness  struck 
him  down  again,  and  he  retired  to  Passy, 
only  to  die.  He  was  buried  in  the  common 
burial  ground  (since  sold),  and  a  stone 
was  set  up  over  his  grave  by  some  friends. 
Works — I.  Operas  :  Le  donne  dispettose, 
Naples,  1754 ;  Gelosia  per  gelosia,  ib., 
1755  ;  II  curioso  del  suo  proprio  danno, 
ib.,  1755  ;  Zenohia,  ib.,  175G  ;  L'  astrologo, 
ib.,  175G  ;  L' amaute  ridicolo,  ib.,  1757  ;  La 
schiava,  ib.,  1757  ;  Cajo  Mario,  ib.,  1757  ; 
La  morte  di  Abele,  ib.,  1758  ;  Petiton,  ib., 

1758  ;  La  scaltra  letterata,  ib.,  1758  ;  Gli 
uccellatori,  Venice,  1758  ;  Alet^saiuho  nell' 
Indie,  Rome,  1758  ;  II  Ciro,  ?,  1759  ;  Siroe, 
Naples,    1759  ;    Le   donne    vendicate,   ib., 

1759  ;  La  buona  figliuola,  ossia  la  Cecchina, 
Rome,  1759,  and  Paris,  Academie  Eoyale 
de  Musique,  Dec.  7,  1778  ;  Origilla,  Naples, 

1760  ;  H  r^  pastore,  ib.,  1760  ;  La  couta- 
dina  bizzarra,  ib.,  1761 ;  L'  Olimpiade,  Rome, 
17C1  ;  L'  amor  senza  malizia,  Naples,  1761  ; 
Demetrio,  ib.,  1762  ;  La  bella  verita,  ib., 
1762  ;  Le  vicende  della  sorte,  ib.,  1762  ; 
La  viUeggiatura,  ib.,  1762  ;  Demofoonte,  ib., 
1762  ;  II  barone  di  Torre  forte,  ib.,  1762  ; 
II  nuovo  Orlando,  ib.,  1763  ;  II  mondo  della 
luna,  ib.,  1763  ;  L'  incognita  perseguitata, 
ib.,  1763  ;  II  gran  Cid,  ib.,  about  1763  ; 
Berenice,  ib.,  1764  ;  La  Cecchina  maritata 
(La  buona  figliuola  maritata),  ib.,  1765;  II 
cavaliere  per  amore,  ib.,  about  1765  ;  Le 
f)escatrici,  ossia  1'  erede  riconosciuta,  ib., 
1765,  and  Vienna,  Jan.  23,  1769  ;  La  Fran- 
cese  maligna,  ib.,  1766 ;  La  molinarella, 
ib.,  1766  ;  Artaserse,  Turin,  1766,  and  Na- 
ples, 1772  ;  La  finta  giardiniera  (La  baro- 
nessa  giardiniera),  Naples,  1767  ;  Mazzina, 
Acetone  e  Dindimenio,  ib.,  about  1767  ; 
Didone  abbaudonata,  ib.,  about  1767  ;  La 


125 


PICCIONI 


donna  di  spirito  (La  locandiera  di  spirito), 
ib.,  17G8  ;  Gli  amanti  mascherati,  ib.,  about 
1768  ;  Gli  stravagauti,  ib.,  17G9  ;  Gli  sposi 
perseguitati,  ib.,  17G9  ;  Don  Chisciotto,  ib., 

1770  ;  Catone  in  Utica,  ib.,  1770  ;  Cesare  e 
Cleopatra  (Cesare  in  Egitto),  Milan,  1770  ; 
L'  Americano  ingentUito,  Vienna,  1770,  and 
Naples,  1772  ;  Lo  sposo   burlato,  Vienna, 

1771  ;  Antigono,  Eomo,  1771 ;  La  donna 
di  beir  umore,  Naples,  1771  ;  L'  Olimpiade 
(second  setting),  ib.,  1771  ;  La  corsara,  ib., 

1772  ;  Ipermeslra,  ib.,  1772  ;  Le  trame  zin- 
garescbe,  ib.,  772  ;  11  finto  pazzo,  ib.,  1772  ; 
L'  ignorante  astuto,  ib.,  1773  ;  I  furbi  bur- 
lati,  ib.,  1773  ;  La  sposa  collerica,  ib.,  1773  ; 
11  ritorno  di  Don  Calandrino,  ib.,  1771; ;  I 
Napoletani  in  America,  ib.,  1774:;  II  vaga- 
bondo  fortunato,  ib.,  1774  ;  Alessandro  nell' 
Indie  (second  setting),  ib.,  1775  ;  Lequattro 
nazioni,  ib.,  1775  ;  Le  gemelle,  ib.,  1775  ;  H 
sordo,  ib.,  1775  ;  Eneain  Cuma,  ib.,  1775  ;La 
capricciosa,  ib.,  1776  ;  Radamisto,  ib.,  1776  ; 
1  viaggiatori  felici,  ib.,  1776  ;  Roland,  Paris, 
Opera,  Jan.  27,  1778  ;  Pbaon,  CLoisy,  at 
court,  1778  ;  Le  fat  mepriso,  Pims,  Como- 
die  Italiennc,  1779  ;  Atys,  ib.,  Acadumie 
Eoyale  dc  Musique,  Feb.  22,  1780  ;  Iphi- 
genie  en  Tauride,  ib.,  ib.,  Jan.  23, 1781 ;  AdUe 
de  Pontbieu,  ib.,  ib.,  Oct.  27,  1781  ;  Didon, 
ib.,  ib.,  Dec.  1,  1783  ;  Le  faux  lord,  ib.,  Oix'ra 
Comique,  Dec.  6,  1783  ;  Le  dormeiu-  oveillo, 
ib.,  Comedie  Italicnne,  1784  ;  Diane  et  En- 
dymion,  ib.,  Acadumie  Royale  de  Musique, 
Sept.  7,  1784  ;  Lucette,  ib.,  TbOatre  Italien, 
Dec.  30,  1784  ;  I  decemviri  (not  performed, 
written  about  1785)  ;  Penelope,  Paris,  Aca- 
demie  Eoyale  de  Musique,  Dec.  6,  1785  ;  Le 
mensonge  officieux,  ib.,  Comedie  Italienne, 
Marcb  17,  1787  ;  L'euluvemeut  dea  Sabiues 
(not  performed,  written  in  1787)  ;  Clytem- 
nestre  (id.,  1788) ;  Les  fourberies  de  Marine, 
Paris,  1790  ;  La  Ceccbiua  zitella  (not  per- 
formed, written  in  1790)  ;  La  Vittoriua  (id., 
about  1790)  ;  La  serva  onorata,  Naples, 
1792  ;  Ercole  al  Termodonte,  ossia  la  dis- 
fatta  delle  Amazzoni,  ib.,  1792  ;  Griselda, 
Venice,  1793  ;  D  servo  padrone,  ib.,  1793  ; 
Lo  sposalizio  di  fciau  Pomponio,  ?,    about 


1795  ;  n  finto  Tureo  (not  performed,  written 
about  1795)  ;  II  Tigraue  (id.,  about  1795). 
n.  Church  music  :  Laudate,  for  live  voices 
and  orchestra  ;  Laudate,  for  two  soprani, 
bass,  and  chorus ;  Beatus  vir,  for  soprano  and 
chorus  ;  and  Pater  noster,  for  soprano  and 
orchestra.  The  scores  of  nearly  sixty  of 
Piccinni's  operas  were  found  at  a  second- 
hand clothier's  in  Naples  by  Signor  Florimo, 
librarian  of  the  Collegio  reale  di  Musica  di 
San  Pietro  a  Majella,  at  Najsles. — Ginguene, 
Notice  sur  la  vie  et  les  ouvrages  de  N.  Pic- 
cinni  (Paris,  1801) ;  Desnoiresterres,  Gluck 
et  Picciuui  (Paris,  1872;  2d  ed.,  1875); 
Clement,  Mus.  cclebres,  108  ;  Fctis,  vii.  ; 
Eiemann  ;  Mendel. 

PICCIONI,  GIOVANNI,  organist  of  the 
cathedral  at  Orvieto  at  the  end  of  the  16th 
and  beginning  of  the  17th  century.  "Works : 
Madrigali  a  cinque  voci  (Venice,  1596)  ;  E 
pastor  fido  musicale  (ib.,  1602).  In  the 
library  of  the  Liceo  Musicale  at  Bologna 
are :  Concerti  ecclesiastiei  et  Motetti  a 
1-8  voci  (\'enice,  1610)  ;  do.,  op.  21  (Rome, 
1619).— Fetis ;  Mendel. 

PICHEL  (Piehl),  VACLAV  (Wenzel), 
born  at  Bechin,  Bohemia,  in  1740,  died  in 
Vienna,  Jan.  23,  1805.  Violinist,  pupil  of 
Johauu  Pokorny,  and,  while  studying  at 
Prague  University,  of  Segert  in  counterpoint. 
He  was  influenced  also  by  Dittersdorf, 
under  whose  auspices  he  joined  the  orches- 
tra of  the  Bishop  of  Grosswardein.  For 
two  years  he  was  musical  director  to  Count 
Hartig  in  Prague,  then  became  first  violin 
of  the  National  Theatre  in  Vienna,  until  in 
1775  he  was  ajjpointed  compositore  di  mu- 
sica to  the  Archduke  Ferdinand  in  Milan. 
He  visited  the  chief  Italian  cities,  and  was 
a  friend  of  Nardini.  "When  the  French  oc- 
cupied Lombai'dy  in  1796,  he  returned  with 
the  Archduke  to  Vienna.  "Works  ;  4  Latin,  1 
German,  8  French,  and  7  Italian  operas  ;  35 
masses,  22  psalms,  9  offertories,  and  other 
church  music  ;  Cantata  ;  29  concertos  ;  3 
concertiui  ;  89  symphonies  ;  17  serenades  ; 
30  sonatas ;  12  sonatinas  ;  49  capriccios  ;  6 
fugues  ;  224  variations  ;  6  ariettas  ;  64  duets ; 


12« 


PIELTAIN 


39  trios  ;  172  quartets  ;  21  quintets  ;  6 
sextets  ;  7  septets  ;  7  octets :  in  all,  887 
numbers,  exclusive  of  148  quartets,  quintets, 
and  sextets,  composed  for  Prince  Esztcr- 
hdzj.  He  made  also  a  Bohemian  transla- 
tion of  Mozart's  ZauberflOte. — Dlabacz  ; 
Futis  ;  Mendel ;  Gerber  ;  Schilling  ;  Wurz- 
bacli. 

PIELTAIN,  DIEUD0NN15  PASCAL, 
born  in  Liuge,  March  i,  1754,  died  there, 
Dec.  10,  1833.  Violinist,  pujjil  of  Jarno- 
wich,  went  to  Piiris  in  1778,  and  aj^peared  in 
the  Concerts  Spirituels  for  six  years  in  suc- 
cession. In  1784-93  he  was  violinist  to 
Lord  Abiugton  in  London  ;  then  visited  St. 
Petersburg,  Warsaw,  Berlin,  and  Hamburg 
(1800),  and  returned  to  his  native  city. 
Works  :  13  concertos  for  violin  ;  6  sonatas 
for  do.  ;  6  quartets  for  strings  ;  12  duos 
for  violins  ;  12  airs  varies  for  do. — Fetis  ; 
Mendel. 

PIERO  MIO,  GO  QUA  UNA  FRITOLA. 
See  Crhpino  e  la  Comare. 

PIEREE  LE  GRAND  (Peter  the  Great), 
comcdie  in  four  acts,  text  by  Bouilly,  music 
by  Gretry,  first  rejiresented  at  the  Italiens, 
Paris,  Jan.  13,  1790.  Catherine  H.  of  Rus- 
sia is  the  heroine  of  the  opera,  which  was 
represented  in  Amsterdam  in  1812.  Other 
operas  on  the  same  subject :  Kaiser  und 
Zimmermann,  Singspiel  by  K.  Aug.  von 
Lichtenstein,  Strasburg,  1814  ;  Die  Jugend 
Peter  desGrossen,  Singsijiel,  by  Josef  Weigl, 
text  by  Treitschke,  Vienna,  Dec.  11,  1814  ; 
Czar  und  Zimmermann,  by  Lortzing,  Leii> 
sic,  Dec.  22,  1837,  Berlin,  1854.  In  Italian, 
Pietro  il  Grande,  by  Niccolo  Vaceaj,  Parma, 
1824  ;  by  Mercadante,  Lisbon,  Dec,  17, 
1827 ;  II  borgomastro  di  Saardam,  oj^era 
bufifa,  by  Donizetti,  Naples,  1827  ;  Pietro  il 
Grande,  by  Louis  Antoiue  Julien,  London, 
Aug.  17, 1852.  In  French,  U^toile  du  Nord, 
Paris,  Feb.  16,  1854  ;  and  in  English,  by 
Thomas  Simpson  Cooke,  London,  1829. 

PIEESON  (Pearson),  HENRY  HUGO, 
born  in  Oxford,  England,  April  12,  1816, 
died  in  Leipsic,  Jan.  28,  1873.  Oi'ganist 
and  pianist,  jDupil  of  At  wood  and  Arthur 


wmwm^ 


Corfe  at  Cambridge,  and  in  Germany  of  C. 
H.  Rinck,  Tomasehek,  and  Reissiger;  had 
much  intercourse 
with  Mendelssohn, 
and  became  ac- 
quainted with 
Meyerbeer,  Sjiohr, 
a  n  d  Schumann. 
He  was  elected  in 
1844  to  the  Reid 
jjrofessorshij)  of 
music  in  the  Uni- 
versity of  Edin- 
burgh, succeeding 
Sir  Henry  Bishop,  but  soon  resigned  and 
returned  to  Germany,  which  he  virtually 
adopted  as  his  country,  changing  his  name 
from  Henry  Hugh  Pearson  to  that  given 
above  ;  he  lived  at  first  in  Vienna,  from  1847 
in  Hamburg,  and  afterwards  at  Leipsic. 
Works :  Der  Elfensieg,  opera,  Briinn,  1845  ; 
Leila,  do.,  Hamburg,  1848  ;  Contarini,  ib., 
1872 ;  Jerusalem,  oratorio,  comi^osed  for 
the  Norwich  Festival,  September,  1852 ; 
Hezekiah,  do.  (fragment),  Norwich,  1869  ; 
Music  to  the  2d  part  of  Goethe's  "  Faust  " 
(1854),  repeatedly  performed  at  Hamburg. 
Funeral  March  to  "Hamlet  ;"  Several  over- 
tures ;  Sacred  songs,  choruses,  and  songs. 
Some  of  his  earlier  works  appeared  under  the 
pseudouyme  of  Edgar  Mansfeldt. — Grove  ; 
Fetis  ;  Eiemann  ;  Mendel. 

PIETA  !  SIGNORE !  celebrated  aria  di 
chiesa,  for  contralto,  text  from  the  second 
stanza  of  Arsenio's  aria  in  Alessandro  Scar- 
latti's oratorio,  II  martirio  di  Santa  Teodosia, 
Naples,  1709  (MS.  in  the  Biblioteca  Pala- 
tina,  Modena),  music  attributed  to  Ales- 
sandro Stradella,  whose  authorship  is 
however,  out  of  the  question.  Fetis,  Nied- 
ermeyer,  and  Rossini  have  been  suggested 
as  the  composers  of  this  melody,  but  it  is 
more  jirobablj'  by  Francesco  Rossi.  It  was 
sung  by  Miss  Emily  Winant  at  the  Musical 
Festival,  New  York,  May  6,  1882. 

PIETON,  LOYSET  (Louis),  called  Loyset 
de  Bernais,  and  Le  Normand,  born  at  Bernay, 
Normandy,  in  the  last  quarter  of  the  15th 


127 


PIETEO 


century.  Contrapuntist,  whose  works,  con- 
sisting of  motets,  j)salms,  and  chansons,  are 
to  be  found  in  various  collections  of  the 
times,  between  1531  and  1545 ;  also  in  Pe- 
trucci's  Motetti  della  Corona  (1519). — Futis  ; 
Mendel  ;  Kiemann. 

PEETRO  YON  ALBANO,  romantic  opera 
in  two  acts,  text  by  Charles  Pfeiffer,  from 
Tieck's  novel  of  the  same  title,  music  by 
Sjjohr,  first  rejiresented  in  Cassel,  Oct.  13, 
1827.  It  was  admired  by  Meyerbeer.  The 
opera  had  only  a  temporary  success.  Pub- 
lished by  Schlesinger  (Berlin,  1829) ;  the 
pianoforte  score  arranged  by  Ferdinand 
Spohr.  Same  title,  Italian  opera  by  Apol- 
loni,  Venice,  March  9,  1856. — Spohr,  Auto- 
biography, ii.  1G3  ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg., 
xsxi.  849  ;  Berliner  mus.  Zeitg.,  vi.  193. 

PIFF-PAFF,  TRAQUONS-LES !  See 
Huguenots, 

PIGNATI  (Pignata),  Abbate  PIETRO  RO- 
MULUS, born  in  Rome  in  1660,  died  (?). 
Dramatic  composer  ;  wrote  also  most  of  the 
librettos  of  his  operas.  Works  :  Costanza 
vince  il  destine,  Venice,  1695 ;  iUmiro,  re 
di   Corinto,    ib.  ;    Sigismondo  Primo,    ib., 

1696  ;  L'  inganno   senza  danno,   Treviso, 

1697  ;  Paolo  Emilio,  Venice,  1699  ;  II  vanto 
d'  amore,  ib.,  1700  ;  Oronte  in  Egitto, 
Udiue,  1705.— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

PIL.\TI  (Auguste  Pilate,  called),  born 
at  Bouchaiu  (Xord),  France,  Sept.  29,  1810, 
died  in  Pai'is,  Aug.  1,  1877.  Dramatic  com- 
poser ;  studied  at  first  at  Douai,  then  at 
the  Conservatoire  in  Paris  ;  visited  London 
in  1837,  became  chef  d'orchestre  of  the 
Theatre  de  la  Porte  Saint-:\Iartin  in  1840, 
and  later  of  the  Theatre  Beaumarchais. 
"Works  :  La  modiste  et  le  lord,  Paris,  1833  ; 
La  prova  d'  un  opera  seria.  La  fermiere  de 
Bolbec,  1835  ;  Le-oua,  ou  le  Parisian  en 
Corge,  1836 ;  Le  roi  du  Danube,  London, 
1837  ;  OUvier  Basselin,  Paris,  1838  ;  Made- 
moiselle de  Fontanges,  Le  naufrage  de  la 
Mt-duse  (with  Grisar  and  Flotow),  ib.,  1839  ; 
Les  Farfadets,  fairj'-ballet,  1841  ;  Les  bar- 
ricades (with  Eugene  Gautier),  1848  ;  Le 
postilion  de  Saint- Valery,  1849  ;  Les  t'toiles,  i 


Les  trois  dragons,  1854 ;  Les  statues  de 
I'Alcade,  ballet-pantomime,  1855  ;  Jean  le 
sot,  Une  devinette,  L' Amour  et  Psyche,  1856  ; 
L'ile  de  Calypso,  1857  ;  Peau  d'ane,  Ignace 
le  retors,  II  signor  Cascarelli,  1858  ;  L'ile  du 
sol-si-re,  1860  ;  H  maestro  Blaguarino,  Lille, 
1865  ;  Rosette  et  Colin,  Paris,  1874  ;  Les 
liccheurs  de  Tarente,  ib.,  1886  ;  Le  nid 
d'aigle,  cantata,  1858. — Fetis  ;  do.,  Supple- 
ment, ii.  57. 

PILGRTMS'  CHORUS.  See  Tannhau- 
scr. 

PILKINGTON,  FRANCIS,  EngUsh  com- 
poser of  the  16th  and  17th  centuries.  He 
was  a  chorister  in  Chester  Cathedral ;  Mus. 
Bac,  O-xford,  1595.  Works:  The  First 
Booke  of  Songs  or  Ay  res  of  4  parts  :  with 
Tableture  for  the  Lute  or  Orpharion,  with 
the  Violl  de  Gamba  (1605)  ;  The  First  Set 
of  Madrigals  and  Pastorals  of  3,  4,  and  5 
parts  (1613)  ;  The  Second  Set  of  Madrigals 
and  Pastorals  of  3,  4,  5,  and  6  parts  ;  apt 
for  Violls  and  Voyces  (1624).  He  contrib- 
uted also,  in  1614,  two  j)ieces  to  Leightou's 
"  Teares  and  Lamentacions." — Grove. 

PILOTTI,  GIUSEPPE,  born  in  Bologna, 
Italy,  in  1784,  died  there,  June  12,  1838. 
Church  composer,  pupil  of  lilattei,  and 
member  of  the  Accademia  Filarmonica 
when  only  twenty-one  years  of  age.  Hav- 
ing been  maestro  di  cappella  at  Pistoja 
several  years,  he  succeeded  Mattel  at  San 
Petronio,  Bologna,  in  1826,  and  was  aj)- 
pointed  professor  of  counterpoint  at  the 
Liceo  Filarmonico  in  1829.  His  numerous 
compositions  for  the  church  remain  in  MS. 
He  wrote  two  operas  :  L'  ajo  uell'  imbarrazzo, 
given  at  Bologna,  and  Non  essere  geloso, 
Florence,  1816.  — Fetis;  Mendel;  Rie- 
mann. 

PINAFORE,  H.  M.  S.,  English  comic  op- 
eretta in  two  acts,  text  bj*  Gilbert,  music  by 
SuUivan,  first  represented  at  the  Opera  Co- 
mique.  Strand,  London,  May  25,  1878.  The 
action  takes  place  ou  Her  Majesty's  Ship 
Pinafore,  and  turns  on  the  fact  of  the 
Captain  and  an  officer,  Ralph  Rackstraw, 
having  been  exchanged  in  infancy  by  the 


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tW- 


»*i 


fO>-' 


PINELLI 


bumboat  woman,  Little  Buttercup, 
nal  cast : 


Oiigi- 


Captain  Corcoran Mr.  Barrington. 

Sir  Joseph  Porter Mr.  G.  Grossmith. 

Josephine Miss  Howson. 

Ealph  Eackstraw Mr.  Power. 

Little  Buttercup Miss  Everhard. 

This  opera  had  an  extraordinary  success 
in  London,  where  it  kept  the  stage  for  700 
consecutive  nights ;  and  in  New  York, 
where  it  was  first  given,  Jan.  15,  1879,  it 
was  performed  at  four  theatres  for  months. 
It  was  adopted  throughout  the  United  States 
to  a  degree  surpassing  all  previous  records. 
It  was  given  under  the  direction  of  Gilbert 
and  Sullivan  at  the  Fifth  Avenue  Theatre, 
Dec.  1,  1879.  Published  by  Metzler  &  Co. 
(London,  1878) ;  and  by  Oliver  Ditson  &  Co. 
(Boston  and  New  York,  1879). — Atheuasum 
(1878),  i.  709  ;  New  York  Tribune,  Dec.  2, 
1879. 

PINELLI  DE  GERARDIS,  GIOVANNI 
BATTISTA,  born,  of  noble  family,  in  Genoa, 
Italy,  in  1545,  died  in  Vienna,  or  in  Prague, 
June  15, 1587.  Church  composer,  was  cantor 
at  the  Cathedral  of  Vicenza  in  1571,  and, 
apparently  in  the  imperial  service,  settled 
at  Prague  before  1580,  when  he  became 
Kapellmeister  to  the  Elector  of  Saxony 
at  Dresden,  on  the  recommendation  of 
Emperor  Eudolph  11.  Constant  disagree- 
ments, caused  by  his  violent  tempei-,  led  to 
his  discharge  in  1584,  and  a  year  later  he 
was  again  in  the  imperial  service.  Works  : 
VI.  Misse  a  4  voci  (Dresden,  1582)  ;  Ger- 
man Magnificats  (ib.,  1583)  ;  Madrigali  a 
piti  voci  (ib.,  1584)  ;  Cantiones  sacree,  8, 
10  e  15  voci  (ib.,  1584)  ;  Newn  kurtzweilige 
teutsche  Liedleiu  mit  5  Stimmen  (ib.,  1584)  ; 
Libro  primo  de  Neapolitane  a  5  voci 
(ib.,  1585)  ;  Mutetti  quinque  vocum,  etc. 
(Prague,  1588) ;  18  Musettes  for  5  voices 
(ib.,  1588).— Mendel. 

PINELLI,  ETTORE,  born  in  Eome,  Oct. 
18,  1843,  still  living,  1890.  Violinist,  pu- 
pil of  Ramacciotti,  and  at  Hanover  (1864) 
of  Joachim  ;  returned  to  Rome  in  18GG,  and 


with  Sgambati  founded  a  society  for  clas- 
sical chamber  music.  He  also  established, 
at  the  Accademia  di  Sta.  Cecilia,  a  violin  and 
pianoforte  school,  out  of  which  grew  the 
Liceo  Musicale,  where  in  1877  he  was  ap- 
pointed professor.  He  failed  in  1867  in 
his  endeavour  to  found  a  Roman  orchestral 
society,  but  succeeded  in  1874  in  doing  so. 
He  conducts  the  court  concerts  alternately 
with  Sgambati.  "Works  :  Overture  ;  Italian 
Rhapsody  ;  String  quartet,  etc.  — Riemann. 

PINO,  ROSARIO  ANTONIO,  born  at 
Palermo,  Dec.  19,  1850,  still  living,  1890. 
Pianist,  pupil  of  Ferdinando  Valeute  and  of 
Luigi  Siri,  and  in  composition  of  Salvatore 
Lavigna,  of  Aspa,  and  of  Battista  ;  apjicared 
as  a  virtuoso  from  his  fifteenth  year,  and 
settled  at  Naples  to  teach  his  instrument. 
Works  :  Le  tre  ore  di  agonia,  oratorio,  Na- 
ples, 1867  ;  Masses,  vespers,  overtures,  etc. 
— Futis,  Supplement,  ii.  347. 

PINSUTI,  Cavaliere  CIRO,  born  at  Asina- 
lunga,  Siena,  May  9, 
1829,  died  in  Lou- 
don, March  10,  1888. 
Pianist  and  dramatic 
composer,  pupil  of  his 
father  ;  played  in  pub- 
lic at  ten,  and  was 
made  an  honorary 
member  of  the  Acca- 
demia Filarmonica, 
Bologna,  at  the  age 
of  eleven  ;  he  went  to  England  with  Henry 
Drummond,  and  studied  the  pianoforte  and 
composition  under  Cipriani  Potter,  and  the 
violin  with  Blagrove.  In  1845  he  returned 
to  Italy  and  entered  the  Conservatorio  at 
Bologna,  where  he  attracted  the  notice  of 
Rossini,  and  became  his  favourite  pujjil. 
He  went  to  England  again  in  1848,  and  be- 
came a  singing  teacher,  dividing  his  time  be- 
tween London  and  Newcastle,  where  he 
founded  a  musical  society.  He  frequently 
visited  Italy,  and  brought  out  operas  there. 
He  was  professor  of  singing  at  the  Academy 
of  Music,  London,  from  1856.  Orders  of 
I  Saint-Maurice  et  Saint-Lazarus,  1859,  and  of 


129 


PIOUS 


the  Italian  Crown,  1878.  He  was  selected 
to  represent  Ital^-  at  the  opening  of  the 
International  Exhibition  in  1871,  and  com- 
posed a  bj-mn  for  that  occasion  to  words  by 
Lord  Houghton :  "  O  people  of  this  favoured 
land."  Works — Operas  :  H  mercaute  di 
Venezia,  Bologna,  1873  ;  Mattia  Corvino, 
Milan,  1877  ;  Margherita,  Venice,  1882.  Te 
Deum,  1859  ;  35  duets ;  14:  trios  ;  45  part- 
songs,  and  choruses  ;  About  250  English 
and  Italian  songs,  and  30  pianoforte  pieces. 
— Grove  ;  Fetis,  Supplement,  ii.  348  ;  Eie- 
mann  ;  Mendel,  Erganz.,  350. 

PIOUS  ORGIES,  aria,  with  accompani- 
ment of  strings  complete,  and  coutinuo,  in 
Handel's  Judas  Maccabicus,  Act  I.  This 
air,  which  is  only  twenty-seven  measures 
long,  is  sung  first  in  E-flat  major  by  Simon 
(bass),  and  then  repeated,  after  a  short  reci- 
tative, either  by  An  Israelitish  Man  (mezzo- 
soprano),  in  F  major,  or  else  by  An  Israel- 
itish Woman  (sojirauo),  in  G  major. 

PIPELARE,  ]\L\THIEU,  born  at  Lou- 
vain,  flourished  about  the  end  of  the  15th 
and  the  beginning  of  the  16th  centuries. 
Contrapuntist ;  signed  his  name  usually  with 
a  rebus  composed  of  the  word  Pipe  and  the 
notes  la,  ru.  A  mass  of  his  composition  is 
to  be  found  in  Andreas  de  .\ntiquis  Jlissa; 
XV.  (151G),  and  an  Ave  Maiia  in  Petrucci's 
Book  of  motets  (Venice,  1505)  ;  Georg 
Ehaw's  Biciuia  (1545)  also  contains  a  few  of 
his  works.  Manuscripts  by  him  are  in  the 
royal  libraries  of  Brussels  and  Munich. 
— Fetis  ;  Riemann. 

PIRATA,  IL  (The  Pii-ate),  Italian  opera 
in  two  acts,  test  by  Romani,  music  by  Bel- 
lini, first  represented  at  La  Scala,  Milan, 
Oct.  27,  1827.  Gualtiero,  having  lost  his 
ancestral  estates,  becomes  chief  of  a  band  of 
pii-ates.  During  his  absence  his  betrothed, 
Imogene,  marries  his  enemy,  Ernesto,  Duke 
of  Calabria,  to  retrieve  her  father's  fortune. 
In  the  midst  of  a  severe  storm  Gualtiero  is 
forced  to  seek  refuge  on  shore,  where  he 
discovers  that  Imogene  has  married.  He 
attempts  to  take  the  life  of  her  son,  but 
yields  to  her  entreaty  to   spare  him,  and 


kills  her  husband  instead.  Gualtiero  is 
seized  by  the  authorities,  and  Imogene  be- 
comes insane.  This  opera,  written  by  Bel- 
lini at  the  age  of  twenty,  was  received  with 
enthusiasm.  The  part  of  Gualtiero  was 
composed  for  Rubiui,  who  appeared  in  the 
original  cast.  This  work  was  first  given  in 
Vienna,  Feb.  25,  1828  ;  in  London,  April 
17,  1830  ;  in  Berlin,  Aug.  31, 1831 ;  in  New 
York,  Dec.  5,  1832  ;  and  in  Paris,  Feb.  1, 
1832,  with  Rubiui,  Santini,  and  Mme  Schro- 
der-Devrient,  and  in  1846  with  Mai-io,  Co- 
letti,  and  Mile  Grisi,  who  was  very  suc- 
cessful as  Imogene.  Published  by  Ricordi 
(Milan). — Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xxxiii.  630  ; 
Clement  et  Larousse,  534  ;  Harmonicon 
(1830),  222. 

PIRATES  OF  PENZANCE,  THE,  Eng- 
lish comic  opera  in  two  acts,  text  by  Gilbert, 
music  by  Sullivan,  first  represented  at  the 
Fifth  Avenue  Theatre,  New  York,  Dec.  31, 
1879,  under  the  composer's  direction.  Act 
I.  is  placed  in  the  Pirates'  lair  on  the  coast 
of  Cornwall.  Frederic,  having  been  ap- 
prenticed to  the  Pirates  by  mistake,  at  the 
close  of  his  indenture  resolves  to  war  against 
those  whom  he  loves  as  companions,  but 
hates  as  Pirates.  He  discovers  that  he  was 
born  on  leap-year,  and  instead  of  being 
twenty-one  is  but  four  and  a  half  years  old, 
and  must  therefore  remain  in  the  band. 
The  Pirates,  who  never  rob  oi-phans,  find 
that  Major-General  Stanley,  whose  daughter 
Mabel  is  betrothed  to  Frederic,  deceived 
them  into  thinking  him  an  oi-phan,  and  re- 
solve to  attack  his  home.  Act  H.  is  in  a 
ruined  chapel  on  the  General's  estate,  where 
the  Policemen  and  Pirates  meet,  and  con- 
spicuously enjoin  silence,  affecting  uncon- 
sciousness of  each  other.  Gen.  Stanley  en- 
ters, thinking  he  heard  a  noise,  and  after 
him  his  five  and  twenty  daughters.  The 
Pirates  rush  for  them,  but  are  caj)tured  by 
the  Policemen.  They  yield  instantly  at  the 
mention  of  Queen  Victoria's  name,  and,  on 
discovering  that  they  are  all  noblemen. 
Gen.  Stanley  gives  them  all  permission  to 
marry  his  daughters.     This  opera  was  first 


130 


PISANI 


given  iu  London,  April  3,  1880.  Published 
by  Cbappell  &  Co.  (London,  1880).— New 
Yoric  Tribune,  Dec.  28,  1879,  Jan.  1,  1880  ; 
Atbenffium  (1880),  i.  479. 

PISANI,  BARTOLOMEO,  born  at  Con- 
stantinople iu  1811,  still  living,  1890.  Dra- 
matic comjjoser,  pupil  of  Mercadante,  was 
chef  d'orchestre  of  the  Naoum  Theatre,  at 
Constantinople,  in  1859,  visited  France  in 
18G0,  and  brought  out  in  Paris  several  of 
his  compositions.  Works  :  La  peri  ;  Rosa- 
munda  ;  Ladislao,  given  at  Constantinople, 
18G2  ;  Rebecca,  Milan,  186.5  ;  La  gitana, 
Venice,  1876  ;  Una  lagrima  sulla  tomba  di 
Mercadante,  funeral  chant ;  Patriotic  hymn  ; 
Grande  fantaisie  for  soli,  chorus,  and  or- 
chestra ;  Songs  and  choruses,  etc. — Fetis, 
Supplement,  ii.  3-19. 

PISARI,  PASQUALE,  born  in  Rome 
about  1725,  died  there  in  1778.  Church 
composer  ;  made  a  close  study  of  the  works 
of  Palestrina,  whom  he  adopted  as  a  mod- 
el ;  called  by  Padre  Martini  the  Palestrina 
of  the  18th  century.  The  son  of  a  poor  ma- 
son, he  was  possessed  of  a  fine  bass  voice, 
which  a  musician  named  Gasparino  took 
pleasure  in  cultivating  ;  and  in  1752  he 
was  admitted  into  the  Pontifical  Chapel  as 
a  supernumerary,  a  position  he  held  until 
his  death.  He  studied  counterjDoint  under 
Giovanni  Biordi,  and  composed  much  church 
music,  which  he  was  too  poor  to  publish. 
He  wrote  for  the  King  of  Portugal  a  Dixit 
in  sixteen  real  parts,  and  a  complete  service 
for  all  the  year,  but  the  payment  was  so 
long  deferred  that  when  it  reached  Rome 
Pisari  was  dead.  The  Dixit  was  sung  at 
the  SS.  Apostoli,  Rome,  bj'  150  musicians. 
Burney,  who  heard  it,  speaks  of  the  learn- 
ing displayed  in  it.  Works  :  Miserere  in 
9  parts  (1777) ;  Masses,  psalms,  motets,  in  8 
parts  ;  2  Te  Deum,  one  for  8,  the  other  for 
4  voices.  Many  of  his  compositions  are  in  the 
Santiui  Collection,  including  a  Dixit,  a  Mi- 
serere, a  mass,  psalms,  and  motets. — Grove  ; 
Fetis  ;  Riemann  ;  Mendel ;  Schilling. 

PISENDEL,  JOHANN  GEORG,  born  at 
Karlsburg,    Transylvania,    Dec.    26,    1687, 


died  at  Di-esden,  Nov.  25,  1755.  Virtuoso 
on  the  violin,  pupil  of  Pistocchi  and  Torelli 
at  Ansbach,  where  he  was  a  choir-boy  in 
the  Margi-ave's  chapel.  In  1709  he  went  to 
Leipsic,  to  study  at  the  university,  but 
seems  to  have  devoted  himself  entirely  to 
music  even  then,  as  he  succeeded  Mel- 
chior  Hofmann  as  Kapellmeister  in  the  new 
church,  and  at  the  opera  in  1710-12.  In 
1712  he  entered  the  Elector's  orchestra  in 
Dresden,  and  was  thence  often  sent  abroad 
in  the  suite  of  the  Electoral  Prince  ;  to  Paris 
in  1714,  to  Venice  in  1716,  when  he  studied 
under  Antonio  Vivaldi,  to  Rome  and  Naples 
in  1717,  and  to  Vienna  in  1718.  In  Rome 
he  took  lessons  of  Antonio  Montanari.  He 
accompanied  the  king  to  Berlin  in  1728,  and 
in  the  same  year  succeeded  Volumier  as 
Conzertmeister.  Works :  8  concertos  for 
violin  ;  Soli  for  do.  and  bass  ;  Concertantes 
for  2  oboes  with  string  instruments  ;  Con- 
certi  grossi,  etc.,  aU  in  the  royal  library, 
Dresden. — Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

PISTOCCHI,  FRANCESCO  ANTONIO, 
born  in  Palermo,  Sicily,  in  1659,  died  after 
1717.  Dramatic  composer,  jjupil  of  his 
father  ;  learned  composition  so  readily  that 
at  the  age  of  eight  he  jiublished,  Capricci 
puerili  variamente  composti  in  40  modi,  etc. 
(Bologna,  1667).  He  studied  singing  under 
Padre  Vastamigli  and  Bartolomeo  Monari, 
went  on  the  stage  as  a  soprano  singer,  but 
soon  abandoned  it,  and  became  maestro  di 
cappella  of  San  Giovanni  in  Monte,  Bologna. 
He  entered  the  Oratorio  order  as  a  j^riest, 
and  iu  1697  was  called  to  the  court  of  Ans- 
bach as  Kapellmeister  ;  returned  to  Italy 
by  way  of  Vienna  and  Venice  in  1699. 
Although  a  composer  of  merit,  he  is  best 
known  from  having  founded  at  Bologna,  in 
1700,  a  school  of  singing  in  which  were 
educated  some  of  the  great  singers  of  the 
first  half  of  the  18th  century,  among  them 
Bernacchi,  Minelli,  Pio  Fabri,  and  Bertoliuo 
da  Faenza.  Member  of  the  Accademia  Fi- 
larmonica,  1692  ;  principe  in  1708  and  1710. 
Works — Operas  :  Narciso,  Ansbach,  1697  ; 
Le  risa  di   Democrito,  Vienna,  1700  ;  Le- 


131 


PITONI 


audro,  1679  ;  II  girello,  1681.  Oratorios  : 
II  martirio  di  S.  Adriano,  Venice,  1697 ; 
Maria  Vergiue  addolorata,  1698  ;  La  fuga 
di  Sta.  Teresia,  1717.  Scherzi  musicali,  a 
collection  of  Frencb,  Italian,  and  German 
airs  (Amsterdam)  ;  The  Psalm,  Lauda 
Jerusalem,  for  five  voices  and  basso  con- 
tinuo,  in  MS. — Fetis  ;  Riemann  ;  Mendel; 
Gerber. 

PITONI,  GIUSEPPE  OTTA\^0,  born  at 
Kieti,  Italy,  March  18,  1657,  died  in  Home, 
Feb.  1,  1713.  Church  composer,  jjupil  of 
Pompeo  Natale  from  the  age  of  five,  succes- 
sively chorister  at  San  Giovanni  de'  Fioren- 
tini  and  the  SS.  Apostoli,  Rome,  from  the 
age  of  eight.  He  attracted  the  notice  of 
Foggia,  who  gave  him  lessons  in  counter- 
point for  several  years.  He  was  maestro  di 
cappella  at  Terra  di  Eotondo,  1G73,  and  in 
1674  at  Assisi,  where  he  began  to  write  out 
Palestrina's  works  in  score  to  study  his  style, 
a  practice  he  afterwards  enjoined  on  his  pu- 
jjils.  Having  removed  to  Eieti  in  1676,  he 
became  in  1677  maestro  di  cappella  of  the 
Collegio  di  San  Marco,  Rome,  a  post  he 
retained  till  his  death,  although  engaged, 
besides,  in  the  same  cai^acity  at  San  Apol- 
linare,  1686  ;  San  Lorenzo  in  Damaso,  1686  ; 
S.  Giovanni  in  Laterano,  1708  to  1719  ;  St. 
Peter's,  1719,  and  several  minor  churches. 
His  pupils  were  Durante,  Leo,  and  Feo. 
Works  :  Dixit  in  16  jsarts  (highlj'  praised 
by  Baini ;  one  of  the  finest  pieces  of  music 
still  sungat  St.  Peter's  during  Holy  Week) ; 
and  his  masses,  Li  pastori  a  Maremme,  Li 
pastori  a  Montagna,  and  Mosca,  founded 
on  popular  melodies,  ai-e  still  fresh.  He 
wrote  upwards  of  sixty  masses  and  psalms, 
complete  services  for  St.  Peter's  for  the 
entire  year,  and  many  pieces  for  six  and 
nine  choruses  ;  3  Masses,  2  Dixit,  and  a 
number  of  motets  in  the  Santini  Collection  ; 
a  mass,  a  Requiem,  6  motets,  a  psalm,  a 
hymn,  a  Christus  factus  est,  in  Proske's 
"  Musica  Divina."  He  compiled  a  history  of 
the  maestri  di  cappella  of  Rome  from  1500 
to  1700,  the  MS.  of  which,  now  in  the  Vati- 
can Library,  was  used  by  Baini  in  his  life 


of  Palestrina.  He  left  also,  in  MS.,  Guida 
armonica,  which  is  unfortunately  lost.  His 
studies  in  counterpoint,  written  for  his  pu- 
pils, are  preserved  in  MS.  in  several  of 
the  best  musical  libraries  of  Italy. — Fetis  ; 
Grove  ;  Riemann  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

PITSCH,  K.^EL  FRANTISEK,  born  at 
Patzdorf,  Bohemia,  Feb.  5,  1786,  died  in 
Prague,  June  13,  1858.  Organist  and  pi- 
anist, first  instructed  by  his  father,  then  at 
Glatz,  Silesia,  jiupil  of  Otto  ;  jjlayed  the  or- 
gan when  only  eight  yeai-s  of  age.  He  stud- 
ied also  in  Prague,  whither  he  returned  after 
having  been  a  tutor  in  the  family  of  a  noble- 
man in  Moravia,  in  1815-25  ;  was  appointed 
in  1832  organist  at  St.  Nicholas,  in  1810  pro- 
fessor at  the  Conservatorium,  and  in  1841 
director  of  the  organists'  school.  Among 
his  compositions,  most  of  which  remain  in 
MS.,  are  a  Festival  Mass  in  D  ;  Te  Deum ; 
Graduale  ;  Vocal  Requiem  ;  Preludes,  fu- 
gues, etc.,  for  the  organ  ;  and  many  instruc- 
tive pieces. — Slovnik  nauSn^  (Prague,  1859), 
vi.  402  ;  Wurzbach. 

PITTORE  PARIGINO,  IL  (The  Parisian 
Painter),  Italian  opera  buffa  in  two  acts, 
by  Cimarosa,  first  represented  in  Rome  in 
1783.  A  quartet  from  this  opera,  in  which 
the  Grand  Duchess  and  Prince  of  Tuscany 
sang,  was  performed  at  Leghorn  during 
Cimarosa's  visit  to  the  Grand  Duke  of 
Tuscany  in  1789. 

PIU  NON  CERCA  LIBERTA,  alto  aria 
of  Arcane,  in  F  major,  with  accompaniment 
of  flutes  and  violins  in  oct.aves,  and  bass,  in 
Handel's  Teseo,  Act  HI.,  Scene  1.  Pub- 
lished also  separately,  with  the  accompani- 
ment filled  out  by  Otto  Dresel  (Lei^Jsic, 
Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel). 

PIU  NON  SI  TROVANO,  canzonet  in  F, 
for  two  soprani  and  a  bass,  with  accompani- 
ment of  two  basset  horns,  text  from  Metas- 
tasio's  Olimpiade,  music  by  Mozart,  com- 
posed in  Vienna,  July  16,  1788.  Breitkopf 
&  Hiirtel,  Mozart  Werke,  Serie  6,  No.  41. 
— Kochel,  Verzeichniss,  No.  549. 

PIUTTI,  CARL,  born  at  Bad  Elgersburg, 
Thuriugia,  in  1846,  still  living,  1890.     Vir- 


132 


PIXIS 


tuoso  on  the  organ,  pupil  of  tbe  Conserva- 
toriums  at  Cologne  and  Leif)sic ;  from  1875 
instructor  at  the  latter,  and  since  1880  or- 
ganist of  the  Thomaskirche.  He  has  com- 
posed concertos,  fugues,  and  other  music 
for  the  organ,  pianoforte  pieces,  and  songs. 
— Mendel,  Ergilnz.,  351. 

PIXIS,  FKIEDRICH  ^VILHELM,  born 
at  Mannheim  in  178G,  died  in  Prague,  Oct. 

20,  1842.  Violinist,  sou  of  Friedrich  Wil- 
hclin  Pixis  (organist,  died  after  1805),  pu- 
pil of  Kitter,  Luigi,  and  Frilnzel,  and  later 
received  advice  from  Viotti.  He  made  con- 
cert tours  with  his  brother,  Johann  Peter, 
joined  the  court  band  of  Mannheim  in 
1804,  and  afterwards  became  professor  at 
the  Conservatorium  and  Kapellmeister  of 
the  theatre  at  Prague.  Works  :  Concertino 
for  violin  and  orchestra  ;  Variations  for  do., 
etc. — Fetis  ;  Wurzbach  ;  Schilling  ;  Ger- 
ber  ;  Wasielewski,  Die  Violiue,  190. 

PIXIS,  JOHANN  PETER,  born  at  Mann- 
heim in  1788,  died  at  Baden-Baden,  Dec. 

21,  1874.  Pianist,  brother  of  the  preced- 
ing, with  whom  he  travelled  ;  then  lived  in 
Munich  and  Vienna,  and  settled  in  1825 
in  Paris  to  teach.  He  educated  his  adopted 
daughter,  Franzilla  P.  Giihringer,  as  a  singer, 
accompanied  her  on  her  professional  tour 
through  Germany  and  Italy,  and  after  her 
marriage  retired  to  Baden-Baden.  "Works 
— Operas:  Bibiaua,  Paris,  1831  ;  Die  Sin-a- 
che des  Herzens,  Berlin,  1836.  Symphony  ; 
Trios,  quartets,  and  quintets  ;  Concertos, 
sonatas,  fantasias,  variations,  and  other 
pieces  for  pianoforte. — Fctis  ;  Mendel  ; 
Gerber  ;  Schilling. 

PIXIS,  THEODOE,  born  in  Prague, 
April  15, 1831,  died  at  Cologne,  Aug.  1, 1856. 
Violinist,  son  of  Friedrich  Wilhelm  Pixis, 
pupil  at  the  Conservatorium  at  Prague, 
afterwards  of  Vieuxtemps  at  Cannstadt, 
having  previously  visited  Paris  with  his 
uncle,  Johann  Peter  Pixis  ;  he  made  suc- 
cessful concert  tours  through  the  Rhine 
countries,  and  afterwards  played  in  Frank- 
fort, Hanover,  Berlin,  etc.,  and  in  1850  was 
appointed  professor  at  the  Conservatorium 


in  Cologne.  He  made  successful  visits  to 
Holland  in  1853,  and  to  Paris  in  1855. 
Works  :  Concert-Fantasias  for  violin  and 
oi'chestra  ;  Variations  for  do.  ;  Soli  for  vio- 
lin and  pianoforte  ;  Songs. — Wurzbach. 

PLAIDY,  LOUIS,  born  at  Hubertsburg, 
Saxony,  Nov.  28,  1810,  died  at  Grimma, 
March  3,  1874.  Pianist  and  violinist,  pu- 
pil of  Agthe  and,  on  the  violin,  of  Haase. 
He  taught  in  Dresden,  played  the  violin  in 
Leipsic,  and,  after  giving  attention  more 
especially  to  the  pianoforte,  was  chosen 
in  1843  by  Mendelssohn  as  instructor  at 
the  Leipsic  Conservatorium,  where  he  re- 
mained until  1865,  when  he  became  a  private 
teacher.  He  was  wonderfully  successful  in 
developing  the  technical  execution  of  his 
pupils.  Works  :  Technische  Studieu  fiir 
das  Pianofortesjsiel,  now  a  standard  text- 
book in  music  schools.  He  was  the  author 
also  of  Der  Klavierlehrer  (1874),  translated 
by  F.  L.  Bitter  as  the  "  Pianoforte  Teacher's 
Guide,"  and  by  John  S.  Dwight  as  the 
"  Piano  Teacher." — Riemauu  ;  Grove;  Men- 
del ;  Fetis,  Supplement,  ii.  350. 

PLAINTE  DES  DAMNES,  LA  (Com- 
plaint of  the  Damned),  cantata  for  three 
voices,  two  violins,  and  organ,  by  Carissimi. 
It  is  very  celebrated.  The  MS.  is  in  the 
National  Library,  Paris. 

PL.mQUETTE,  ROBERT,  born  in  Paris, 
July  21,  1850,  still  living,  1890.  Pianist 
and  dramatic  composer,  pui^il  at  the  Con- 
servatoire, and  for  a  short  time  of  Duprato. 
He  began  writing  chansons  and  chansou- 
nettes  for  the  cafes-chantants,  and,  having 
acquired  popularity,  composed  several  op- 
erettas, and  in  1877  produced  his  first  well- 
known  oi^era,  Les  cloches  de  Corneville, 
which  was  given  more  than  400  times  in 
succession,  and  became  as  popular  in  Lon- 
don as  in  Paris.  Works  :  Mefie-toi  de 
Pharaon,  1872  ;  Le  serment  de  Mme 
Grogoire,  1874  ;  Paille  d'avoine,  1874  ;  Les 
cloches  de  Corneville,  1877  ;  Le  chevalier 
Gaston,  Le  peage,  1879 ;  Les  voltigeurs 
de  la  XXXH.,  1880  ;  La  cantiniere,  1880  ; 
Itqj  van  Winkle,  1882  ;  Nell  Gwyune,  1884  ; 


lo3 


PLANTADE 


Surcouf,  comic  opera,  1887  ;  Paul  Jones, 
do.,  London,  1880  ;  Songs  and  instru- 
mental music. — Ft'tis,  Supi^lement,  ii.  357  ; 
Grove  ;  Kiemanu. 

PLANTADE,  CHARLES  HENRI,  born 
at  Poutoise  (Seine-et- 
'""  Oise),   Oct.   19,  17C4, 

died  in  Paris,  Dec.  18, 
1839.  He  was  ad- 
mitted at  the  age  of 
eight  to  the  school  of 
the  king's  pages  de 
musique,  where  he 
learned  singing  and 
the  violoncello.  On 
leaving  the  king's  ser- 
vice he  studied  singing 
and  composition  under  Langlo,  pianoforte 
under  Hiillmandel,  and  the  harp  under  Pe- 
trini.  He  was  professor  of  singing  at  Mine 
Campan's  celebrated  school  at  Saint- Denis, 
and  there  instructed  Hortense  de  Beauhar- 
nais,  who  afterwards,  as  Queen  of  Holland, 
appointed  him  kapelmeester  at  her  court. 
Plantade  resigned  his  position  of  professor 
at  the  Conservatoire,  which  he  had  held 
from  1802,  in  company  with  Garat,  to  ac- 
cept this  new  honour,  but  on  the  king's  ab- 
dication he  was  forced  to  return  to  Paris, 
where  he  resumed  his  position  in  1815,  was 
dismissed  in  ISIG,  reinstated  in  1818,  and 
finally  retired  in  1828.  In  ISIG  he  suc- 
ceeded Persuis  as  maitre  de  chapelle  to 
Louis  XVlLL,  who  in  1814  had  decorated 
him  with  the  Legion  of  Honour.  His  best 
pupil  was  Mine  Cinti-Damoreau.  Through 
the  revolution  of  1830  he  lost  all  his  offices, 
and  retired  to  Batignollcs.  Works — Op- 
eras :  Les  deux  sanu-s,  17!)1  ;  Les  souliers 
mordorc'S,  1793  ;  Au  plus  brave  la  plus  belle, 
1794  ;  Palma,  ou  le  voyage  en  Groce,  1797 ; 
Romagnesi,  1799  ;  Le  roman,  1799  ;  Zoo, 
ou  la  pauvre  petite,  1800  ;  Lisez  Plutarque, 
1800  ;  Bayard  a  la  Fertc,  1811  ;  Le  mari 
de  circonstauce,  1813  ;  Scc'ue  lyrique,  1814  ; 
Blanche  de  Castille  (with  Habeneck).  Five 
masses  ;  Requiem  ;  Motets  ;  Te  Deum  ; 
Sonata    for   harp  ;    20   collections   of    ro- 


mances ;  3  do.  of  nocturnes  for  2  voices. 
— Fotis  ;  Mendel ;  Riemann. 

PLATANIA,  PIETRO,  born  at  Catania, 
Sicily,  April  5, 1828,  still  living,  1890.  Dra- 
matic composer,  pupil  of  Carmelo  Messina 
on  the  pianoforte,  and  of  Vicenzo  Abatelli 
in  composition,  then  at  Palermo  of  Rai- 
mondi.  In  18G3  he  was  appointed  director 
of  the  Conservatorio  at  Palermo.  Member 
of  the  Accademia  di  Sta.  Cecilia,  Rome. 
Order  of  Saint-Maurice  et  Saint-Lazare,  and 
of  the  Italian  Crown.  Works — Operas: 
Matilda  Bentivoglio,  Palermo,  1852  ;  Pic- 
carda  Douati,  ib.,  1857  ;  La  vendetta  slava, 
ib.,  18(55  ;  GiulioSabino.  Funeral  symphony 
on  the  death  of  Pacini,  18G8  ;  Ode-symphony 
for  chorus,  orchestra,  and  military  band, 
1878  ;  Hymn  to  the  queen,  1878. — Fetis, 
Supplement,  ii.  353. 

PLATEL,  NICOLAS  JOSEPH,  born  at 
Versailles  in  1777,  died  at  Brussels,  Aug. 
25,  1835.  Virtuoso  on  the  violoncello,  pu- 
pil of  Louis  Du230rt  and  of  Lamare,  entered 
in  179G  the  orchestra  of  the  Theatre  Fey- 
deau,  but  in  1797  followed  an  actress  to 
Lyons,  and  did  not  return  to  Paris  until 
1801,  when  he  was  considered  the  best 
violoncellist  there.  In  1805  he  made  a 
concert  tour,  sojourning  in  several  minor 
cities,  and  in  1813  became  first  violoncellist 
at  the  023era  in  Antwerp  ;  in  1824  he  went 
in  the  same  capacity  to  Brussels,  where  in 
1831  he  was  appointed  also  professor  at  the 
Conservatoire.  Works  :  G  concertos  for  vi- 
oloncello, and  orchestra  ;  3  sonatas  for 
violoncello,  with  bass ;  6  airs  varies  for 
violoncello  ;  Caprices  or  preludes  for  do.  ; 
3  trios  for  strings ;  6  duos  for  do.  ;  G  ro- 
mances, with  pianoforte. — Fctis  ;  Mendel ; 
Riemann. 

PL.\TT,  CHARLES  EASTON,  born,  of 
American  parentage,  in  Waterbury,  Con- 
necticut, Oct.  13,  185G,  still  living,  1890. 
He  studied  in  Boston,  in  1875-7G,  the  or- 
gan under  Eugene  Thayer,  then,  at  the  New 
England  Conservatory  of  Music,  pianoforte 
under  Joseph  A.  Hills,  S.  A.  Emery,  and  B. 
J.  Lang,  and  harmony  under  S.  A.  Emery  ; 


134 


PLAUSI 


and  on  his  return  to  Waterbury,  the  organ 
under  Julius  Baier,  Jr.  In  1877  he  went 
to  Europe,  and  studied  the  organ  under 
August  Haupt,  the  pianoforte  under  H. 
Ehrlieh,  KuUak,  and  Oscar  Raif,  and  mu- 
sical theory  and  composition  under  F.  Kiel, 
W.  Bargiel,  and  Franz  Neumann  ;  during 
two  summers,  also,  he  was  a  pupil  of  Liszt 
at  Weimar.  Eeturning  to  America  in  1882, 
he  became  a  teacher  in  the  Detroit  Con- 
servatory of  Music,  which  position  he  still 
holds.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Music 
Teachers'  National  Association.  Works  : 
Variations  for  string  quartet,  in  D  minor  ; 
Theme  and  variations,  in  B  minor,  for  pi- 
anoforte, violin,  and  violoncello  ;  Sonata  in 
4  movements,  for  pianoforte  ;  Also  waltzes, 
nocturnes,  mazurkas,  and  other  pianoforte 
music. 

PLAUSI  ALL'  INCLITO  SEVERO.  See 
Poliulo. 

PLEYEL,  CAIVIILLE,  born  in  Stras- 
burg,  Dec.  18,  1788,  died  in  Paris,  May 
4,  1855.  Pianist,  son  and  pupil  of  Ignaz 
Josef  Pleyel ;  received  instruction  also 
from  Dussek.  He  lived  a  while  in  London, 
then  went  to  Paris,  and  entered  the  piano- 
forte making  firm  of  Pleyel  &  Co.,  estab- 
lished by  his  father,  in  which  the  pianist 
Kalkbrenner  also  became  later  a  partner. 
Works  :  Quartet  f or  jsianoforte  and  strings  ; 
3  trios  for  do.  ;  Sonatas  for  pianoforte  and 
violin,  or  violoncello ;  Pianoforte  duet ; 
Nocturnes,  rondos,  fantasias,  and  other  com- 
positions for  jjianoforte  solo,  and  with  ac- 
companiment. His  wife,  Marie  Felicite 
Denise  (born  Moke,  1811-75),  was  a  cele- 
brated pianist,  and  in  1848-72  professor  at 
the  Conservatoire  of  Brussels. — Fetis  ;  Men- 
del. 

PLEYEL,  IGNAZ  JOSEF,  born  at  Rup- 
pertsthal,  near  Vienna,  June  1,  1757,  died 
on  his  estate  near  Paris,  Nov.  14,  1831.  In- 
strumental composer,  pupil  of  Wanhall  on 
the  isianoforte,  and  of  Haydn,  under  whose 
entire  care  he  was  placed  for  five  years  by 
Count  Erdody.  In  1777  the  count  made 
him  his  Kapellmeister,  but  allowed  him  to 


In    1792   the   society 


study  four  years  longer  in  Italy.  After  his 
return  to  Vienna,  in  1781,  he  soon  went 
again  to  Rome,  and 
in  1783  accepted  the 
position  as  second 
Kapellmeister  at  the 
Minster  of  Stras- 
burg,  became  first 
Kaj)ellmeister  in 
1780,  but  was  de- 
prived of  his  jjost 
by  the  Revolution, 
which  abolished  the 
Christian  religion, 
of  Professional  Concerts  called  him  to  Lon- 
don, to  compete  against  Haydn's  sympho- 
nies, produced  in  Salomon's  concerts  ;  the 
enterprise  was  successful,  but  the  Profes- 
sional Concerts  ceased  after  a  few  years,  and 
Pleyel  bought  and  retired  to  some  prop- 
erty near  Strasburg.  Annoyed  and  sus- 
pected by  the  revolutionary  authorities,  he 
sold  his  property  and  removed  to  Paris  in 
the  beginning  of  1795,  and  established  a 
music  trade,  and  later  a  pianoforte  factory, 
becoming  a  business  man  exclusively,  and 
abandoning  composition.  The  last  years  of 
his  life  he  spent  on  an  estate  near  Paris, 
devoting  himself  to  agriculture.  Works  : 
29  symphonies  ;  Septet  for  strings,  2  horns, 
and  double  bass  ;  Sextet  for  strings  ;  5 
quintets  for  do.  ;  45  quartets  for  do.  ;  Trios 
and  duos  for  do.  ;  6  quartets  for  flute  and 
strings  ;  2  concertos  for  pianoforte  ;  2  do. 
for  violin  ;  4  do.  for  violoncello  ;  7  sym- 
phonies concertantes  for  2  violins,  for  string 
and  wind  instruments,  for  pianoforte  and 
violin  ;  Sonatas  for  pianoforte,  violin,  and 
violoncello  ;  12  do.  for  jjianoforte,  etc.- — Fe- 
tis ;  Gerber  ;  Mendel  ;  N.  Necrol.  der  D. 
(1831),  ii.  967  ;  Riehl,  Mus.  Charakterkopfe, 
i.  238  ;  Schilling  ;  Wurzbach. 

PLUS  BLANCHE  QUE  LA  BLANCHE 
HERmNE.     See  Huguenots. 

PLUS  ULTRA,  sonata  for  pianoforte,  in 
A-flat,  by  Dussek,  op.  71,  called  also  "  Le 
retour  a  Paris,"  published  by  Cianchetti 
and  Sperati   (London,   1808).     It   is   dedi- 


135 


PLUTUS 


cated  to  "  Non  plus  ultra,"  a  sonata  for  the 
pianoforte,  in  F,  by  Joseph  Woelfl,  op.  41, 
closing  with  variations  on  the  air,  "  Life 
let  us  cherish  "  (a  favourite  German  song, 
words  by  Martin  Usteri,  of  Zurich,  music  by 
Hans  Georg  Niigeli,  1793),  which  was  dedi- 
cated to  Miss  E.  Binney,  and  pubHshed  by  J. 
Lavenu  (London,  1800).  It  was  intended  to 
show  that  mechanical  skill  could  go  no  fur- 
ther, and  Dussek's  was  an  answer. — Grove, 
iii.  4. 

PLUTUS,  opora-comique,  text  by  Mil- 
laud  and  Jolives,  after  Ai-istof)hanes,  mu- 
sic by  Charles  Lecocq,  represented  at  the 
0]X'ra  Comique,  Paris,  March  31,  1886. 

POEME  DAMOUR  (Poem  of  Love), 
cycle  of  songs  for  voice  and  pianoforte, 
test  by  Paul  Robiquet,  music  by  Massenet. 
Sis  numbers.  Published  by  G.  Hartmann 
(Paris,  1879). 

POEME  D'AVRIL  (Poem  of  April),  cycle 
of  songs  for  voice  and  pianoforte,  text  from 
Armaud  Silvestre's  "  Mignonne,"  music 
by  Massenet,  in  eight  numbers.  Dedicated 
to  Ernest  Reyer,  and  published  by  G.  Hart- 
mann (Paris,  1878). 

POEME  DHR^ER  (Poem  of  Winter), 
cycle  of  songs  for  voice  and  pianoforte,  text 
bj'  Ai'mand  SUvestre,  music  by  Massenet. 
Published  by  G.  Hartmann  (Paris). 

POEME  b'OCTOBRE  (Poem  of  Octo- 
ber), cycle  of  songs  for  voice  and  piano- 
forte, test  by  Paul  Collin,  music  by  I\Ias- 
senet.  Prelude  and  five  numbers.  Dedi- 
cated to  Ernest  Ht'bert,  and  jniblished  by 
G.  Hartmann  (Paris). 

POEME  DU  SOUVEXm  (Poem  of  Re- 
membrance), text  by  Armand  Silvestre, 
music  by  Massenet.  Six  numbers,  the  last 
of  which  is  an  ejsitaph.  Dedicated  to  Mrs. 
Charles  Moulton,  and  published  by  G.  Hart- 
mann (Paris). 

POEIME  PASTORAL,  scenes  forvoice  and 
pianoforte,  text  by  Florian  and  Armand 
Silvestre,  music  by  Massenet.  I.  Pastorale 
avec  choeur ;  H.  Musette  ;  IH.  Aurore  ;  IV. 
Paysage  ;  V.  Crepuscule  ;  VI.  Adieus  :\  la 
jirairie.   Published  by  G.  Hartmann  (Paris). 


POET  AND  PEASANT.  See  Dichter  und 
Bauer. 

POETE  ET  LE  MUSICIEN,  LE,  French 
opera-comique  in  three  acts,  text  by  Du- 
paty,  music  by  Dalayrac,  first  represented 
at  the  Theatre  Feydeau,  Paris,  May  30, 
1811. 

POHLENZ,  CHRISTIAN  AUGUST,  bom 
at  Saalgast,  Nether  Lusatia,  July  3,  1790, 
died  in  Leij^sic,  March  10,  1843.  Organist 
of  the  Thomaskirche  in  Leipsic,  and  con- 
ducted the  Gewandhaus  concerts,  until  suc- 
ceeded by  Mendelssohn  iu  1835,  when  he 
still  retained  the  direction  of  the  Sinji- 
akademie.  "Works  :  Polonaises  for  piano- 
forte ;  Choruses  for  male  voices,  and  songs, 
some  of  which,  especially  his  "  Auf,  Matrosen, 
die  Anker  gelichtet,"  became  very  popular. 
— Mendel ;  Fetis  ;  Riemanu. 

POISE,  (JEAN  ALEXANDRE)  FERDI- 
NAND, born  at  Nimes,  June  3,  1828,  still 
living,  1890.  Dramatic  composer  ;  after  tak- 
ing his  degree  of  Bachelier-es-lettres  of  Paris, 
pupil  at  the  Conservatoire,  in  1850,  of  Zim- 
merman and  of  Adolphe  Adam  for  compo- 
sition, and  won  in  1852  the  second  grand 
prix.  His  first  opera,  Bonsoir,  voisin, 
given  at  the  Theatre  Lyrique  iu  1853,  had 
an  immediate  success  and  was  played  one 
hundred  nights.  He  went  to  Italy  and 
Germany  to  follow  the  course  prescribed 
by  the  lustitut,  and  since  then  has  been  a 
popular  composer  of  operas  played  at  the 
best  theatres  of  Paris.  In  1872  he  took  the 
musical  prize  of  the  Acadumie  des  Beaux- 
Ai"ts,  instituted  by  Baron  Trt'mont.  Works  : 
Les  charmeurs.  Theatre  Lyrique,  1855  ; 
Le  the  de  Polichinelle,   Bouffes  Parisiens, 

1856  ;  Le  roi  Don  Pudre,  Opera  Comique, 

1857  ;  Le  jardiniergalant,  ib.,  1861  ;  Lesab- 
sents,  ib.,  1864  ;  Les  moissonneurs,  cantata, 
ib.,  1866  ;  Le  coiTicolo,  ib.,1868  ;  Les  deux 
billets,  Athem'e,  1870  ;  Les  trois  souhaits. 
Opera  Comique,  1873  ;  La  surprise  de 
I'amour,  ib.,  1877  ;  L'Amour  medecin,  1880  ; 
Le  joli  Gilles,  1884 ;  Le  medecin  malgre 
lui,  1887.  —  Fetis ;  do..  Supplement,  ii. 
355. 


1S6 


POISOT 


POISOT,  CHARLES  fMILE,  born  at  I  cinque  voci  concertati  (ib.,  1634) ;  Motetti  a 
Dijon,  France,  Jul}'  8,  1822,  still  living,  I  voce  sola  e  a  duoi  (ib.,  1637)  ;  Messe  a  5  e 
1890.  Pianist  and  -ivriter  on  music,  pupil :  8  voci  concertati,  etc.  (ib.,  1639)  ;  Salmi 
of  Jules  Senart,  Louis  Adam,  Stamaty,  and   concertati  a  3  e  5  voci  ;  do.  a  8  voci  (ib.. 


Tbalberg  on  the  pianoforte,  of  Leborne  in 
counterpoint,  and  at  the  Conservatoire 
(184:4-48)  of  Haluvy.  He  was  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  society  of  composers  in 
Paris,  created  the  Conservatoire  at  Dijon, 
of  which  he  was  made  director  in  18G8, 
and  founded  there  in  1872  the  society  for 
sacred  and  classical  music.  Works — Op- 
eras :  Lo  paysan,  given  at  the  Ojicra  Co- 
mique,  1850  ;  Le  prince  de  Galles,  1854  ;  Les 
Sj)endlcrs  ;  Francesco.  Parlor  operas  :  Le 
coin  du  feu  ;  La  cle  du  secretaire  ;  Les  res- 
sources  de  Jacqueline  ;  Les  terreurs  de  M. 
Peters  ;  Eosa  la  rose  ;  Les  deux  billets. 
Jeanne  d'Arc,  cantata ;  Motets  ;  Stabat 
Mater  ;  Requiem  ;  Trio  for  pianoforte  and 
strings  ;  Pianoforte  pieces.  He  published 
a  Cours  d'harmonie  and  Traite  de  contre- 
point  et  fugue  ;  also  Notice  sur  Jean-Philippe 
Eameau  (1864),  and  Notice  sur  Jules  Mer- 
cier  (1869),  etc. — Fctis ;  do..  Supplement, 
ii.  356. 

POISSL,  JOHANNNEPOjMUK,Freiherr 
VON,  born  at  Haukeuzell,  Bavaria,  Feb.  15, 
1783,  died  at  Munich,  Aug.  17,  1865.  Dra- 
matic composer,  pupil  of  Danzi.  He  was 
appointed  iutendaut  of  court  music  in  1823. 
Works  :  Die  Opernprobe,  1806  ;  Antigone, 
1808  ;  Merope,  1810  ;  Ottaviano  in  Sicilia, 
1812  ;  Aucassiu  undNicolette,  1813  ;  Athalie, 
1814  ;  Der  Wettkampf  zu  Olympia,  1816  ; 
Nittetis,  1817  ;  Die  Prinzessin  von  Provence, 
1825  ;  Der  Untersberg,  1829  ;  Der  Erudte- 
tag,  oratorio ;  Psalm  xcv.,  for  soli  and 
chorus  ;  Stabat  Mater,  2  Miserere,  etc. — Fe- 
tis  ;  Riemann. 

POLIDORI,  ORTENSIO,  church  com- 
poser of  the  seventeenth  century,  born  at 
Camerino,  Papal  States,  about  the  middle 
of  the  16th  centui-y.  He  was  maestro  di 
cappella  of  the  cathedral  at  Fermo  about 
1621,  afterwards  at  Cbieti,  Naples,  and  at 
Pesaro.  Works  :  Messe  a  5  e  8  voci  con 
ripieni  e  2  violiui  (Venice,  1631) ;  Salmi  a 


1641)  ;  do.  in  2  cori,  etc.  (ib.,  1646).— Fe- 
tis  ;  Mendel. 

POLIDORO,  German  opera  by  Karl 
Heinrich  Grauu,  first  represented  in  Bruns- 
wick in  1726.  This  was  the  composer's 
first  of)era.  Other  operas  of  the  same  title, 
in  Italian,  by  Antonio  Lotti,  text  by  Pio- 
vene,  Venice,  1714  ;  in  French,  by  Battistin 
Struck,  text  by  the  Abbe  Pellegrini,  Paris, 
Feb.  15,  1720  ;  in  German,  by  Sigismund 
von  Rumling,  Schloss  Carlsberg,  near  Mu- 
nich. 

POLIUTO,  Italian  opera  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Cammarano,  after  Corneille's  "  Poly- 
eucte,"  music  by  Donizetti,  written  for  rep- 
resentation in  Naples  in  1838,  but  forbidden 
by  the  censorship.  The  libretto  was  sug- 
gested by  Adolphe  Nourrit,  who  designed 
the  part  of  Poliuto  for  himself.  The  opera 
was  rearranged  and  given  as  Les  martyrs, 
Paris,  April  10,  1840.  First  represented 
in  its  original  form  at  the  Theatre  Italien, 
Paris,  April  14,  1859,  with  this  cast  : 

Poliuto M.  Tamberlik. 

Paoliua Mme  Penco. 

Severo M.  Cojtsi. 

Felix M.  Patriossi. 

Callistene M.  Manfredi. 

Nearco M.  Soldi. 

Poliuto  was  one  of  Tamberlik's  best  charac- 
ters. The  opera  was  first  performed  in  New 
York,  Jan.  25,  1859,  with  Brignoli  as  Poli- 
uto ;  Amodio,  Severo  ;  Barilli,  Felix  ;  and  MUe 
Piccolomini  as  Paolina.  Scene  in  Mitylene, 
in  the  third  century  after  Christ.  Poliuto, 
a  Roman,  has  become  a  Christian,  but  hia 
wife,  Paolina,  daughter  of  Felix,  Governor 
of  Armenia,  is  not  a  convert.  Severo,  her 
former  lover,  is  sent  by  the  Emperor  Decius 
to  extirpate  Christianity,  and  finds  to  his 
grief  that  Paolina  is  married.  Nearco,  a 
friend  of  Poliuto,  is  arrested  and  taken  to 
the  temple  of  Jupiter,  where  he  is  ordered 


lOT 


POLLAEOLO 


to  disclose  the  names  of  bis  Christian  friends. 
He  refuses  and  is  about  to  be  executed, 
when  Poliuto  enters,  proclaims  his  faith, 
and  destroys  the  idols.  He  is  taken  to 
prison,  and  Severe  tries  to  save  him.  Felis 
promises  to  f)ardon  Poliuto  if  he  will  re- 
nounce his  religion,  and  Paolina  takes 
him  this  news,  but  whUe  visiting  him  in 
prison  she  becomes  converted.  The  opera 
closes  in  the  amphitheatre,  where  the  Chris- 
tians, including  Poliuto  and  Paolina,  are 
thrown  to  the  wild  beasts.  The  principal 
numbers  are :  "  D'  un  alma  troppo  fervida," 
and  "  Percho  distolto  giubilo,"  sung  by 
Poliuto  and  Paolina  in  Act  I.  ;  the  chorus 
of  greeting  to  Severo,  "  Plausi  all'  iuclito 
Severo  ;  "  his  aria,  "  II  piti  lieto  de'  viventi ; " 
Poliuto's  aria,  "  Sfolgoro  diviuo  raggio  ; " 
the  chorus,  "  Vieni !  ^deni  al  circo  ;  "  and 
the  last  duet  of  Poliuto  and  Paolina,"  II 
suon  deir  arpe  angeliche,"  one  of  Donizetti's 
best  compositions.- — Revue  et  Gaz.  mus.  de 
Paris  (1859),  128  ;  Clement  et  Larousse, 
537  ;  Upton,  Standard  Operas,  98. 

POLLAROLO,  CARLO  FRANCESCO, 
born  at  Brescia  in  1G53,  died  in  Venice  in 
1722.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Le- 
grcnzi,  who  entered  him  in  1G65  as  a  singer 
in  the  ducal  chajjel  of  S.  Marco.  In  1G90 
he  was  appointed  organist  of  the  second  or- 
gan and  in  1G92  vice-maestro  di  cappella. 
He  was  one  of  the  most  prolific  and  favour- 
ite opera  composers  of  his  time  ;  at  Venice 
alone  he  brought  out  sixty-four  operas  in 
1G8G-1721.  Among  those  written  for  other 
cities  were  :  Antonino  Pompeiano,  Brescia, 
1G89  ;  Circe  abbandonata,  Piacenza,  1G92  ; 
Ascanio,  Milan,  1702  ;  Arminio,  Pratoliuo, 
1703;  L'  eqnivoco,  Rome,  1711  ;  Amore  in 
gare  col  fasto,  Rovigo,  1711  ;  L'Astinomo, 
Rome,  1719.  Jefte,  oratorio,  Vienna,  1710, 
and  sevei'al  other  oratorios ;  Fede,  valore, 
gloria  e  fama,  cantata,  171G.  His  son  An- 
tonio (1G80-1750)  succeeded  him  in  1723 
at  S.  Marco,  and  Lotti  in  1740  as  first  ma- 
estro di  cappella.  He  composed  eight 
operas  for  Venice,  and  some  church  music. 
— Fetis. 


POLLEDRO,    GIOVANNI    BATTISTA, 

born  at  Casalmonferrato  alia  Piova,  near 
Turin,  June  10,  1781,  died  there,  Aug.  15, 
1853.  Violinist  and  composer,  first  in- 
structed at  Asti  by  Mauro  Calderara  and 
Gaetano  Vai,  then  at  Turin  by  a  musician 
named  Paris,  and  for  a  short  time  pupil 
of  Pugnani,  who  caused  him  to  be  ad- 
mitted in  the  orchestra  of  the  Teatro  Regio 
at  the  age  of  fifteen.  He  made  his  first 
appearance  in  public  in  Turin  in  1797,  then 
in  Milan,  1801,  and  became  first  violin- 
ist at  Sta.  Maria  Maggiore  at  Bergamo  in 
1804.  Beginning  a  long  professional  tour, 
he  remained  five  years  in  Moscow  ;  then 
went  to  St.  Petersburg,  Berlin,  and  Dresden, 
where  he  was  Conzertmeister  in  1814- 
24  ;  was  recalled  to  Turin  in  1824  by 
the  king  to  reorganize  the  Royal  Chapeh 
In  1844  he  retired  from  public  life.  "Works : 
8  concertos  for  violin  and  orchestra;  Airs 
varies  for  do.  ;  Trios  and  duos  for  string 
instruments  ;  Mass  for  4  voices  and  orches- 
tra ;  Miserere  f<n-  do.  ;  Sinfonia  pastorale, 
for  full  orchestra  ;  Concerto  for  bassoon 
and  orchestra. — Fetis  ;  do..  Supplement,  ii. 
357  ;  Storia  del  violino  in  Piemonto  (Turin, 
1863) ;  Hart,  The  Violin,  232  ;  Wasielewski, 
Die  Violine,  108  ;  Riemann  ;  Mendel ;  Schil- 
ling. 

POLLINI,  FRANCESCO  GIUSEPPE, 
born  at  Laybach,  Carniola,  in  17G3,  died  in 
Milan,  Sept.  17,  184G.  Pianist,  pupil  of 
Mozart  in  Vienna  ;  about  1793  he  went  to 
Milan,  where  he  studied  composition  under 
Zingarelli.  He  wrote  the  opera  buffa  La 
casetta  nei  boschi,  1798  ;  and  a  cantata, 
n  trionfo  della  pace,  1801,  on  the  occasion 
of  the  Peace  of  Amiens.  Soon  after  he 
went  to  Paris,  and  on  his  return  to  Milan  was 
appointed  professor  at  the  newly  founded 
(1809)  Conservatorio.  He  originated  the 
stj'le  of  playing  a  melody  in  the  middle  of 
the  kej'board,  using  the  thumb  of  each  hand 
alternately,  while  the  hands  are  also  em- 
ployed with  elaborate  passages  above  and 
below  it.  This  invention  has  been  attribut- 
ed both  to  Thalberg  and  to  Parish- Alvars, 


188 


POLOI^IA 


but  it  appears  in  one  of  PoUini's  32  Esercizi 
in  forma  di  toccata  (1820),  dedicated  to 
Meyerbeer,  the  music  being  written  in 
three  staves.  Works  :  Sonata,  caprice  and 
variations,  for  two  pianofortes  (Milan)  ; 
3  sonatas  for  pianoforte  ;  Sonate  facile, 
for  violin  and  pianoforte  ;  Introduction  and 
rondo,  for  jjiauoforte  (i  hands)  ;  Caprices, 
toccatas,  rondeaux-fantaisies,  etc.,  for  piano- 
forte ;  Stabat  Mater,  with  Italian  words, 
for  soprano  and  contralto,  with  2  violins, 
2  violoncellos,  and  organ  ;  Selma  (from 
Ossian),  for  soprano. — F6tis ;  Grove  ;  Eie- 
maun  ;  Schilling. 

POLONIA,  overture  for  orchestra,  in  C, 
by  Richard  Wagner,  written  in  1832,  but 
not  published.     The  score  is  in  Bayreuth. 

POLUS  ATELLA,  oratorio  by  Loewe, 
written  between  18J:8  and  18G0. 

POLYEUCTE,  French  opera  in  five  acts, 
text  by  Jules  Barbier  and  Michel  Carr^',  mu- 
sic by   Gounod,    iirst  represented   at   the 


Marie  Gabrielle  Krauss. 

Academie  Royale  de  Musique,  Paris,  Oct. 
7,  1878.  The  libretto  is  an  adaptation  of 
Corneille's  tragedy.     Original  cast : 

Polyeucte M.   Salamon. 

Pauline Mile  Krauss. 

Severe M.  Lasalle. 


Published  by  Lemoine  (Paris) ;  by  Fiirstner 
(Berlin).  Same  subject,  German  opera,  text 
by  Elmenhorst,  after  Corneille,  music  by 
Johann  PhUipp  Fortsch,  Hamburg,  1688  ; 
and  music  to  Corneille's  tragedy,  by  Johann 
Adam  Scheibe,  Leipsic,  1738. — Clement  et 
Larousse,  936  ;  Huefter,  Musical  Studies, 
213 ;  Athenfeum  (1878),  ii.  442,  474  ;  Si- 
gnale  (1878),  801. 

POLYXftNE  ;  POLTXJ^NE  ET  PYR- 
RHUS.     See  Achille  et  Polyxcne. 

POMONE,  ojiera  or  representation  in 
music,  text  by  the  Abbu  Perrin,  music  by 
Cambert,  first  represented  at  the  Theatre 
de  la  rue  Guenegaud,  Paris,  March  19, 
1G71.  This  was  the  first  French  opera 
heard  by  the  Parisian  public,  and  it  was 
the  first  ojjera  represented  by  the  Acade- 
mic Royale  de  Musique  (1671).  The  story 
is  the  mythological  fable  of  Pomona  and 
Vertumnus.  Characters  represented  :  Po- 
mone.  Mile  de  Cartilly  ;  Vertumne,  M.  Beau- 
mavielle  ;  Faune,  M.  Rossignol.  Portions 
of  the  oj)era  were  published  by  Ch.  Ballard 
(Paris).  Other  opieras  of  the  same  title : 
In  French,  by  Lacoste,  about  1730  ;  in  Ger- 
man, by  Reinhardt  Keiser,  text  by  Postel, 
Hamburg,  1702.— Lajarte,  i.  19. 

POMPEIA,  symphonic  fantasy  for  orches- 
tra, by  Jules  Massenet,  first  performed  at 
the  Casino,  Paris,  Feb.  24,  1866.  I.  Pre- 
lude ;  II.  Hymne  d'£ros  ;  HI.  Choeur  des 
funerailles  ;  TV.  Bacchanale. — Fetis,  Sup- 
plement, ii.  181. 

POMPEH.     See  Dernier  jour  de  Pompei. 

PONCHARD,  ANTOINE,  born  at  Bussus 
near  Peronne,  Picardy,  in  1758,  died  in 
Paris,  September,  1827.  Church  composer, 
received  his  first  musical  education  as  chor- 
ister in  a  church  at  Pcronne,  subsequently 
in  the  cathedral  at  Liege.  He  was  succes- 
sively maitre  de  chapelle  at  Saint-Malo,  and 
of  the  cathedrals  of  Bourges  and  Auxerre. 
About  1786  he  went  to  Pont^le-Voy,  and 
became  professor  of  music  in  the  royal 
college,  but  at  the  time  of  the  Revolution 
followed  several  callings  to  earn  a  living. 
In  1803  he  settled  in  Lyons,  where  he  was 


13'J 


PONCniELLI 


chef  d'orchestre  at  the  Grand  Theatre.  He 
went  to  Paris  in  1813  in  order  to  be  near 
his  son,  a  favourite  singer  at  the  Opera,  and 
in  1815  was  aj^pointed  maitre  de  chapelle 
of  Saint-Eustache.  Works ;  His  church 
music,  consisting  of  5  masses,  a  Kequiem, 
considered  his  best  work,  psahus,  etc.,  with 
organ  and  orchestral  accompaniment,  re- 
mains in  MS. — Fetis  ;  Larousse. 

PONCHDELLI,  A:\nLCAEE,  born  at  Pa- 
deruo-Fasolaro,  near 
Cremona,  Sept.  1, 
1834,  died  in  Milan, 
Jan.  IG,  188G.  Dra- 
matic composer,  pupil 
in  18-13-54  at  the  Con- 
servatorio  of  Milan. 
He  lived  in  Piacenza, 
where  he  was  band- 
master of  a  regiment ; 
subsequently  went  to  Cremona  in  the  same 
capacity.  His  first  opera,  I  promessi  sposi, 
given  at  Cremona,  185G,  and,  in  an  altered 
arrangement,  at  the  new  Teatro  dal  Verme, 
Milan,  1872,  won  him  popularity  in  Italy, 
where  he  is  considered  second  only  to  Verdi. 
He  was  immediately  engaged  by  the  mana- 
gers of  La  Scala  to  write  a  ballet  in  7  acts, 
and  in  1873  Lo  duo  gemelle  was  brought 
out  at  that  theatre,  with  extraordinary  suc- 
cess. In  1881  ho  was  appointed  maestro 
di  cappella  of  the  cathedral  at  Bergamo. 
Works — Operas  :  I  promessi  sposi,  Cre- 
mona, 185G  ;  La  Savojarda,  Cremona,  18G1  ; 
Eoderico,  re  do'  Goti,  Piacenza,  18G-1 ;  Ber- 
trand  de  Born,  ballet,  Viterbo,  18G7  ;  La 
Stella  del  monte,  18G7  ;  Clai-ina,  ballet,  Mil- 
an, 1873  ;  H  parlatoro  eterno,  scherzo  co- 
mico,  Lecco,  1873  ;  I  Lituani,  MUan,  1874  ; 
Gioconda,  ib.,  1876  ;  Lina  (a  remodelled 
edition  of  La  Savojarda),  ib.,  1877  ;  H  fi- 
gliuol  prodigo,  ib.,  1880  ;  Marion  Delonne, 
ib.,  1885.  A  Gaetauo  Donizetti,  cantata, 
Bergamo,  1875  ;  H  29  Maggio,  funeral  march 
to  the  memory  of  Manzoni  ;  Another  funeral 
march  ;  Fantasia  militare  ;  Hymn  in  mem- 
ory of  Garibaldi,  1882  ;  Eteruamente,  ro- 
mance   for  soprano,    with   pianoforte   and 


violoncello. — Fetis,  Supplement,  ii.  358  ; 
Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  360. 

POND,  SYLVANUS  BILLINGS,  born 
at  Milford,  Vermont,  April  5,  1792,  died  in 
Brooklyn,  New  York,  March  12,  1871.  He 
went  while  young  to  Albany,  where  he  en- 
gaged in  the  musical  instrument  business  ; 
in  1832  ho  removed  to  New  York  and  asso- 
ciated himself  with  Firth  &  Hall  under  the 
firm  name  of  Firth,  Hall  &  Pond,  which, 
after  several  changes,  became  William  A. 
Pond  &  Co.  He  was  leader  of  the  choir  at 
the  Brick  Church,  New  York,  and  was  at 
one  time  director  of  the  New  York  Academy 
of  Music  and  of  the  New  York  Sacred  !Mu- 
sic  Society.  He  composed  church  music, 
including  several  popular  hymn  tunes, 
among  them  Armenia  (1835)  and  Franklin 
Square  (1850),  and  compiled  the  following 
collections  :  Union  Melodies  (1838),  United 
States  Psalmodist  (1841),  and  Book  of 
Praise  of  the  Reformed  Dutch  Church  (18GG). 

PONLiTOWSKI,  J(')ZEF  MCHAL 
XAWERY  FRANCISZEK  JAN,  Prince  of 
Monte  Rotondo,  born  in  Rome,  Feb.  20, 
1806,  died  at  Chiselhurst,  England,  July 
3,  1873.  Dramatic  composer,  and  tenor 
singer  ;  first  taught  by  Candido  Zanetti,  a 
priest ;  and  in  Florence  studied  singing  and 
comjwsition  under  Ceccherini.  He  made 
his  di'but  as  a  tenor  singer  at  the  Teatro 
Standish  in  Florence,  where  in  1838  he  pro- 
duced his  first  opera,  Giovanni  da  Procida, 
in  which  he  sang  the  title-role,  and  from 
that  time,  for  more  than  thirty  years,  wrote 
ojieras  for  the  theatres  of  Italy  and  Paris. 
After  the  Revolution  of  1848  he  went  to 
Paris  as  plenipotentiary  of  the  Grand  Duke 
of  Tuscan^',  and  was  made  senator  under  the 
empire.  After  Sedan  he  followed  Napoleon 
in.  to  England,  and  was  on  the  eve  of  going 
to  America  professionally,  when  he  died. 
Works — Operas  :  Don  Desiderio,  Pisa,  1839  ; 
Ruy  Bias,  Lucca,  1842  ;  Bonifazio  dei  Gere- 
mei,  Rome,  1844  ;  I  Lambertazzi,  Florence, 
1845  ;  Malek-Adel,  Genoa,  1846  ;  Esmeralda, 
Leghorn,  1847  ;  La  sposa  d'  Abido,  Venice, 
1847  ;  Pierre  de  M6dicis,  Paris,  1860  ;  Au 


140 


PONS 


travers  du  mur,  ib.,  1861  ;  L'aventurier, 
ib.,  1865  ;  La  contessina,  ib.,  18G8  ;  Gel- 
mina,  London,  1872.  A  mass  in  F,  selec- 
tions ijlayed  at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre,  1873. 
His  song,  "  The  Yeoman's  Wedding,"  was  a 
favourite  in  England. — Grove  ;  Fc'tis  ;  do., 
Supplement,  ii.  360  ;  Sowiiiski,  462  ;  Mendel ; 
do.,  Ergiinz.,  361  ;  Clement,  Mus.  Cel.,  615. 

TONS,  J0Sl5,  born  at  Gerona,  Catalonia, 
Spain,  in  1768,  died  in  Valencia  in  1818. 
Comjjoser  of  vilhancicos,  or  Christmas  pieces, 
and  other  church  music,  pupil  at  Cordova  of 
Jaime  Baling.  He  was  maestro  de  capilla 
of  the  Cathedral  of  Gerona,  and  in  1793  ob- 
tained the  same  jjosition  at  the  Cathedral  of 
Valencia.  He  is  considered  by  Eslava  the 
representative  of  the  Catalan  school,  which 
is  entirely  different  from  the  Valencian. 
His  vilhancicos  were  veritable  biblical  dra- 
mas, in  the  shape  of  oratorios  with  jsarts  for 
voices,  orchestra,  or  organ  ;  they  are  said 
to  be  still  extensively  performed  in  his  own 
country.  Other  works  :  Miserere  for  Holy 
Week ;  Eslava  gives  a  letrilla  of  his,  O 
Madre,  for  8  voices,  in  Lira  sacro-hisiiana, 
iv. — Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

PONTOGLIO,  CIPKIANO,  born  at  Gru- 
mello  del  Piano,  Italy,  in  1831,  still  living, 
1890.  Dramatic  composer,  pu^jil  of  Antonio 
Cagnoni.  Works  :  Tebaldo  Brusato,  Bres- 
cia, 1865  ;  Don  Prospero  1'  ottimista,  Flor- 
ence, 1867 ;  La  schiava  greca,  Bergamo, 
1868  ;  La  notte  del  Natale,  ib.,  1872  ;  Eolla, 
ballet,  Naples,  1877. — Fetis,  Supplement,  ii. 
361. 

PONZIO,  PIETRO,  born  at  Parma,  Italy, 
March  25,  1532,  died  there,  Dec.  27, 
1596.  Church  composer  and  didactic 
writer  ;  became  maestro  di  cap23ella  of  the 
cathedral  at  Bergamo  in  1570,  of  Santa 
Ambrosia  in  Milan,  1581,  finally  of  the  Cap- 
pella  della  Steccata  in  his  native  city.  He 
is  less  known,  now,  by  his  compositions  than 
by  his  writings  on  music.  Works  :  Mis- 
sarum  4  voc.  (Venice,  1578)  ;  Missarum 
quinque  vocibus  (ib.,  1580)  ;  do.  (ib.,  1581)  ; 
do.  (ib.,  1585) ;  Psalmi  vespertini  totius  anui 
(ib.,    1578) ;  do.    (ib.,  1589) ;    Motettorum 


cum  quinque  vocibus  (ib.,  1582) ;  Missarum 
4  voc.  (ib.,  1584)  ;  Magnificat,  ib.,  1584 ; 
MisscB  6  e  8  voc.  (ib.,  1590)  ;  Hymni  solem- 
niores  ad  vespertinas  horas  canendi  (ib., 
1596).  His  theoretical  works  are  :  Ragio- 
namenti  di  musica,  etc.  (Parma,  1588) ;  Dia- 
logo  ove  si  tratta  deUa  teoria  e  pratica  di 
musica,  etc.  (ib.,  1595). — Fotis  ;  Mendel. 

POPOLI  DI  TESSAGLIA,  recitative  and 
aria  (lo  non  chiedo  eterni),  for  soprano 
with  orchestra,  in  C  minor  and  C,  text  from 
Calzabigi's  Alceste,  music  by  Mozart,  com- 
posed for  Aloysia  Weber,  in  Munich,  Jan. 
8,  1779.  Breitkopf  &  Hilrtel,  Mozart, 
Werke,  Serie  vi..  No.  19. — Kochel,  Verzeich- 
niss.  No.  316  ;  Andre,  No.  76  ;  Jahn,  Mo- 
zart, ii.  338. 

POPP,  WILHELM,  born  in  Prague, 
April  29, 1829,  still  living,  1890.  Flute  and 
pianoforte  virtuoso,  jjupil  of  Drouet,  C. 
Kummer,  and  A.  Spath.  At  first  Hof-pian- 
ist  in  Coburg,  then  travelled  in  Russia,  and 
since  1867  has  lived  in  Hamburg,  where  he 
is  solo  flute  of  the  Philharmonic  Society. 
He  has  written  more  than  three  hundred 
salon-  and  study-pieces  for  the  pianoforte 
and  flute. 

POPPER,  DAVID,  born  in  Prague,  June 
18,  1845,  still  living, 
1890.  Violoncellist, 
pupil  of  Goltermann 
at  the  Conserva- 
torium  in  Prague  ; 
since  1863  has  made 
concert  tours.  He 
received  the  appoint- 
meutof  chamber  vir- 
tuoso to  Prince  Ho- 
henzollern  ;  was  first 
violoncello  of  the  Vi- 
enna court  opera  in 
the  pianist,  Sophie  Menter,  in  1872.  Since 
1873  he  has  appeared  in  concerts  in  Lon- 
don, Paris,  St.  Petersburg,  Vienna,  Berlin, 
etc.  Works :  Concerto  for  violoncello  and 
orchestra ;  Mazurka,  gavotte,  polonaise, 
serenade,  and  other  pieces  for  violoncello. 
— Wurzbach  ;  Kiemann. 


■^^-^j. 


1868 


POPULUS 


POPULUS,  NICOLAS  ADOLPHE  AL- 
PHONSE,  born  at  Ai-cueil,  near  Pai-is,  in 
1831,  still  living,  1890.  Organist,  pupil  at 
the  maitrise  of  Saint-Jacques  du  Haut-Pas, 
■where  he  was  a  choir-boy,  then  pupil  of 
BiUard  on  the  pianoforte,  of  Elwart  and 
Charles  Maui-y  in  harmony,  of  Perez  y  Al- 
varez in  counterpoint,  and  of  Marius  Gueit 
on  the  organ.  When  only  fourteen  years  of 
age  he  became  assistant  organist  at  Saint- 
Jacques,  was  made  organist  at  Saint-Nicolas 
du  Chardonnet  in  1854,  at  Chaillot  in  1855, 
and  returned  to  Saint-Jacques  as  maitre  de 
chapelle.  He  is  also  professor  of  singing 
in  the  schools  of  Paris,  music  du-ector  of 
Sainte-Geneviove's  school,  and  professor  of 
pianoforte  and  singing  at  the  school  of  the 
Sacre-Coeur.  Works  :  Agar  et  Ismaiil,  bibli- 
cal scene  in  2  acts ;  Several  masses,  for  3  and 
4  voices,  with  organ  and  orchestra  ;  Motets 
for  chorus,  etc.  ;  Chants  Hturgiques,  for  2 
and  3  voices,  with  organ  ;  Rupertoire  de 
chants  patriotiques,  choruses  for  4  voices  ; 
Recueil  de  24  miJlodies  religieuses ;  Mi'lo- 
dies  vocales,  organ  and  pianoforte  music. 
— Fctis,  Supplement,  ii.  3G1. 

PORGI  AMOR.     See  Nozze  di  Figaro. 

PORO  (Porus),  Italian  opera  in  three 
acts,  text  from  Metastasio's  Aleifsandro  nell' 
ludie,  which  Handel  cut  freely,  music  by 
Handel,  first  represented  at  the  King's 
Theatre,  Loudon,  Feb.  2,  1731.  The  orig- 
inal autograph,  in  Buckingham  Palace,  is 
dated  at  the  end  of  the  first  act,  Dec.  23, 
1730  ;  at  the  end  of  the  second,  30  Dee. 
1730  ;  and  at  the  end  of  the  third.  Fine 
dell'  opera  Poro,  Jan.  IG,  1731.  It  was  re- 
ceived with  great  favour,  and  was  revived 
in  1736.  Original  cast  :  Poro,  King  of 
India,  lover  of  Cleofide  (C),  Signor  Se- 
nesino  ;  Cleofide,  Queen  of  another  part 
of  India,  in  love  with  Poro  (S.),  Signora 
Sti-ada  ;  Gandarte,  general  of  Poro's  army 
and  lover  of  Erissena  (A.),  Signor  Bertolli ; 
Erissena,  Poro's  sister,  promised  to  Gan- 
darte (A),  Signora  Merighi  ;  Alessandro, 
the  Macedonian  King  (T.),  Signor  Annibale 
Pio  Fabri ;  and  Timagene,  Alexander's  gen- 


eral and  favourite,  but  his  secret  enemy 
(B.),  Signor  Comano.  This  opera  contains 
some  fine  duets  and  a  bravura  song  of  ex- 
traordinary dilficultj',  "  Serbati  a  grandi 
imprese,"  for  Alessandro.  It  was  performed 
in  Hamburg  as  Cleofide  in  1732.  Published 
by  W'alsh,  and  the  fourth  edition  contained 
three  interpolated  airs  by  other  composers, 
and  one  taken  fi-om  Siroe,  "  Torreute  cres- 
ciuto  per  torbida  plena."  Edited  by  Chry- 
sander  for  the  Hiindelgesellschaft  (vol. 
79),  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel  (Leipsic,  18G1). 
— Chrysander,  Handel,  ii.  244  ;  Rockstro, 
1G7  ;  Burney,  iv.  350. 
PORPORA,  NICCOLO  (Niccola)  AN- 
TONIO, born  in 
Najiles,  Aug.  19, 
1G86,  died  there, 
February,  17G6 
(17G7?).  His  Chris- 
tian name  is  spelled 
Niccola  in  his  auto- 
graphs, but  Niccolo 
on  the  title-pages  of 
all  works  published 
by  himself.  H  i  a 
"~  "     father,  a  bookseller, 

sent  him  to  the  Conservatorio  di  San  Loreto, 
where  he  studied  under  Gaetano  Greco, 
Padre  Gaetano  of  Perugia,  and  Francesco 
Mancini.  His  first  opera,  Basilio,  re  d'  Ori- 
ente,  was  brought  out  at  the  Teatro  de' 
Fiorentini  in  1709,  and  he  was  apjiointed 
maestro  di  cappella  to  the  Portuguese  am- 
bassador. His  Berenice,  given  the  next 
year  at  the  Teatro  Capranica,  Rome,  was 
praised  by  Handel.  In  1719  he  was  ap- 
pointed master  at  the  Conservatorio  di  San 
Onofrio,  for  which  he  wrote  in  1722  an 
oratorio,  II  martirio  di  Santa  Eugenia ;  the 
year  before  he  had  been  made  virtuoso  to 
the  Prince  of  Hesse-Darmstadt.  He  had 
already  established  his  famous  school  of 
singing,  to  which  Hasse  came  as  a  pupU  in 
1724,  though  he  soon  left  it  to  study  under 
Alessandro  Scarlatti,  a  sHght  which  Porpora 
never  forgave  him.  In  1725  he  went  to 
Venice,  where  he  wag  made  a  teacher   at 


142 


PORPOEA 


the  singing  school  for  girls,  La  Pieti,  and 
thence  to  Vienna,  where  hia  music  did  not 
meet  with  the  success  lie  had  anticijjated, 
the  Emperor  Karl  VI.  not  liking  his  florid 
vocal  writing.  He  soon  returned  to  Venice, 
and  was  appointed  master  of  the  Scuola 
degl'  Incurabili,  for  the  pupils  of  which  he 
wrote  his  vocal  cantatas,  twelve  of  which 
were  published  in  London  in  1735.  In 
1728  he  set  out  for  Dresden,  on  the  invita- 
tion of  the  Electoral  Princess  Marie  An- 
toinette, who  was  anxious  to  take  lessons 
of  him.  On  the  way  he  stojJlJed  in  Vienna, 
where,  owing  to  the  protection  of  the  Vene- 
tian ambassador,  he  got  an  order  from  the 
Emperor  for  an  oratorio.  He  was  well  re- 
ceived in  Dresden,  where  he  sustained  a 
brisk  rivah-y  with  Hasse  and  his  wife  Faus- 
tina ;  but  he  obtained  frequent  leave  of  ab- 
sence, retui-ning  to  Venice  in  1729,  and 
going  to  London  the  same  year  to  maintain 
for  a  short  time  an  unsuccessful  rivalry 
with  Handel.  He  even  had  his  Dresden 
engagement  cancelled  in  order  to  stay  in 
London  ;  but  made  at  least  two  trips  to 
Venice  (in  1731  and  1733),  notwithstanding, 
to  bring  out  ojjeras  there.  In  173G  he  fi- 
nally quitted  London,  and  established  him- 
self in  Venice,  where  he  became  director  of 
the  Conservatorio  dell'  Ospedaletto.  In 
1845  he  went  a  third  time  to  Vienna,  in  the 
suite  of  the  Venetian  ambassador  Correr, 
published  there  some  sonatas  for  violin 
with  continuo,  and  was  made  Kapellmeister 
to  the  King  of  Poland.  It  was  on  this 
visit  that  he  met  and  gave  advice  to  the 
young  Haj-dn.  He  returned  to  Naples  in 
1755  or  1760,  and  succeeded  Abos  as  maes- 
tro di  cappella  at  the  Conservatorio  di  San 
Onofrio.  But  he  had  outlived  his  poi^u- 
larity  as  a  composer,  and  his  last  opera, 
Camillo,  was  a  failure.  After  this  he  wrote 
only  a  little  church  music.  His  last  years 
were  passed  in  gi-eat  poverty.  The  cause 
of  his  death  has  been  stated  by  Villarosa  as 
pleurisy,  and  by  Gazzaniga  as  an  accident 
to  his  leg.  His  burial  expenses  were  paid 
by  subscription   by  Neapolitan  musicians. 


Porpora  has  lived  in  history  rather  as  a 
great  singing  teacher  than  as  a  composer  ; 
he  was  a  cultivated  man,  well  up  in  Latiu 
and  Italian  literature,  and  sjDeaking  French, 
German,  and  English  fluently.  His  operas, 
by  no  means  his  best  works,  were  popular 
in  their  day,  though  mostly  short-lived.  As 
a  teacher  of  singing  he  has  never  had  a  peer  ; 
among  his  pupils  being  Farinelh,  Caflarelli, 
Uberti,  and  others  of  the  greatest  singers 
of  all  time.  "Works — I.  Ojieras  :  Dasilio, 
re  d'  Oriente,  Naples,  Teatro  de'  Fiorentini, 

1709  ;  Berenice,  Kome,    Teatro   Caprauica, 

1710  ;  Flavio  Anicio  Olibrio,  Naples,  1711  ; 
Arianna  e  Teseo,  Vienna,  Oct.  1,  1714  ;  Te- 
mistocle,  ib.,  Oct.  1,  1718  ;  Faramondo, 
Naples,  1719  ;  Angelica  (serenata),  Vienna, 
Nov.  19,  1720  ;  Eumene,  Rome,  1721  ;  Issi- 
pile,  ib.,  1723 ;  Adelaide,  ib.,  1723  ;  Farnace, 
ib.,  1724  ;  Damiro  e  Pitia,  Munich,  1724  ; 
Germanicoiu  Germania,  Home,  1725  ;  S/face, 
Venice,  1726  ;  Imeneo  in  Atene,  ib.,  1726  ; 
Meride  e  Selinuute,  ib.,  1727  ;  Ezio,  ib., 
1728  ;  Semimmide  riconosciuta,  ib.,  1729  ; 
Ermenegilda,  Naples,  1729  ;  Tamerlano, 
Dresden,  1730  ;  Alessandro  nell'  Indie,  ib., 
about  1730  ;  Andromeda,  about  1730  ;  Anni- 
bale,  Venice,  1731  ;  Arbace,  London,  1733  ; 
Mitridate,  Venice,  1733  ;  Ariadne,  London, 
1733  ;  Ferdinaudo,  ib.,  1734  ;  Polifemo,  ib., 
1735  ;  Aijrippina,  about  1735  ;  Ifigenia  in 
Aulide,  London,  1735 ;  Eosbale,  Venice, 
173G  ;  Lucio  Papirio,  ib.,  1737  ;  Carlo  il 
Calvo,  ib.,  1738  ;  P  barone  di  Zampano, 
Naples,  1739  ;  Didone  abbandonata,  about 
1740  ;  Statira,  Venice,  1742  (?)  ;  Rosmane, 
Vienna,  Feb.  3  (?),  1742  ;  Partenope,  Na- 
ples, about  1742  ;  Le  nozze  d'  Ercole  e 
d'  Ebe,  Venice,  1744  ;  Filandro,  Dresden, 
July  18,  1747;  Tolomeo,  re  d'  Egitto, 
about  1760  ;  P  trionfo  di  Camillo,  Naj^les, 
1760. 

H.  Oratorios :  Gedeone  ;  II  martirio  di 
Santa  Eugenia ;  II  martirio  di  8.  Giovanni 
Nepomucene  ;  II  Verbo  incarnato  ;  Davide 
(London,  1735)  ;  II  trionfo  della  divina 
giustizia  ;  Oratorio,  title  unknown,  written 
in  Vienna  for  the  Emperor  Karl  VI.,  and 


143 


PORSILE 


many  cantatas,  twelve  of  which  were  pub- 
lished in  London  (1735). 

TTT.  Church  music  :  Mass  for  five  voices, 
without  orchestra  ;  Mass  for  five  voices,  two 
violins,  viola,  and  bass  ;  Mass  for  two  chor- 
uses, four  voices  di  ripieno,  with  orchestra 
(Lauuei-,  Paris)  ;  In  exitu  Israel,  for  two 
choruses  ;  Confitebor,  for  two  choruses,  two 
violins,  viola,  and  organ  ;  Domine  probasti 
me,  for  two  soprani,  two  contralti,  two  vio- 
lins, viola,  and  organ  ;  In  te,  Domine, 
speravi,  for  five  voices,  two  violins,  viola, 
and  organ  ;  Qui  habitat,  for  two  soprani, 
two  contralti,  violins,  viola,  and  organ  ; 
Magnificat,  for  two  choruses ;  Dixit,  for 
four  voices,  two  violins,  and  organ  ;  Dixit, 
for  four  voices ;  Stabat,  for  two  soprani, 
two  contralti,  two  violins,  viola,  and  or- 
gan ;  Sis  duos  for  soprani  on  the  Passion 
for  Holy  Week  ;  Lessons  for  the  funeral 
service  ;  Laudate,  pueri,  Dominum,  for  four 
voices,  violin,  viola,  and  oboe  ;  Te  Deum, 
four  voices  and  orchestra  ;  In  te,  Domine, 
speravi,  four  voices  ;  Beatus  vir,  four  voices  ; 
Credidi,  four  voices ;  Lauda,  Jerusalem, 
four  voices  ;  Lictatus  sum,  two  choruses 
with  violins  ;  In  convertendo,  four  voices  ; 
Cum  invocarem,  four  voices  ;  Nunc  dimittis, 
five  voices  ;  Do  profundis,  four  voices ; 
Confitebor,  four  voices  ;  Nisi  Dominus,  four 
voices  ;  Introduzione  al  salmo  Miserere,  for 
two  soprani,  two  alti,  and  orchestra  ;  Lit- 
anies for  four  voices  ;  Salve  Eegina,  one 
voice  with  instruments,  original  MS.  form- 
erly in  the  collection  of  Aloys  Fuchs  (Vienna); 
2  Kegina  Ca'li,  one  voice  with  instruments. 

rV.  Instrumental  works :  G  symphonies 
da  camera,  for  two  violins,  violoncello,  and 
bass  (London,  173G) ;  12  sonatas  for  the 
violin  and  bass  (Vienna,  1754,  also  in  Paris)  ; 
G  fugues  for  the  clavecin  first  published  in 
dementi's  Practical  Harmony  (4  vols.,  Lon- 
don), also  in  Farrenc's  Tresor  des  pianistes. 
Biografica  degli  uomini.  .  .  Napoli  (Na- 
l^les,  1819).  —  Fetis,  vii.  ;  Clement,  Mus. 
celebres. 

PORSILE,  GIUSEPPE,  born  in  Naples 
in   1672,  died   in  Vienna,   May  29,    1750. 


Dramatic  composer,  maestro  de  capilla  in 
the  service  of  Chai-les  11.  of  Spain  ;  returned 
to  Naples  in  1700,  and  was  called  to  Vienna 
in  1713  as  music-master  to  the  Archduchess 
Josephine,  subsequently  being  appointed 
composer  to  the  court.  Works — Operas  : 
Sisara,  given  in  Vienna,  1719  ;  Meride  e 
Selinunte,  1721  ;  Spartaco,  1726  ;  I  due  re, 
Roboamo  e  Geroboamo,  1731  ;  Giusepi^eri- 
conosciuto,  1733.  Twelve  oratorios,  9  ser- 
enades.— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

PORTA,  Fra  COSTANZO,  born  at  Cre- 
mona, Italy,  first  half  of  the  IGth  cen- 
tury, died  at  Loreto  in  IGOl.  Church 
comjjoser  and  contrapuntist,  pupil  of  Ad- 
rian Willaert  in  Venice.  He  was  a  Fran- 
ciscan monk  and  maestro  di  cappella  of  the 
convent  of  his  order  in  Padua,  then  at  the 
Cathedral  of  Osimo,  the  Metropolitan 
Church  of  Ravenna,  and  lastly  of  the  Santa 
Casa  di  Loreto.  He  had  several  celebrated 
pujjils,  and  was  one  of  the  musicians  who 
dedicated  a  collection  of  jJsalms  to  Pales- 
trina.  His  works  are  grave  in  style,  and 
he  was  especially  careful  to  preserve  their 
modality  intact.  Works  :  Five  books  of 
motets  (\'cnice,  1555  to  1585) ;  1  book 
masses  (ib.,  1578)  ;  2  books  of  introitus, 
(15GG,  1589)  ;  4  books  of  madrigals  (1555, 
158G)  ;  Psalms  (1G05)  ;  Hymns  (1G02). 
Padre  Martini  possessed  a  MS.  of  Lamen- 
tationeset  Madrigali,  and  a  treatise  :  Instru- 
zione  di  contrappunto.  Other  Composi- 
tions are  in  the  old  collections  published  in 
Venice  and  Antweii^  in  the  16th  century. 
Padre  Martini  has  given  specimens  of  his 
works  in  Saggio  fondamentale  pratico  di 
contrappunto,  which  Clioron  reproduced  in 
Principes  decomposition  des  ecoles  dltalie. 
Hawkins  also  has  inserted  specimens  in  his 
General  History  of  Music  (i.  112-115). 
— Fc'tis  ;  Burney,  Hist.,  iii.  225  ;  Riemann  ; 
Mendel ;  Gerber  ;  Schilling;  Ambros,  Gesch. 

PORTA,  FRANCESCO  DELLA,  born  in 
Milan  about  1590,  died  there  in  1666. 
Organist  and  church  composer,  pupil  of 
Ripalta.  He  was  organist  of  several 
churches   in   Milan.     Works :  Villanelle  a 


144 


PORTA 


1-3  voci  (Rome,  1619) ;  Salmi  da  cappella 
(1637)  ;  Motetti  (Venice,  1645,  and  Ant- 
werp, 1654)  ;  Ricercari  (Milan).  He  was 
one  of  the  first  comiDOsers  to  make  practical 
use  of  the  basso  continuo. — Fetis ;  Rie- 
mann  ;  Jlendel  ;  ScLilling  ;  Gerber. 

PORTA,  GIOVANNI,  boru  in  Venice, 
end  of  tlie  17th 
century,  died  in 
Munich  iu  1755. 
Dramatic  composer, 
at  first  music  di- 
rector to  Cardinal 
Ottoboni  ;  he  re- 
turned to  Venice  in 
1716,  and  for 
twenty  years  was 
chorus-master  at  the  Conservatorio  della 
Pieta.  After  the  death  of  Biffi  he  com- 
peted for  the  position  of  maestro  di  cap- 
pella at  S.  Marco,  but  failing  to  obtain 
it,  went  to  London,  which  he  had  visited 
before  in  1729.  In  1737  he  was  appointed 
Kapellmeister  to  the  Elector  of  Bavaria. 
Works — Operas  :  La  costanza  combattuta 
in  amore,  Venice,  1716  ;  Agrippa,  ib.,  1717  ; 
L'  amor  di  figlia,  ib.,  1718  ;  Teodorico,  ib., 
1720  ;  L'  amor  tiranno  (with  Chelleri),  ib., 

1722  ;  Rea  Silvia,  ossia  Romolo  e  Remo,  ib., 

1723  ;  Gli  sforzi  d'  ambizione  e  d'  amore, 
ib.,  1724  ;  Antigone,  tutore  di  Filippo  (with 
Albinoui),   ib.,   1724 ;    Marianna   (do.),   ib., 

1724  ;  Agide,  re  di  Sparta,  Ulisse,  ib.,  1725  ; 
II  trionfo  di  Flavio  Olibrio,  ib.,  1726  ;  Al- 
deso,  ib.,  1727 ;  Amor  e  Fortuna,  Nel  per- 
dono  la  vendetta,  ib.,  1728 ;  Doriclea  ripudi- 
ata  da  Creso,  ib.,  1729  ;  II  gran  Tamerlano, 
Florence,  1730  ;  Farnace,  Bologna,  1731  ; 
Numitor,  London,  1738  ;  Ifigenia  iu  Aulide, 
Dafne,  Munich,  1738 ;  Artaserse,  Munich, 
1739.  Magnificat  for  4  voices  and  orchestra ; 
Motet  for  soprano,  2  violins,  viola,  and  bass. 
— Fetis  ;  Schilling. 

PORTER,  WALTER,  born  iu  England 
about  end  of  16th  centurj',  died  in  No- 
vember, 1659.  Comjjoser  of  motets,  son 
of  Henry  Porter  (Mus.  Bac,  Oxford,  1600) ; 
Gentleman  of  the  Chapel  Royal  in  1616  ; 


master  of  the  choristers  of  Westminster 
Abbey  iu  1639.  In  1644,  after  losing  both 
his  f)laces  on  the  suppression  of  choral  ser- 
vice, he  found  a  patron  in  Sir  Edward  Spen- 
cer. Works  :  Madrigales  and  Ayres  of  two, 
three,  foure  and  five  voyces,  with  the  con- 
tinued bass,  with  Toccatos,  Sinfonias,  and 
Rittoruelles  to  them  after  the  manner  of 
Consort  Musique.  To  bo  performed  with 
the  Harpsechord,  Lutes,  Theorbos,  Basse- 
Violl,  two  Violins  or  two  Viols  (1632) ;  Mot- 
tets  of  Two  Voyces  for  Treble,  or  Tenor  and 
Bass,  with  the  Continued  Bass  or  Score. 
To  be  performed  to  an  Oi'gau,  Harpsycon, 
Lute,  or  Bass-Viol  (1057);  The  Psalms  of 
George  Sandys,  set  to  Music  for  two  Voyces, 
with  a  Thorough-bass  for  the  organ  (1670). 
Hawkins  and  Burney  mention  a  collection 
of  Airs  and  Madrigals  for  two,  three,  four, 
and  five  Voices,  with  a  thorough-bass  for 
the  organ,  or  Theorbo-Lute,  the  Italian  Way 
(1639),  possiblj'  a  2d  edition  of  the  first- 
mentioned  work. — Grove  ;  Mendel  ;  Schil- 
ling. 

PORTEUR  D'EAU,  LE.  See  Deux 
journces. 

PORTUGAL  (DA  FONSECA),  (Porto- 
gallo),  MARCOS  ANTONIO,  boru  in  Lis- 
bon, March  24,  1762,  died  at  Rio  de  Janeiro, 
Feb.  7,  1830.  Dramatic  comxjoser  ;  learnt 
the  rudiments  of  music  in  the  theological 
seminary  where  he  was  educated,  became 
a  jjupil  of  Borselli,  of  the  Opera,  for  singing, 
and  of  Galluo,  mestre  de  capella  of  the  ca- 
thedral, in  counterjjoint.  While  studying, 
he  composed  Italian  canzonette  and  airs 
with  orchestra  which  were  produced  at  the 
Lisbon  theatre.  He  followed  Borselli  to 
Madrid,  and  became  accompanist  there  at 
the  Opera.  The  Portuguese  ambassador 
sent  him  iu  1787  to  Italy  to  study,  and  in 
the  following  year  he  wrote  his  first  opera, 
for  Turin.  In  1789  and  1790  he  composed 
other  successful  operas  for  Venice  and  Flor- 
ence, and  thoroughly  established  his  repu- 
tation in  Italy.  He  paid  a  visit  to  Lisbon 
iu  1790,  when  the  king  made  him  his  mestre 
de  capella ;   during  the  years  following  he 


145 


PORTUGUESE 


brought  out  many  of  his  operas  in  Italy,  and 
returned  to  Lisbon  in  1799.  In  1810  lie 
followed  the  royal  family  of  Portugal,  which 
had  gone  to  BrazU  at  the  time  of  the 
French  invasion  in  1807,  and  was  made 
music  director-general  in  1811 ;  conjointly 
with  his  brother  Simao,  he  assumed,  in  1813, 
the  direction  of  the  newly  founded  Conser- 
vatorio  at  Vera  Cruz.  After  a  last  visit  to 
Italy,  in  1815,  he  returned  to  Rio  de  Janeiro. 
He  was  the  most  distinguished  composer 
Portugal  has  produced.  Works — Operas  : 
Pequeno  drama,  Lisbon,  Dec.  17,  1787,  for 
the  birthday  of  Queen  Maria  I.  ;  Licenya 
pastoril,  ib.,  1787  ;  Idylio,  ib.,  1788,  for  the 
name-day  of  the  Infanta  Carlotta  Joaquina  ; 
L'  eroe  cinese,  Turin,  1788  ;  La  bacchetta 
portentosa,  Genoa,  1788  ;  Gratidiio,  Lisbon, 

1789  ;  A  inveja  abatida,  ib..  May  13,  1789  ; 
A  noiva  fiugida,  ib.,  1790  ;  Os  viajantes 
ditosos,    ib.,     1790  ;    L'   astuto,   Florence, 

1790  ;  II  molinaro,  Venice,  1790,  Breslau, 
1792  ;  La  donna  di  genio  volubile,  Parma, 

1791,  Venice,   179G  ;   A   mascara,    Lisbon, 

1792,  and  Venice,  in  Italian,  as  La  maschera 
fortunata,  1797  ;  H  Ciuna,  Florence,  1793  ; 
I  due  gobbi,  ossia  le  coufusioni  nate  dalla 
somiglianza,  ib.,  1793,  Vienna,  1794  ;  Ei- 
naldo  d'  Asti,  Venice,  1793  ;  H  principe  di 
Sj^azzacamino,  ib.,  1793,  St.  Petersburg, 
about  1795,  and  Lisbon,  as  H  barono  di  S., 
May  27,  1799 ;  La  vedova  raggiratrice, 
Florence,  1794  ;  Demofoonte,  Milan,  1794  ; 
Argenide,  St.  Petersburg,  1794-95  ;  Arta- 
serse,  ib.,  1794-95 ;  H  ritorno  di  Serse, 
Florence  and  Bologna,  1795  ;  Gli  avventu- 
rieri,  Florence,  1795 ;  O  mundo  da  lua, 
Lisbon,  about  1795  ;  Zulema  e  Selinio, 
Florence,  1796  ;  L'  iugauno  poco  dura, 
Naples,  1796  ;  II  diavolo  a  quattro,  ossia  le 
donne  cambiate,  Venice,  1797,  and  IVIilan, 
as  II  ciabottino,  1801  ;  Fernando  in  Mes- 
sico,  Rome,  1797  ;  II  filosofo  seduceute, 
ossia  non  irritar  le  donne,  Venice,  1798, 
and  Paris,  1801  ;  L'  equivoco  in  equivoco, 
Verona,  1798  ;  La  madre  virtuosa  (amoi-osa), 
Venice,  1798,  and  Lisbon,  as  La  morte  di 
Semiramide,  1801  ;  Alceste,  Venice,  about 


1799  ;  Idonte,  ossia  il  sacrifizio  d'  Ecate, 
Milan,  1799  ;  Gli  Orazi  ed  i  Curiazi,  Fer- 
rara,  1799  ;  Adrasto,  Lisbon,  1800  ;  L'  isola 
piacevole,  ib.,  1801  ;  A  casa  de  campo,  ib., 
1802  ;  Quern  busca  lii  fica  tosquiado,  ib., 
1802  ;  O  sapateiro,  ib.,  1802  ;  Sofonisba, 
ib.,  1803 ;  II  trionfo  di  Clelia,  ib.,  1803  ; 
Zaira,  ib.,  1803  ;  Oro  non  compra  amore, 
ib.,  1804  ;  Merope,  ib.,  1804-5  ;  Ginevi-a  di 
Scozia,  ib.,  1805  ;  Hduca  diFoix,  ib.,  1805  ; 
La  morte  di  Mitridate,  ib.,  1806  ;  Augurio 
di  felicita,  ossia  il  trionfo  dell'  amore,  Rio 
de  Janeiro,  1807  ;  II  trionfo  di  Gusmano, 
Lisbon,  1810  ;  A  saloia  namorada,  Rio  de 
Janeiro,  1812  ;  O  juramento  dos  numes, 
ib.,  1813  ;  Adriano  in  Siria,  Milan,  1815. 
Several  operettas,  burlesques,  etc.,  given 
at  Lisbon  and  Rio  de  Janeiro,  5  great 
masses  with  orchestra,  5  masses  with  organ  ; 
2  Te  Deum  with  orchestra  ;  Psalms  with 
do.  ;  Misereres,  etc. — Vasconcellos  ;  Rie- 
mann. 

PORTUGUESE  HYMN  (Adeste  fideles). 
Its  origin  is  unknown,  but  it  is  supposeel  to 
have  been  first  sung  in  England  in  the  Roman 
CathoUc  chaj^el  attached  to  the  Portuguese 
embassy,  from  which  it  takes  its  name.  The 
tune  has  been  attributed  to  John  Reading, 
who  wrote  "  Dulce  domum,"  and  also  to  a 
Mr.  Thorley,  an  English  organist.  It  is  con- 
tained in  the  modern  Latin  INIanual  of  De- 
votions of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  en- 
titled, "  Thesaurus  Animas  Christianaj,"  pub- 
lished by  C.  Dolman  (London,  1857),  and  a 
note  in  this  book  claims  it  to  be  a  sequence 
for  the  Nativity  of  Christ,  taken  from  the 
Gradual  of  the  Cistercian  monks. — Notes 
and  Queries,  Fourth  Series,  i.  12,  186;  si. 
75,  219. 

POSTILLON  DE  LONJHMEAU,  LE, 
opera-comique  in  three  acts,  text  by  Adoljahe 
de  Leuven  and  Brunswick,  music  by  Adolphe 
Adam,  first  represented  at  the  Ojsera  Co- 
mique,  Paris,  Oct.  13,  1836,  with  gi-eat  suc- 
cess. A  postillion  of  Lonjumcau  marries 
a  young  peasant,  Madeleine,  of  the  same 
village,  and  immediately  after  the  cere- 
mony the  guests  force  him  to  sing  to  them. 


146 


rOTIER 


The  intendant-general  of  Louis  XV.,  in 
search  of  a  tenor  for  the  Academie  Royale 
de  Musique,  hears  the  voice  of  the  young 
bridegroom,  and  is  so  pleased  that  he  bears 
him  away  to  Paris.  The  abandoned  bride 
goes  to  ile-de-FrancQ  with  an  old  aunt, 
who  dies  and  leaves  her  a  fortune.  After 
ten  years  have  elapsed,  during  which  time 
she  has  educated  herself,  Madeleine  goes 
to  Paris,  where  she  is  received  at  court. 
At  the  Opura  she  recognizes  the  first  tenor 
Saint-Phal  as  her  husband,  and  he  falls  in 
love  with  hei-.  They  are  married,  and  the 
fact  that  Saint-Phal  is  a  bigamist  is  discov- 
ered. He  is  seized,  and  at  this  moment  his 
wife  comes  forward  in  the  habit  of  a  jJeas- 
ant,  and  thus  Saint-Phal  discovers  that  he 
has  twice  married  the  same  woman,  who 
now  brings  him  love,  beauty,  and  wealth. 
The  chief  numbers  are  :  "  Combattons,  chan- 
tons,"  sung  by  Henri ;  the  couplets,  "  Oh  ! 
qu'il  est  beau,  le  postilion  de  Lonju- 
meau  ; "  and  the  air,  "  Mon  petit  mari." 
The  opera  was  given  in  Berlin,  Dresden, 
Leipsic,  and  Vienna  in  1837,  and  first  in 
New  York  in  1839.  Published  by  Schott 
(Mainz,  1836) ;  overture  for  pianoforte  by 
Ch.  Rummel  (ib.,  1837)  ;  German  transla- 
tion by  M.  G.  Priedrich  (ib.,  1837).  Ital- 
ian operas,  H  postiglione  di  Lonjumeau, 
by  Coppola,  Milan,  Nov.  6,  1838  ;  by  Spe- 
ranza,  Lucca,  1842. — Eevue  et  Gaz.  mus.  de 
Paris  (1836-37),  367  ;  (1880),  329  ;  Neue 
Zeitschr.,  vii.  110  ;  Ciicilia,  xis.  19G. 

POTTER,  HENRI  HIPPOLYTE,  born  in 
Paris,  Feb.  10,  1816,  died  there,  Oct.  9, 
1878.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  at  the 
Conservatoire  of  Amedce  in  solfege,  of  Zim- 
merman on  the  pianoforte  (2d  prize,  1830  ; 
first,  1831),  of  Dourlen  and  Lecouppey  in 
harmony  (first  prize,  1832) ;  he  then  stud- 
ied counterpoint  and  fugue  for  five  years, 
and,  on  leaving  the  Conservatoire  in  1837, 
began  to  teach  and  to  compose.  In  1850-56 
he  was  chef  de  chant  at  the  Opera,  and  in 
1875  became  professor  of  singing  at  the 
Conservatoire.  Works:  Mademoiselle  de 
Merauges,  at  the  Opera   Comique,    1841  ; 


Le  caquet  dn  convent,  ib.,  184G  ;  II  signor 
Pascariello,  ib.,  1848  ;  Le  vieux  prix  de 
Rome,  Theatre  Beaumarchais,  1849  ;  Ji^lia 
et  Mysis,  ou  I'Atellane,  ballet,  Opera,  1853  ; 
Le  rosier.  Opera  Comique,  1859 ;  L'ange 
de  Rothesay,  Theatre  International,  18G7  ; 
Madelaiue,  Bouffes-Parisiens,  1869  ;  Le 
bailly  de  Suresnes,  Le  fabliau,  Volage  et 
jaloux,  not  given. — Fetis  ;  do.,  Supplement, 
ii.  363. 

POTT,  AUGUST,  born  at  Nordheim,  Han- 
over, Nov.  7,  1806,  died  in  Gratz,  Styria, 
Aug.  27,  1883.  VioHuist,  pupil  of  Spohr  at 
Cassel,  where  also  he  made  his  first  appear- 
ance in  1824  ;  after  travelling  iu  Denmark, 
Germany,  and  Austria,  he  became  Conzert- 
meister  in  1832  in  the  grand  ducal  orches- 
tra at  Oldenburg.  In  1861  he  was  pen- 
sioned, and  retired  to  Gratz.  Works  :  2 
concertos  for  violin  and  orchestra  ;  Varia- 
tions for  do.  ;  do.  for  violin,  with  violin, 
violoncello,  and  bass  ;  Duos  for  violins,  etc. 
— Mendel  ;  Riemaun. 

POTTER,  (PHILIP)  CIPRIANI  (HAM- 
BLY),  born  in  Lon- 
don in  179  2,  died 
there,  Sept.  26,  1871. 
Pianist  and  conduc- 
tor ;  began  his  musi- 
cal education  at  seven 
under  his  father,  a 
teacher  of  pianoforte  ; 
then  studied  counter- 
point under  Attwood, 
theory  under  Callcott 
and  Crotch,  and   the 

pianoforte  under  Woelfil.  In  1816  an 
overture  by  him  was  performed  by  the 
Philharmonic  Society,  and  he  made  his  first 
appearance  in  the  same  year  at  that  so- 
ciety's concert,  playing  a  sextet  of  his  own 
for  pianoforte  and  stringed  instruments. 
He  then  went  to  Vienna,  studied  composi- 
tion under  FOrster,  and  received  friendly 
advice  from  Beethoven  ;  after  visiting  Ger- 
many and  Italy,  he  returned  in  1821  to 
Loudon.  In  1822  he  was  appointed  pro- 
fessor of  pianoforte  at  the  Royal  Academy 


147 


rouGm 


of  Music,  and  in  1832,  on  the  resignation 
of  Dr.  Crotch,  he  succeeded  him  as  prin- 
cipal until  1859,  when  he  resigned  in  favour 
of  Charles  Lucas.  Works  :  9  symphonies 
for  full  orchestra  (JVLS.,  6  in  Philharmonic 
library)  ;  4  overtures  (MS.,  3  in  ib.)  ;  3  con- 
certos for  pianoforte  and  orchestra  (MS.)  ; 
Concertante  for  pianoforte  and  violoncello  ; 
Medora  e  Coi-rado,  cantata  ;  Sextet  for  pi- 
anoforte, flute,  violin,  viola,  violoncello,  and 
double-bass,  op.  11  ;  3  trios  for  pianoforte, 
violin,  and  violoncello,  op.  12  ;  3  sonatas  for 
pianoforte  ;  9  rondos  ;  2  toccatas,  in  G  and 
B-flat,  for  pianoforte  ;  Variations,  fantasias, 
romances,  etc.  He  published  also  two 
books  of  studies  for  pianoforte,  contributed 
to  musical  periodicals,  and  edited  the  Com- 
plete Pianoforte  Works  of  Mozart  (Novello), 
and  Schumann's  Album  fiU-  die  Jugend 
(1857). — Grove  ;  Fotis  ;  Riemann. 

POUGIN,  (FE.iX^'OIS  AUGUSTE)  AR- 
THUR (PARROISSE-),  born  at  Chateauroux 
(ludre),  Aug.  G,  1834,  still  living,  1890.  In- 
strumental and  vocal  composer,  though  best 
known  as  historian  and  critic,  and  as  com- 
piler of  the  Supplement  to  Fctis'sBiograpliio 
dcs  musicieus  (Paris,  1878-80).  The  son  of 
an  itinerant  actor,  he  was  first  instructed  in 
music  by  his  mother,  a  good  amateur ;  at 
eight  he  took  up  the  study  of  the  violin,  and 
in  184G  entered  the  Paris  Conservaloiro  as 
a  pupil  of  Gui'rin  and  Alard.  From  the  ago 
of  thirteen  ho  plaj-ed  in  the  orchestras  of 
theatres,  at  the  same  time  studying  counter- 
point and  harmony  under  Albert  Lhote, 
and  the  violin  under  Berou  ;  he  then  re- 
entered the  Conservatoire,  to  study  har- 
mony under  Reber,  and  in  1855  became 
conductor  at  the  Th6;itre  Beaumarchais,  and 
soon  afterwards  first  violin  at  the  Musaril 
Concerts,  where  some  of  his  compositions 
were  played.  In  1856-59  he  was  vice-con- 
ductor and  rc'putiteur  at  the  Folies  Nou- 
velles,  and  in  1860-G3  violinist  at  the  Opera 
Comique.  In  1859  he  began  his  first  his- 
torical sketches  and  biographical  articles 
on  the  French  musicians  of  the  18th  cen- 
tury, and  since  then  has  devoted  himself  en- 


tirely to  literary  labours  and  has  published 
many  volumes.  Works  :  Le  cabaret  de 
Ramj^onneau,  opera-comique ;  Pieces  for 
orchestra ;  Morceau  de  concert  for  violin, 
with  orchestra  or  pianoforte  ;  Morceaux  de 
genre  for  pianoforte  ;  Vocal  melodies. — Fc- 
tis,  Supplement,  ii.  363  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz., 
362  ;  Riemann. 

POULE,  LA,  symphony  in  G  minor,  by 
Haydn,  written  for  Paris,  178G.  I.  Allegro 
spiritoso  ;  II.  Andante  ;  III.  Meiuietto,  al- 
legro ;  IV.  Finale,  vivace.  Published  by 
Simrock,  Berlin. 

POURQUOI  TREMBLER.     See  Zampa. 

POWELL,  THOMAS,  born  iu  Loudon 
in  1776,  died  in  Edinburgh  after  1863. 
Violoncellist ;  settled  in  Dublin  iu  1806  to 
teach,  and  later  removed  to  Edinburgh. 
In  1805  he  played  a  concerto  of  his  com- 
position at  the  Haymarket  Theatre,  Lon- 
don. Works  :  15  concertos  for  violin  and 
orchestra  ;  Overtures  for  orchestra  ;  3  duos 
for  violin  and  violoncello  ;  3  do.  for  2  violon- 
cellos ;  Sonatas  for  pianoforte,  violin,  and 
violoncello ;  do.  for  pianoforte  and  violon- 
cello ;  Capriccio  for  violoncello  ;  Introduc- 
tion and  fugue  for  organ,  etc. 

PRADHER  (Prad.'re),  LOUIS  BARTHl^:- 
LEMY,  born  in  Paris,  Dec.  IS,  1781,  died 
at  Gray  (Haute-Saone),  October,  1843.  Pi- 
anist and  dramatic  composer,  son  of  a  vi- 
olin teacher  ;  pupil  of  his  uncle  Lefiivre,  of 
Gobert,  and  Berton.  He  left  the  Paris  Con- 
servatoire to  man-y  the  daughter  of  the 
composer  Philidor.  In  1802  he  succeeded 
Jadin  as  professor  at  the  Conservatoire, 
and  numbered  Henri  and  Jacques  Herz, 
Dubois,  and  Rosellen  among  his  pupils. 
He  taught  the  family  of  Louis  Philippe, 
and  was  accompanist  to  Louis  XVHI.  and 
Charles  X.  ;  took  the  actress.  Mile.  More, 
for  his  second  wife,  and  retired  to  Toulouse, 
where  he  became  director  of  the  Conserva- 
toire. Works — Comic  operas  :  Le  voisi- 
nage  (with  others),  1800  ;  Le  chevalier  d'in- 
dustrie  (with  Dugazon),  1804  ;  La  folie 
musicale,  ou  le  chanteur  prison  nier,  1807  ; 
Jeuue  et  vieille,  1811 ;   L'empruut   secret, 


148 


rilAGER 


1812  ;  Philosophe  en  voyage  (with  Kreube), 
1821  ;  Jennj'  la  bouquetiore  (with  lii-eube), 
1823  ;  Les  enlevements  impromptu,  182-4. 
Concerto  for  pianoforte  ;  Sonata  for  piano- 
forte, violin,  and  violoncello  ;  Adagio  and 
rondo,  for  do. ;  Rondo  for  2  pianofortes  ;  5 
sonatas  for  pianoforte  ;  Eondeaux  and  fan- 
taisies,  variations,  etc.,  for  do.  ;  22  collec- 
tions of  romances. — Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Eie- 
maun. 

PRAETORIUS.     See  rralorius. 

PEAGER,  FERDINAND  CHRISTIAN 
WILHEKVI,  born  in  Leipsic,  Jan.  22,  1815, 
still  living,  1890.  Pianist,  fii-st  studied  the 
violoncello,  but  changed  to  the  pianoforte 
on  the  advice  of  Hummel.  He  settled  at 
The  Hague  as  a  teacher,  when  sixteen  years 
of  age,  and  in  1834  removed  to  London. 
He  was  selected  by  Schumann  to  be  the 
English  correspondent  of  the  Neue  Zeit- 
schrift  f iir  Musik  ;  Las  played  on  the  con- 
tinent and  been  very  successful  as  a  teacher. 
Works  :  Abelliuo,  overture  ;  Live  and  love, 
battle  and  victory,  symphonic  poem  (1885)  ; 
Symphonic  prelude  to  Manfred  ;  Trio  for  jii- 
anoforto  and  strings.  A  selection  of  his  best 
pieces  for  pianoforte  was  published  in  the 
Priiger-Album  (Leipsic,  2  vols.). — Grove  ; 
Riemann. 

PEAGER,  HEINRICH  ALOYS,  born  in 
Amsterdam,  Dec.  23,  1783,  died  at  Magde- 
burg, Aug.  7,  1854.  Violinist  and  virtuoso 
on  the  guitar,  for  some  time  Kapellmeister 
of  an  itinerant  dramatic  comjsauy,  then  at 
the  theatres  in  Leipsic,  Magdeburg,  Han- 
over, Cologne,  etc.  Works  :  Der  Kyff- 
hiluserberg,  opera ;  Quintet  for  viola,  2 
clarinets,  flute,  and  bassoon  ;  do.  for  strings ; 
Quartets,  trios,  and  duos  for  do.;  Capriccios, 
etudes,  etc.,  for  violin  ;  Themes  varids  for 
various  instruments  ;  Music  for  guitar. 
— Futis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schilling. 

PRATI,  ALESSIO,  born  at  Ferrara,  Italy, 
July  16,  1750,  died  there,  Feb.  2,  1788. 
Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of  Bighetti.  He 
was  maestro  di  cappella  at  XJdiue,  went  to 
Paris  in  1767,  and  taught  singing  in  the 
highest  circles.     Having  visited  St.  Peters- 


burg and  Germany,  he  returned  in  1781 
to  Italy  and  became  maestro  di  cappella  to 
the  King  of  Sar- 
dinia. Works — Op- 
eras :  Ifigenia  in 
Aulide,  Florence, 
1784  ;  Semiramide, 
ib.,  1785  ;  Armida 
abbandonata,  Mu- 
nich, 1785  ;  Olim- 
pia,  Naples,  1786 ; 
Demofoonte,  Ven- 
ice, 1787;  12  so- 
natas for  pianoforte  and  violin  ;  Concerto 
for  flute  ;  do.  for  bassoon  ;  3  sonatas  for 
harp  and  violin  ;  Duo  for  2  harpis  ;  Several 
collections  of  romances  and  Italian  airs. 
— Laderchio,  Notizie  biografiche  intorno  alia 
vita  di  A.  Prati  (Ferrara,  1825)  ;  Ffetis ; 
Schilling. 

PRATOEIUS,  HIERONYilUS,  born  in 
Hamburg  before  1560,  died  there  in  1629. 
Organist,  first  instructed  by  his  father,  then 
studied  music  at  Cologne,  became  city  can- 
tor at  Erfurt  in  1580,  and  succeeded  his 
father  as  organist  at  St.  Jacob's,  Hamburg, 
in  1582.  Works  :  Cantiones  sacrno,  for  5 
to  8  voices  (1599)  ;  Magnificat,  for  8  voi- 
ces (1602-22)  ;  Liber  missarum,  for  5  to 
8  voices  (1616)  ;  Cantiones  sacrro  varifc,  for 
5  to  20  voices  (1618)  ;  Cantiones  novno 
officiosfc,  for  5  to  15  voices  (1618-25)  ; 
Melodeyen-Gesangbuch  zu  vier  Stimmen 
(with  his  son  Jacob,  1604). — Mendel ;  Rie- 
mann ;  Schilling. 

PRATOEIUS,  JAIvOB,  born  in  Erfurt 
about  1580,  died  in  Hamburg,  Oct.  21, 
1651.  Organist,  sou  of  the  preceding,  pu- 
pil in  Amsterdam  of  Jan  Pieter  Swee- 
linck  ;  after  his  return  to  Hamburg  he 
became  organist  at  St.  Peter's,  and  later 
held  also  the  honorary  posts  of  vicar  and 
dean  at  the  cathedral.  Besides  the  nine- 
teen chorals  in  the  Melodeyen-Gesangbuch, 
edited  with  his  father,  there  exist  only  com- 
positions for  special  occasions,  preserved 
in  the  city  library  at  Hamburg.  None  of 
his   organ   music,  which    was    of    a    high 


14<J 


PRATOllIUS 


order,  has   come  down   to   us. 
Schilling. 

PEATOBIUS    (Praetorius), 
born 


Mendel 


mCHAEL, 

at  Kreutz- 
berg,  Thuriugia, 
Feb.  15,  1571 
(1572?),  died  in 
Wolfenbiittel, 
Feb.  15,  1G21. 
The  surname  i  s 
latinized  from  the 
German  Schulz  or 
Schulze.  He  was 
one  of  the  promi- 
nent composers,  and  especially  one  of  the 
most  noted  writers  on  music,  of  his  day 
and  countrj-.  Little  is  known  of  his  life, 
save  that  he  began  his  career  as  Kapell- 
meister at  Liineburg,  was  afterwards  made 
organist,  and  then  Kajiellmeister  and  Secre- 
tary to  the  Duke  of  Brunswick,  and  was 
appointed  Prior  of  the  Monastery  of  Ringel- 
heim,  near  Gozlar.  Works — I.  Musical  : 
Musre  Sionise,  in  IX.  parts,  containing  l,2ii 
vocal  pieces  ;  Parts  1  to  IV.,  Konzert- 
gesilnge,  8  to  12  voc,  on  German  psalms 
and  Kirchenlieder  ;  Part  V.,  Lieder  and 
psalms,  2  to  8  voc.  ;  Parts  VI.  to  IX.,  Kir- 
chenlieder, 4  voc,  in  counterpoint  of  the 
first  order  ;  published  1605-10  (Part  IX.  re- 
published, as  Bicinia  et  Pricinia,  IGll)  ; 
Musai-um  Sioniarum  motetse  et  psalmi,  4  to 
16  voc,  I.  pars,  1007  ;  Eulogodia  Sionia, 
60  motets,  2  to  8  voc,  for  the  close  of 
Divine  Service,  1611  ;  Missodia  Sionia, 
1611  ;  Hymnodia  Sionia,  hymns  2  to  8  voc, 

1611  ;  Megalynodia,  madrigals  and  motets, 
5  to  8  voc,  1611  ;  Terpsichore,  dance-pieces 
by  himself  and  several  French  composers, 

1612  ;  Polyhymnia  caduceatrix  et  pane- 
gyrica,  songs  of  peace  and  rejoicing,  1  to  21 
voc,  1619  ;  Polyhymnia  exercitatrix,  2  to  8 
voc,  1619  ;  Uranodia  (Uranochordia),  19 
songs  4  voc,  1613  ;  Kleine  und  grosse  Li- 
tanei,  etc.,  1606  ;  Epithalamium  for  Fried- 
rich  Ulrich,  of  Brunswick,  and  Anna  Sophie, 
of  Brandenburg,  1614  ;  Puericinium,  14 
Kirchenlieder,  3  to  12  voc,  1621. 


II.  Literary  :  Syntagma  Musicum,  ex  vet^ 
erum  et  recentiorum  Ecclesiasticorum  auto- 
rum  lectione,  Polyhistorum  consiguatione, 
Variai'um  linguarum  uotatione,  Hodierni 
seculi  usurpatioue,  ipsius  denique  Musicte 
artis  observatione,  in  Cautorum,  Organista- 
rum,  Organopoeorum,  ceterorumque  Musi- 
cam  scientiam  amantium  et  tractantium  gra- 
tiam  collectum  ;  et  Secundum  generalem 
Indicem  toti  Operi  priefixum.  In  Quatuor 
Tomos  distributum  (Vol.  I.,  Part  I.,  Wol- 
fenbiittel, 1614;  Part  II.,  Wittenberg,  1615  ; 
Vol.  II.,  Part  I.,  Wolfenbiittel,  1619  ;  Part 


n,  ib.,  1620).  A  most  remarkable  historical 
and  theoretical  work,  of  which  only  the 
first  three  volumes  were  ever  j'uhlished. 
— Grove,  iii.,  25  ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

PEATT,    SILAS  GAMALIEL,   born,    of 

American  jsa- 
rentage,  i  n 
Addison, 
Vermont, 
Aug.  4, 1840, 
still  living, 
1890.  Pian- 
ist ;  studied 
pianoforte  in 
1857  in  Chi- 
cago ;  went 
in  1868  to 
Europe  and 
studied  pianoforte  in  Berlin  under  Beudel 
and  Kullak.  Having  lost  the  use  of  his 
right  wrist  from  overwork,  he  had  to  aban- 
don the  idea  of  becoming  a  performer,  and 
turned  his  attention  to  composition.  After 
a  trip  through  Germany,  he  returned  to 
Berlin  and  studied  counterpoint,  harmony, 
and  composition  under  R.  Wiierst  and  F. 
Kiehl.     In  1871  he  returned   to   Chicago, 


PRAUPNER 


organized  the  Apollo  Club,  made  a  concert 
tour  in  the  winter  of  1873-74,  and  in  1875 
again  went  to  Europe,  attended  at  Bajreuth 
the  rehearsals  of  Wagner's  trilogy,  gave  at 
"Weimar  a  recital  of  his  own  pianoforte 
compositions  before  Liszt,  and  studied  in 
Berlin  score-reading  under  Heinrich  Dorn. 
On  July  4,  1876,  his  Anniversary  Overture 
was  performed  in  Berlin,  and  soou  after  at 
Weimar.  After  visiting  Paris  and  London, 
he  returned  in  1877  to  America,  gave  in 
1878  symphony  concerts  in  Chicago,  and 
in  1882  produced  Zenobia,  his  first  oj^era, 
at  McVicker's  theatre  in  that  city.  In  1885 
he  again  visited  London,  gave  concerts  of 
his  own  compositions  at  the  Crystal  Palace, 
when  the  Pi-odigal  Son  symphony  and  selec- 
tions from  Zenobia  were  performed,  and  in 
1886  returned  to  Chicago  to  engage  in  direct- 
ing music  festivals  and  teach  pianoforte. 
He  is  now  (1890)  professor  of  pianoforte  at 
the  Metropolitan  Consei-vatory  of  Music, 
New  York.  Works :  Zenobia,  grand  opera 
in  5  acts,  Chicago,  1882  ;  Lucille,  lyric  opera 
in  4  acts,  ib.,  1887  ;  The  Last  luca,  cantata, 
chorus,  solo,  and  orchestra ;  Magdalena's 
Lament,  orchestra  ;  1st  grand  symphony  ; 
2d  grand  symphony.  The  Prodigal  Son  ; 
Serenade,  for  string  orchestra  ;  3  minuets 
for  orchestra  ;  Symi^honic  suite,  on  charac- 
ters in  Shakespeare's  Tempest,  for  grand 
orchestra ;  Court  minuet ;  Waltzes,  im- 
promptus, mazurkas,  polonaises,  minuets, 
and  other  pianoforte  music  ;  Centenary 
hymn  to  Washington,  1889  ;  Suite  of 
dances,  for  orchestra,  1889  ;  Songs  and 
part  songs. 

PRAUPNER,  VACLAV,  born  at  Leit- 
meritz,  Bohemia,  Aug.  18,  1744,  died  in 
Prague,  April  2,  1807.  Organist  and  vio- 
linist, studied  music  in  his  native  town  and 
in  Prague,  where  he  taught  violin  and  sing- 
ing, conducted  the  orchestra  of  Count  Nos- 
tiz's  house  theatre,  and  became  regens 
chori  in  different  churches,  last  at  the 
Theinkirche,  in  1794,  when  he  was  ap- 
pointed also  Kapellmeister  at  the  Opera  and 
at   the   Kreuzherrenkirche  of   St.  Fi-ancis. 


Works  :  Circe,  opera  ;  Masses,  graduals, 
offertories.  Requiem,  vespers  for  3  choirs ; 
Concertos,  symphonies,  and  arias. — Dla- 
bacz  ;  Futis  ;  Gerber  ;  Wurzbach. 

PRfi  AUX  CLERCS,  LE,  opera-comique 
in  three  acts,  text  by  Planard,  music  by 
Herold,  first  represented  at  the  Opera  Co- 
mique,  Paris,  Dec.  15,  1832,  a  few  weeks 
before  the  composer's  death.  The  action 
is  placed  near  the  Louvre,  where  Marguerite 
de  Valois  is  retained  as  a  prisoner  by  her 
brother,  Charles  IX.,  in  order  to  check  the 
conduct  of  Henri  de  Navarre.  She  has 
under  her  i^rotection  a  young  girl,  Isabelle, 
whom  the  king  intends  to  marry  to  the 
comte  de  Comminge.  Henri  de  Navarre 
sends  the  baron  de  Mergy  to  release  his 
wife  and  her  young  friend,  with  whom  the 
baron  is  in  love.  Marguerite  favours  his 
suit,  and  gains  the  aid  of  an  Italian  at  the 
court,  named  Cantarelli,  who  tells  Com- 
minge of  de  Mergy 's  plans  for  a  secret  mar- 
riage with  Isabelle.  This  takes  place,  in 
consequence  of  which  de  Mergy  and  Com- 
minge fight  a  duel.  The  latter  is  killed  and 
de  Mergy  and  his  bride  are  left  in  peace. 
The  principal  numbers  are:  "  Les  reudez-voua 
de  noble  compagnie,"  a  duet ;  Mergy's  air^ 
"O  ma  tendre  amie  ;"  the  romance,  "Sou- 
venirs du  jeune  age  ; "  Isabella's  air  accom- 
panied by  a  violin  solo,  "  Jours  de  mon  en- 
fance  ; "  and  the  trio,  "  Vous  me  disiez  sans 
cesse  :  Pourquoi  fuir  les  amours?,"  sung  by 
Isabelle,  the  Queen,  and  Cantarelli.  The 
part  of  Isabelle  was  written  for  Mme  Ca- 
simir,  who  appeared  in  the  original  cast, 
which  included  Fargueil,  Thenard,  Lemon- 
nier,  Fereol,  Mme  Ponchard,  and  Mile 
Massy.  This  opera  was  first  given  in  Ber- 
lin, as  Per  Zweikampf,  in  October,  1833  ; 
in  Vienna  in  February,  1834  ;  and  in  Lon- 
don, in  French,  at  the  Princess's,  May  2, 
1849  ;  in  Italian  atCovent  Garden,  June  26, 
1880.  It  received  its  1,000th  representa- 
tion iu  Paris  in  1871.  Published  by  Schott 
(Mainz,  1834),  German  translation  by  von 
Lichtenstein  (ib.)  ;  overture  and  airs  for 
the   pianoforte,  arranged  by  Ch.  Rummel 


151 


PEECIOSA 


(ib.,  1835)  ;  also  by  Diabelli  (Vienna,  1837). 
— Clement  et  Larousse,  5-12  ;  Allgem.  mus. 
Zeitg.,  xxxvi.  237  ;  Athenaeum  (1880),  ii. 
25. 

PRECIOSA,  cli-ama  in  four  acts,  by  Pius 
Alexander  Wolff,  with  overture  and  music 
by  Weber,  first  represented  at  the  Royal 
Opera  House,  Berlin,  March  14,  1821,  with 
Mme  Stich  as  Preciosa.  The  subject  is 
taken  from  a  novel  of  the  same  title  by  Cer- 
vantes (1G13),  which  was  fii"st  set  to  music 
by  Karl  Eberweiu  aud  rejjresented  in  Wei- 
mar without  success.  Count  Briihl  per- 
suaded Wolff  to  send  his  play  to  Weber, 
who  was  attracted  by  the  Spanish  local 
coloring.  Preciosa  is  the  daughter  of  the 
chief  of  a  band  of  gypsies,  banished  to  the 
Sierra  Nevada,  under  guai-d  of  the  captain- 
general  of  Andalusia,  whose  son  falls  in 
love  with  her.  He  is  seizetl  by  the  gypsies, 
who  threaten  to  kill  him  unless  they  have 
the  privilege  of  liberty  on  the  road.  The 
captain  tells  them  this  is  only  an  adopted 
son,  and  Preciosa,  discovering  that  he  is  of 
the  gypsy  race,  marries  him.  She  finds  an 
underground  passage  leading  to  the  Alham- 
bra,  and  the  gypsies  seal  the  entrance  and 
go  thither.  When  the  officers  arrive  to  en- 
force obedience  the  gypsy  camp  is  deserted. 
The  music  is  treated  in  Weber's  individual 
manner,  and  is  full  of  Spanish  colour,  inten- 
sified by  the  introduction  of  gypsj'  rhythms 
and  national  airs.  The  part-songs  "Im 
Wald,"  "  Die  Soun'  erwacht,"  and  the  gypsy 
chorus,  "Es  blinken  so  lustig  die  Sterne," 
and  Preciosa's  song,  "  Einsam  bin  ich  nicht 
alleiue,"  are  favorites  in  Germany,  and  the 
melodrama,  "  Liichelnd  sinkst,  du.  Abend, 
nieder,"  is  one  of  the  best  pieces  of  the  kind 
ever  written.  The  overture  played  by  the 
Philharmonic  Society  of  New  York,  first  in 
the  season  of  1854-55,  is  light  and  sparkling, 
and  is  based  chiefly  on  a  bolero,  which  is 
repeated  in  the  fii-st  chorus.  The  work 
was  first  given  in  Dresden,  June  27,  1821  ; 
in  Munich  and  Vienna  in  1823  ;  in  London 
at  Covent  Garden,  April  28,  1825  ;  in  Paris, 
arranged  by  Sauvage  and  Cromont,  at  the 


Odeon,  Nov.  23,  1825  ;  at  the  Theatre  Ly- 
rique,  in  one  act  arranged  by  Nuitter  and 
Beaumont,  April  16,  1858  ;  and  at  Copen- 
hagen, Danish  translation  by  Boie,  Oct.  22, 
1822.  The  original  score,  in  the  possession 
of  Max  von  Weber,  was  pmbUshed  by 
Schlesinger  (Beriin,  1821).  The  first  two 
editions  are  full  of  mistakes,  but  a  third 
has  been  carefuUy  prepared  by  Ernst  Ru- 
doi-ff  (ib.,  1872).  Pianoforte  score  by  the 
composer  (ib.,  1821).  Operas  of  the  same 
title  :  in  German,  by  Karl  Schnabel,  Bres- 
lau,  about  1840  ;  iu  Italian,  Preziosa,  by 
Ruggiero  Bassi-Manna,  text  by  Colla,  Casal- 
maggiore,  1845,  Milan,  May  8,  18G1  ;  and 
by  A.  SmaregUa,  Milan,  Nov.  19,  1879. 
— Jahns,  W^cber  Verzeichniss,  No.  279 ; 
Weber,  Weber,  ii.  237,  277;  Clement  et 
Larousse,  543  ;  Benedict,  Weber,  57  ;  Har- 
monicon  (1825),  39  ;  Grove,  iv.  417  ;  Ber- 
liner mus.  Zeitg.,  ii.  37  ;  Revue  et  Gaz.  Mus. 
de  Paris  (1858),  125  ;  Hanslick,  Concert- 
wesen  in  Wien,  ii.  235. 

PREDIERI,  GIACOMO  CESAEE,  born 
at  Bologna  in  the  second  half  of  the  17th 
century,  died  after  1711.  Church  composer, 
pupil  of  Giovanni  Paolo  Colonna,  was  ap- 
pointed maestro  di  capjjella  of  the  cathedral 
in  1698.  Member  of  the  Accademia  Filar- 
monica  in  1690,  principein  1698,  1707,  and 
1711.  Works  :  lezabele,  oratorio  a  sette 
voci,  etc.  (with  Floriauo  Aresti)  ;  Sacred 
and  secular  cantatas  (Bologna,  1G9G). — Fc- 
tis  ;  Mendel. 

PREDIERI,  LUCA  ANTONIO,  born  iu 
Bologna,  Italy,  Sept.  13,  1688,  died  there 
in  17C9.  Dramatic  composer,  studied  the 
violin  under  VitaU,  and  counterpoint  under 
his  uncle  Giacomo  Cesare  Predieri.  Mem- 
ber of  the  Accademia  Filarmonica,  Bologna, 
170G,  principe  in  1723.  He  was  maestro  di 
cappella  of  the  cathedral,  and  in  1739,  on 
the  recommendation  of  Fiix  was  appointed 
Vice-Kapellmeister  of  the  Court  Chapel  in 
Vienna.  In  1746  he  became  chief  Kapell- 
meister, and  in  1751  was  pensioned  and  re- 
tired to  Bologna.  Works^Operas  :  Gri- 
selda,  Bologna,  1711  ;  Astarte,  1715 ;  Lucio 


152 


PEEINDL 


Papirio,  Venice,  1715  ;  H  trionfo  di  Soli- 
manno,  Florence,  1719  ;  Merope,  1719  ; 
Partenope,  Bologna,  1719  ;  Scipione  il  gio- 
vane,  1731  ;  Zoe,  Venice,  1736  ;  Sofonisba, 
II  sacrifizio  d'  Abramo,  oratorio,  Venice, 
1738  ;  Isacco  figura  del  Eedentore,  1710  ; 
and  Astrea  placata,  operetta,  text  by  Metas- 
tasio,  Vienna,  Aug.  28, 1739.— Fc-tis  ;  Men- 
del ;  Schilling. 

PREINDL,  JOSEPH,  born  at  Marbacli, 
Nether  AiLstria,  Jan.  30,  175G,  died  in  Vi- 
enna, Oct.  26,  1823.  Organist,  pupil  of 
bis  father  and  of  Albrechtsberger  ;  became 
in  1793  choirmaster  of  St.  Peter's,  Vienna, 
and  in  1809  Kapellmeister  of  St.  Stephen's. 
Works  :  Masses,  offertories,  graduals,  lam- 
entations ;  Requiem  ;  Te  Deum ;  Cho- 
ruses and  other  church  music  ;  Concertos, 
sonatas,  fantasias,  and  variations  for  piano- 
forte ;  Melodien  aller  deutscben  Kirchen- 
lieder  welche  im  St.  Stephansdom  in  Wien 
gesungen  werden,  with  cadences,  sym- 
phonies, and  preludes  (Vienna,  3d  ed.,  re- 
vised by  Sechter)  ;  Gesanglehre  ;  "Wiener 
Touschule,  on  harmony,  counterpoint,  and 
fugue  (ib.,  1827,  2d  ed.,  1832).— Wurzbach ; 
Mendel  ;  Fetis  ;  Riemann  ;  Schilling. 

PREIS  DEE  TONKUNST.  See  Glor- 
reiche  Augenblick. 

PRf^LUDES,  LES,  symphonic  poem,  by 
Liszt,  op.  4,  No.  3,  first  performed  in  Wei- 
mar at  a  Pensionskonzert  of  the  Hofkapelle, 
Feb.  23,  1854.  It  is  written  on  a  passage 
from  Lamartine's  "  Meditations  poetiques," 
was  begun  in  Marseilles  in  1845,  and  finished 
in  Weimar  in  1850.  It  was  given  in  Berlin 
in  December,  1855 ;  in  Vienna,  March  8, 
1856  ;  in  Leipsic,  Feb.  26,  1857  ;  and  by  the 
New  York  Philharmonic  Society  in  the  sea- 
son of  1861-62.  Published  by  Breitkopf  & 
Hilrtel  (Leipsic,  1856). — Neixe  Zeitschr.,  xlv. 
225  ;  xlvi.  101  ;  Hanslick,  Concertwesen  in 
Wien,  ii.  117  ;  Wagner,  Gesch.  Schriften,  v. 
237. 

PREMIER  JOUR  DE  BONHEUR,  LE 
(The  First  Day  of  Good  Luck),  opera-co- 
mique  in  three  acts,  text  by  d'Ennery  and 
Cormon,  music  by  Auber,  first  represented 


at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris,  Feb.  15,  1868. 
The  action  is  placed  in  India,  during  the 
siege  of  Pondicherry.  A  young  officer, 
Gaston  de  Maillepre,  after  many  adventures, 
is  brought  before  a  court-martial  and  con- 
demned to  be  shot,  but  is  liberated,  and 
from  this  time  dates  his  "  23remier  jour  de 
bonheur."  The  original  cast  included  Ca- 
poul,  Saiute-Foy,  Prilleux,  Bernard,  Mel- 
chissedec,  and  Mile  Marie  Roze.  Mme 
Cabel  and  Mile  Marie  Roze  achieved  suc- 
cess in  the  short  role  of  the  Indian  Djelma. 
— Clement  et  Larousse,  742. 

PRENDERGAST,  ARTHUR  HUGH 
DALRYMPLE,  born  in  Loudon,  June  28, 
1833,  still  living,  1890.  Vocal  composer,  pu- 
pil of  James  Turle.  Conductor  of  the  Lom- 
bard Amateur  Musical  Society.  Works  : 
Cantate  Domino  and  Deus  misereatur  ;  Fes- 
tival Te  Deum,  1882  ;  Anthems  ;  Part-songs 
for  male  and  mixed  voices,  and  songs. 

PRENDI,  L'  ANEL.     See  Sonnambula. 

PRENTICE,  THOMAS  RIDLEY,  born 
at  Ongar,  Essex,  England,  July  6,  1842, 
still  living,  1890.  Pianist,  pupil,  at  the 
Royal  Academy  of  Music,  in  pianoforte  of 
Walter  Macfarren,  and  in  harmony  and 
composition  of  Sir  G.  A.  Macfarren.  In 
1863  he  won  the  silver  medal  and  the  Potter 
Exhibition.  He  started  the  Monthly  Popu- 
lar Concerts  at  Brixton  in  1869,  and  the 
Kensington  Twopenny  Concerts  in  1880. 
Organist  of  Christ  Church,  Lee  Park.  Pro- 
fessor of  pianoforte  at  Guildhall  School  of 
Music,  1880,  and  at  Blackheath  Conserva- 
tory, 1881.  Works :  Linda,  cantata  for 
female  voices  ;  Anthems  ;  Part-songs  ;  Pi- 
anoforte music,  and  songs.  The  Musician, 
instruction  book  for  pianoforte  (London, 
1888). 

PRESCIMONI,  NICOLO  GIOSEFFO, 
born  at  Francavilla,  Sicily,  July  23,  1669, 
died  at  Palermo  (?).  Amateur  composer,  pu- 
pil of  Francesco  Catalano,  while  studying 
law  at  Messina  ;  obtained  his  degree  as  doc- 
tor at  the  age  of  twenty-eight,  and  settled  at 
Palermo,  to  practise  his  profession.  Works : 
La  gara  de'  fiumi,  serenade   for   5    voices 


153 


PEESCOTT 


(Palermo,  1693)  ;  La  nascita  di  Sansone, 
etc.,  dialogue  for  do.  (ib.,  1694)  ;  L'  Onni- 
potenza  glorificata,  etc.,  do.  (Naples,  1695) ; 
Gli  angeli  salmisti,  etc.,  do.  (Rome,  1696) ; 
II  fuoco  panegirista  del  Creatore,  etc.,  do. 
(Palermo)  ;  II  trionfo  degli  dei,  serenade 
for  5  voices,  2  choruses,  and  6  instruments 
(Messina,  1695)  ;  La  uotte  felice,  serenade 
for  6  voices  (Palermo,  1700)  ;  La  crisi  vitale 
del  mondo,  etc.,  oratorio  for  3  voices  (Mes- 
sina, 1701) ;  I  miracoli  della  Providenza, 
etc.,  do.  for  5  voices  (Palermo,  1703)  ;  II 
tripudio  delle  Ninfe,  etc.,  serenade  for  3 
voices,  and  instruments  (ib.,  1704)  ;  H  giu- 
dizio  di  Salomone,  etc.  (ib.,  1705) ;  La  figlia 
unigenita  di  Gefte,  etc.,  dialogue  for  5 
voices  (ib.,  1705)  ;  Le  virtii  in  gara,  etc.  (ib., 
1707)  ;  II  latte  di  Jaele,  etc.,  oratorio  for  5 
voices  and  instruments. — Futis  ;  Schilling. 

PRESCOTT,  OLWEKL\  LOUISA,  born 
in  London,  Sept.  3,  1842,  still  living,  1890. 
Instrumental  and  vocal  composer,  pupU  of 
Lindsay  Sloper,  and  at  the  Royal  Academy 
of  Music  of  Macfarren,  Jewson,  Folkes,  and 
Raljih.  She  conducts  classes  for  harmony, 
etc.,  in  the  University  of  Cambridge  cor- 
respondence system  for  women.  Works  :  2 
symphonies  ;  Several  overtures,  and  some 
shorter  j'ieces  for  orchestra  ;  Concerted 
music  for  stringed  instruments  ;  Psalm  xiii. 
for  solo,  chorus,  and  orchestra  ;  Psahn  cxxvi., 
for  voices  oulj'  ;  Lord  UUin's  Daughter,  for 
chorus,  with  ox'chestra  ;  Anthems ;  Part- 
songs,  and  songs. 

PRETTY,  LOWLY,  MODEST  FLOW- 
ER.    See  Purilan's  Daughter. 

PREVOST,  EUGfiNE  PROSPER,  born 
in  Pai-is,  Aug.  23,  1809,  died  in  New  Or- 
leans, Aug.  30,  1872.  Dramatic  composer, 
pupil,  at  the  Conservatoire,  of  Jelensperger 
and  Seuriot  in  harmony  and  counterpoint, 
and  of  Lesueur  in  composition.  He  won  the 
second  grand  jjrix  in  1829,  for  the  cantata 
Clcopatre,  and  the  pris  de  Rome  in  1831, 
for  his  cantata  Biauca  Capello.  He  mar- 
ried Eleonore  Colon  the  singer,  and  became 
chef  d'orchestre  of  the  Havre  theatre,  but 
left  that  city  in  1838  for  New  Orleans,  where 


he  remained  twenty  years  as  chef  d'orches- 
tre and  singing  teacher,  though  in  1842  he 
was  conductor  of  the  orchestra  at  Niblo's 
Garden,  New  York.  In  1862  he  returned 
to  Paris,  and  became  chef  d'orchestre  at 
the  Bouifes  Parisiens,  then  at  the  concerts 
of  the  Champs-lilysees.  He  went  again  in 
1867  to  New  Orleans,  and  remained  there. 
Works :  L'hotel  des  princes,  Lc  grenadier 
de  Wagram,  Theatre  de  1'  Ambigu  Comique, 
1831 ;  Cosimo,  Ojsera  Comique,  1834  ;  Le 
bon  gar(;on,  ib.,  1837  ;  Blanche  et  Rene, 
New  Orleans ;  L'illustre  Gaspard,  Paris, 
Op^'ra  Comique,  1863 ;  Several  masses. 
— Fetis  ;  do.,  Supijlcment,  ii.  369  ;  Mendel. 

PRfiVOST-ROUSSEAU,  ANTONIN,  born 
in  France,  1824,  still  living,  1890.  Ama- 
teur composer,  pupil  in  1846—48  of  Dourlen 
and  about  1852  of  Ai-istide  Hignai-d.  He 
is  a  lawyer,  and  became  mayor  of  Cham- 
l)igny-sur-Marne.  In  1849  he  founded  a 
choral  society,  which  he  still  conducts. 
Works  :  Les  poemes  de  la  natui-e,  musical 
poem  in  8  pai-ts,  Cercle  Musical,  1863  ;  La 
ferme,  symphonie  rustique,  1865 ;  Les 
songes,  symphonie  lyrique,  1872  ;  Riquet 
a  la  houppe,  opera-comique,  fragments  of 
which  have  been  performed  at  concerts  ; 
Several  masses ;  Many  choruses,  melodies, 
etc.  — Fctis,  Supplement,  ii.  369. 

PREYER,  GOTTFRIED,  born  at  Haus- 
brunn,  Nether  Austria,  Mai'ch  15,  1808, 
still  living,  1890.  Organist  and  violinist, 
first  instructed  on  several  instruments  by 
the  parson  Bohunowsky,  then  in  Vienna,  in 
1828-34,  pupU.  of  Sechter  in  harmony, 
counterpoint,  and  composition.  In  1835 
he  became  organist  of  the  Lutheran  church, 
in  1838  professor  of  harmony  and  counter- 
point at  the  Conservatorium,  in  1844  Vize- 
Hofkapellmeister,  in  1846  court  organist, 
and  in  1853  Kapellmeister  at  St.  Stephen's. 
He  was  director  of  the  Conservatorium  in 
1844-48,  and  jjensioned  as  Vize-HofkapeU- 
meister  in  1876.  Works — Operas :  WaUad- 
mor  ;  Freimannshohle  ;  Amaranth  ;  Noah, 
oratorio  ;  Several  masses,  one  for  male 
voices ;  Requiem  ;  Te  Deum ;  Hymneu  der 


154 


PRIERE 


grieehiscli-katholischen  Kirche  (1847),  and 
other  cliurch  music  ;  Symphony  ;  3  festival 
marches  for  military  band,  with  trio  and 
chorus  ;  String  quartet ;  Organ  and  piano- 
forte music  ;  Choruses  and  songs. — Wurz- 
bach ;  Hanslick,  Gesch.  des  Concertwesens 
in  Wien,  302,  355  ;  Kochel,  Die  kaiserl. 
Hof-Musikkapelle  (Vienna,  1869),  113  ;  Rie- 
mann. 

PRifcRE  DU  MATIN  (Morning  Prayer), 
for  two-part  chorus,  by  Berlioz,  published 
by  Escudier  (Paris).  It  may  be  considered 
as  belonging  to  the  Feuillets  d' Album,  op. 
19. 

PRINCES  SANS  APANAGES.  See 
Hamlet. 

PRmCESSE  JAUNE,  LA  (The  Yellow 
Princess),  opcra-comique  in  one  act,  test  by 
Louis  Gallet,  music  by  Saint-Saiins,  first  rep- 
resented at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris,  June 
12,  1872.  A  young  Dutch  savant  fancies 
himself  in  love  with  a  Japanese  image,  and 
is  indifferent  to  the  love  given  to  him  by 
his  cousin.  He  drinks  a  potion  and  fancies 
himself  in  Japan  with  his  idol,  who,  to  his 
surprise,  has  the  face  and  manner  of  his 
cousin,  and,  arousing  from  his  revery,  he 
falls  in  love  with  her.  It  was  first  sung  by 
Lht'rie  and  Mile  Ducasse.  Published  by 
Durand,  Schojnewerk  &  Cie  as  op.  30  (Par- 
is, 1872-73).  German  translation  by  von 
Loen  (Stuttgart,  1880).— Clement  et  La- 
rousse,  808. 

PRINCESS  IDA,  THE,  or,  Castle  Ada- 
mant, comic  opera  in  two  acts,  with  pro- 
logue, text  by  Gilbert,  music  by  Sullivan, 
first  represented  at  the  Savoy,  London,  Jan. 
5,  1884.  It  is  called  by  its  authors  "a  re- 
spectful operatic  perversion  of  Tennyson's 
'  Princess.'  "  It  was  given  at  the  Fifth  Av- 
enue Theatre,  New  York,  Feb.  11,  1884. 
Published  by  Chajjpell  &  Co.  (Loudon, 
1884).— AthenfBum  (1884),  i.  63  ;  New  York 
Tribune,  Feb.  18,  1884. 

PRINCESS,  THE,  overture  for  orches- 
tra, by  George  E.  Whiting,  first  performed 
at  a  concert  of  the  Apollo  Club,  Boston,  in 
the  season  of  1883-84. 


PRmZ  WALDMEISTER,  romantic  comic 
opera,  text  by  Heinrich  Italiener,  music  by 
Adolf  Neuendorif,  first  represented  at  the 
Thalia  Theatre,  New  York,  May  2,  1887  ; 
at  the  Walhalla  Theater,  Berlin,  Sept.  3, 
1887.  The  libretto  is  an  adaptation  of  Otto 
Roquette's  "  Waldmeisters  Brautfahrt." 

PRISE  DE  TROIE,  LA.  See  Les  2Voy- 
e)is. 

PRISON  D'£dIMBOURG,  LA  (The 
Prison  of  Edinburgh),  opera-comique  in 
three  acts,  text  by  Scribe  and  Planard,  mu- 
sic by  Carafa,  first  represented  at  the  Opera 
Comique,  Paris,  July  20,  1833.  The  li- 
bretto is  founded  on  Scott's  romance  "  The 
Heart  of  Midlothian."  The  opera  was  first 
sung  by  Revial,  Hebert,  Mme  Ponchard, 
Mile  Massj',  and  Clai-a  Margueron.  It  was 
first  given  in  Vienna  in  1835.  Published 
by  Schott  (Mainz,  1833-34),  German  trans- 
lation by  J.  D.  Anton  (ib.)  ;  overture  for  the 
pianoforte  for  four  hands  arranged  by  Ch. 
Rummel  (ib.,  1835) ;  Pianoforte  score  by 
Joseph  Rummel  (ib.,  1835). — Clement  et 
Larousse,  548 ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xxxvii. 
576. 

PROCH,  HEINRICH,  born  at  BOhmisch- 
Leipa,  Bohemia,  July 
22,  1809,  died  in  Vi- 
enna, Dec.  18,  1878. 
Violinist ;  studied  law, 
but  made  such  pro- 
gress in  music,  mean- 
while, that  he  became 
in  1834  a  member  of 
the  imperial  orchestra 
at  Vienna,  in  1837 
Kapellmeister  of  the  Josephstadt  Theater 
there,  and  in  1840-70  of  the  court  opera. 
In  1874  he  was  Kapellmeister  of  the  short- 
lived Comic  Opera.  Among  his  pupils  were 
Dustmauu,  Tietjens,  Csillag,  Peschka-Leut- 
ner,  and  Friedrich-Materna.  Works— Op- 
eras :  Ring  und  Maske,  Vienna,  1844 ;  Die 
Blutrache,  ib.,  1847  ;  Der  gefilhrliche 
Sprung,  ib.,  1848  ;  Masses,  offertories,  over- 
tures, trios,  quartets,  and  other  insti-u- 
meutal  music,  and   many   songs. —Heindl, 


PEODANA 


Gallerie  beriibmter  Piidagogen,  etc.,  ii. 
105  ;  Hanslick,  Gesch.  des  Concertwesens, 
355,  3GG  ;  Wanderer  (Vienna,  1847),  215 ; 
Wurzbacli. 

PRODANA  NEVfiSTA  (Die  verkaufte 
Braut ;  Married  for  Money),  Czech  comic 
ojjera  in  three  acts,  text  by  Sabiua,  music 
by  Friedrich  Smetana,  first  represented  at 
Prague,  May  30,  ISOG. 

PEODIGAL  SON,  THE,  oratorio  by  Ar- 
thur S.  Sullivan,  written  for  and  first  per- 
formed at  the  Worcester  (England)  Festi- 
val, Sept.  8,  1869,  with  Sims  Reeves  as  the 
chief  character.  It  was  given  by  the  Glas- 
gow Choral  Union,  Nov.  16,  1870.  Pub- 
lished by  Boosey  (London,  18G9). — Athe- 
DiEum  (18G9),  ii.  377 ;  Upton,  Standard 
Oratorios,  293. 

PROAIENADES  D'UN  SOLIT^UIIE 
(Solitary  Walks),  three  suites  of  comjiosi- 
tions  for  the  pianoforte,  by  Stephen  Heller, 
op.  78,  op.  80,  op.  8G.  They  express  the 
thoughts,  not  the  person  of  the  author, 
which  wander  through  field  and  forest,  and 
record  his  impressions  of  nature  from  a  po- 
etic but  not  realistic  j)oint  of  view.  Suite  I., 
op.  78  :  No.  1.  Allegro  vivo,  in  F-sharp 
minor ;  2.  Allegretto  quasi  allegro,  in  F  ; 
3.  Allegro,  in  B-flat  minor  ;  4.  Andante,  in 
B-flat ;  5.  Allegretto  con  moto,  in  G  ;  G. 
Assai  vivace,  in  G  minor.  Suite  IL,  op.  80, 
Wanderstunden  (Reveries  d'artiste) :  No.  1. 
Poco  agitato,  in  C  minor  ;  2.  Allegretto  con 
grazia,  in  D-flat ;  3.  Allegro  appassionato, 
in  B-flat  minor  ;  4.  Lento  con  esi^ressioue, 
in  F  ;  5.  Assai  vivace,  in  C  minor  ;  G.  Con 
moto,  in  B-flat.  Suite  HL,  op.  86,  In 
Wald  und  Flur  :  No.  1.  Agrestement,  in  B- 
flat ;  2.  D'un  mouvement  tres-vif  et  pas- 
sionnu,  in  D  minor  ;  3.  Yivement  etde  bonne 
humeui-,  in  D  ;  4.  D'un  mouvement  agite', 
in  G  minor  ;  5.  Molto  vivace,  in  F  ;  6.  As- 
sai vivace,  in  A. — Barbedette,  HeUer  (Brown- 
Borthwiek),  60. 

PROJIETHEUS,  by  Beethoven.  See 
Vomini  di  Prometeo,  Gli. 

PROMETHEUS,  overture  for  orchestra, 
in  C,  by  Woldemar  Bargiel,  op.  10,  written 


about  1864-65.  Given  by  the  New  York 
Philharmonic  in  the  season  of  1805-66. 
Published  by  Breitkopf  &  Hilrtel  (Leipsic, 
1805).— Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.  (1805),  9. 

PROMETHEUS,  overture  for  orchestra, 
by  Ferdinand  Hiller,  first  performed  at  the 
Gewandhaus,  Leipsic,  Jan.  28,  1847  ;  in 
Dresden,  in  July,  1847. — Allgem.  mus. 
Zeitg.,  xlix.  70,  409. 

PROMETHEUS,  symphonic  poem  and 
chorus  to  Herder's  "Entfesselto  Prome- 
theus," by  Liszt,  op.  4,  No.  5,  written  for 
and  first  performed  with  the  drama  at  the 
Herderfest,  Weimar,  Aug.  25, 1850.  It  was 
given  in  Vienna  in  1800.  Published  by 
Breitkopf  &  Hilrtel  (Leipsic,  1850).— Pohl, 
Liszt,  221,  232  ;  Concertwesen  in  Wien,  ii. 
198  ;  Revue  et  Gaz.  mus.  de  Paris  (1855), 
352. 

PR0PH1^.TE,  LE,  French  opera  in  five 
acts,  text  by  Scribe,  music  by  Meyerbeer, 
first  represented  at  the  OiJura,  Paris,  April 
16,  1849.  This  is  the  composer's  third 
grand  opera,  and,  owing  to  its  splendid  dra- 
matic and  scenic  eflects,  has  always  been  a 
favourite  one.  The  theme  of  the  libretto 
is  John  of  Lcj'dcn,  who  was  crowned  Em- 
Ijeror  of  Germany  by  his  fanatical  followers. 
The  time  is  1534.  The  first  act  opens  in 
the  suburbs  of  Dordrecht,  Holland,  with  the 
chateau  of  the  Count  of  Oberthal  in  the 
distance.  Fidi'S,  mother  of  John  of  Leyden, 
and  Bertha,  his  betrothed,  imijlore  the 
Count's  permission  for  the  marriage.  Struck 
with  her  beauty,  he  claims  Bertha  for  him- 
self, and  takes  her  and  Fides  prisoners.  In 
the  meantime  three  Anabaptists  from  West- 
ishalia,  who  arrive  in  Holland  to  kindle  in- 
surrection, take  advantage  of  the  Count's 
action  to  incite  his  vassals  against  him. 
The  second  act  is  in  John  of  Leyden's  house, 
where  he  imparts  his  visions  of  future  sov- 
ereignty to  the  Anabaptists,  who,  perceiving 
that  he  will  aid  theu-  designs,  assure  him 
that  he  shall  be  a  ruler.  As  they  depart. 
Bertha,  who  has  escajied,  rushes  in  to  claim 
his  protection.  The  furious  Count  follows 
with   a   guard   bringing   Fides,    whom   he 


1B6 


PEOniETE 


threatens  to  1  ill  unless  Bertha  ia  restored 
to  him.  To  save  the  life  of  his  mother, 
John  delivers  up  Bertha,  and  goes  off  with 
the  Anabaptists.     The  third  act  is  in  the 


Pauline  Viardot-Garcia. 

Anabaptists'  camp  by  a  frozen  lake,  near 
Mi'mster,  which  they  are  besieging.  Skaters 
enter,  bringing  provisions,  and  dance  a  gay 
ballet.  John  of  Leyden  hears  from  the 
Count  of  Oberthal,  who  is  taken  prisoner, 
that  Bertha  has  escaj)ed  and  is  in  Mi'mster, 
which  he  rouses  his  followers  to  assault. 
The  fourth  act  is  in  Miinster,  after  its  capt- 
ure. Fidi'S,  begging  alms  in  the  public 
square,  meets  Bertha,  disguised  as  a  pil- 
grim. The  latter  tells  her  intention  to  kill 
the  Prophets,  whom  she  believes  to  have 
caused  John  of  Leyden's  death.  The  next 
scene,  in  the  cathedral,  where  the  Prophete 
is  to  be  crowned,  is  one  of  Meyerbeer's  most 
brilliant  compositions.  It  forms  a  striking 
contrast  to  the  rest  of  the  opera,  so  gloomy 
with  religious  and  political  fanaticism,  and 
as  a  piece  of  glittering  pageantry,  with  gor- 
geous decorations,  pealing  bells,  solemn 
chants,  and  stately  Coronation  March,  has 
seldom  been  surpassed.  Fides  enters  as  the 
Prophete  is  invested  with  supreme  power. 


and  claims  him  as  her  son.  John  disowns 
her,  and  through  love  she  declares  that  she  is 
mistaken.  The  last  act  differs  from  history. 
Instead  of  being  condemned,  John  is  be- 
trayed by  the  Anabaptists.  He  visits  Fidos 
in  prison,  and  she  convinces  him  of  his 
error.  Bertha  enters,  and,  learning  that 
John  is  the  Prophcte,  stabs  herself  and  dies. 
The  last  scene  is  in  the  banquet-hall  of  the 
palace,  whei'e  John  is  revelling.  As  the 
Anabaptists  and  the  Count  of  Oberthal 
enter,  and  Fides  rushes  in  to  forgive  him, 
an  explosion  takes  place — John's  revenge — 
and  they  all  perish  in  the  flames.  Among 
the  principal  numbers  of  this  opera  are  : 
The  pastoral  chorus,  "  La  brise  est  muette ;" 
the  duet  between  Fides  and  Bertha,  "  Un 
jour,  dans  les  flots  de  la  Meuse  ; "  "  Le  jour 
baisse  et  ma  mere,"  sung  by  John,  ac- 
companied by  the  chorus  ;  FidOs's  grand 
aria,   "  Ah  !    mon    fils,     soit  beni  !  ; "    the 


Roger,  as  John  of  Leyden. 


chorus  of  the  Anabaptists  in  the  third  act, 
"  Du  sang,  du  sang  ; "  the  bass  aria,  "  Aussi 
nombreux  que  les  etoiles  ; "  the  Anabaptists' 
trio,    "Sous  votre   banuiere;"   the   chant, 


157 


PROSERPINA 


"  Eoi  du  ciel  et  des  anges  ; "  Fides's  coup- 
lets imploriug  charity,  "  Donnez  pour 
une  pauvre  ame  ; "  the  chorus,  "  Le  voila, 
le  roi  prophete  ; "  Fides's  cavatina,  "  O  toi 
qui  m'abandonne  ; "  and  the  allegro,  "II 
en  est  temps  encore."  The  part  of  Fides 
(JM.-S.),  the  most  interesting  in  the  opera, 
was  created  by  Mme  Viardot-Garcia,  who 
has  never  been  equalled  in  this  character. 
Mme  Castellan  sang  Bertha  (S.),  and  M. 
Eoger,  John  of  Leyden  (T.),  in  the  original 
cast  This  opera  had  received  348  rep- 
resentations at  the  Paris  Opera  in  187G. 
It  was  first  given  in  Leipsic  in  1850  ;  in 
Dresden,  Jan.  30,  1850  ;  in  Milan,  May  23, 
1855  ;  in  Vienna,  Nov.  8,  1855  ;  in  London 
at  Covent  Garden,  in  Italian,  with  immense 
success,  Mme  Viardot  and  Mario  in  the 
chief  parts,  July  24,  1840  ;  and  first  in  New 
York,  Nov.  25,  1849.  It  was  given  in  New 
Tork  by  the  German  Opera  Company  at  the 
Metropolitan  Opera  House,  Dec.  20,  1884. 
Published  by  Brandus  (Paris,  1849)  ;  by 
Breitkopf  k  Hiirtel  (Leipsic,  1850).  Tran- 
scription for  the  pianoforte  by  Franz  Liszt. 
Capriccio  for  the  pianoforte  by  Stephen 
Heller,  op.  70,  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel  (Leipsic, 
1850). — Ck'ment  et  Larousse,  551  ;  Lajaiie, 
ii.,  203  ;  Mendel,  Meyerbeer,  GO  ;  Fctis, 
vi.  125  ;  Neue  Zeitschr.,  xxxii.  49,  81  ; 
Athenffium  (1849),  416,  771,  794  ;  Upton, 
Standard  Operas,  157. 

PKOSERPINA  KAPITA,  Italian  opera, 
test  by  Giulio  Strozzi,  music  by  Monteverde, 
first  represented  at  the  Palazzo  Moceuigo,  on 
the  occasion  of  the  marriage  of  Lorenzo 
Giustiniani  with  Giustiniana  Mocenigo, 
Venice,  April  16,  1630.  This  opera  was 
given  with  gi-eat  splendour,  and  the  choruses, 
dances,  songs,  and  instrumentation  created 
immense  enthusiasm.  The  score,  dedicated 
to  the  father  of  the  bride,  was  published  in 
Venice,  1630.  A  copy  of  the  MS.  is  in  the 
National  Library  of  Florence.  Same  text, 
music  by  Sacrati,  Venice,  1644  ;  same  title, 
intermezzo  by  Benedetto  Ferrari,  ib.,  1641. 
— Vierteljahrsschrift  fiir  Musikwissenschaft 
(1887),  392. 


PEOSERPINE,  tragedie-iyrique  in  five 
acts  with  prologue,  text  by  (Juinault,  music 
hy  Lull}',  first  repi'esented  at  Saint-Germain- 
en-Laye,  Feb.  3,  1680  ;  at  the  Academie 
Eoyale  de  Musique,  Paris,  Nov.  15,  1680. 
The  prologue  shows  the  joys  of  Peace.  The 
scene  represents  the  domain  of  Discord, 
where  Peace  and  her  attendants  Happiness, 
Joy,  Abundance,  and  Pleasure  are  chained. 
Victory  enters  with  Heroes,  liberates  Peace, 
and  confines  Discord  and  her  followers. 
The  libretto,  a  version  of  the  Eape  of  Pros- 
erpine, is  one  of  Quinault's  best,  and  is  set 
to  music  with  great  skill.  Published  by 
Christophe  Ballard  (Paris,  1680  ;  2d  ed., 
1714).  Same  text,  reduced  to  three  acts  by 
Guillard,  music  by  Paisiello,  Academie 
Eoyale  de  Musique,  Paris,  Mai-ch  29,  1803. 
Other  operas  on  the  same  subject,  in  Ital- 
ian, by  Bonifazio  Asioli,  Correggio,  1784  ; 
by  Joiio  Cordeiro  da  Silva,  Lisbon,  1784  ; 
by  Peter  von  Winter,  text  by  Da  Ponte, 
London,  1804  ;  by  John  Franc  Westmore- 
land, ib.,  1845.  Ballet  by  Batistin  (Struck), 
Versailles,  about  1713  ;  ballet  by  Schneitz- 
hoffer,  text  by  Gardel,  Paris,  1818  ;  and 
The  Loves  of  Pluto  and  Proserpine,  or  the 
Eape  of  Proserpine,  intermezzo  for  the 
English  pantomime,  by  John  Ernst  Gal- 
liard,  London,  1725. — Clement  et  Larousse, 
554  ;  Lajarte,  i.  3G  ;  ii.  28. 

PEOSEEPINE,  French  opera  in  four 
acts,  text  by  GaUet,  after  a  poem  by  Bac- 
querie,  music  by  Saint-SaC-ns,  rej)reseuted 
at  the  Opera  Comique,  March  IG,  1887. 
Mile  Salla  sang  the  pai't  of  Proserpine,  and 
the  original  cast  included  Mile  Simonnet, 
Taskin,  and  Lubert.  This  opera  was  not  a 
success. — Neue  Zeitschr.  (1887),  136. 

PEOT,  FELIX  JEAN,  born  at  Senlis, 
France,  in  1747,  died  in  Paris  in  1823. 
Violinist,  pupil  of  Desmarais,  and  in  har- 
mony of  Gianotti  in  Paris,  whither  he  went 
earlj'  in  life.  In  1775  he  entered  the  or- 
chestra of  the  Comedie  Franyaise  as  viola 
player,  and  in  1822  was  pensioned.  Works 
—Operas  :  Le  bal  bourgeois,  Les  reveries, 
1779  ;  Le  printemps,  1787  ;  Symphonic  con- 


1S8 


PROTTI 


certante  for  2  violas  ;  6  duos  concertants  for 
do.  ;  Duos  for  2  violins. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

PROTTI,  JOSE,  born  at  Malson,  Bale- 
aric Isles,  in  1827,  still  Uving,  1890.  Dra- 
matic comj)oser  ;  settled  at  Marseilles  about 
1843,  became  organist  of  Saint-Theodore, 
and  in  1856  of  Saint-Vincent  de  Paul. 
Works  :  Gacela,  Spanish  opera  ;  Les  gardes 
franyaises,  ojjera-comique,  Marseilles,  1856  ; 
Le  tresor  de  Jeannot,  ib.,  1877 ;  Mass  ; 
Stabat  Mater,  and  other  church  music ; 
Morceaux  de  genre,  for  pianoforte. — Fetis, 
Supplement,  ii.  371. 

PROUT,  EBENEZER,  born  at  Oundle, 
Northamjit  o  u  s  h  i  r  e, 
England,  March  1, 
1835,  still  living,  1890. 
Instrumental  and  vo- 
cal comjjoser,  and 
writer  on  music  ;  stud- 
ied pianoforte  under 
Charles  Salamau.  He 
won  in  1862  the  first 
prize  of  the  Society  of 
British  Musicians  for 
the  best  string  quartet,  and  in  1865  for  a 
pianoforte  quartet.  In  1871-71  he  was 
editor  of  the  "Monthly  Musical  Record," 
and  since  successively  musical  critic  of  the 
"Academy"  and  the  "Athenaeum."  Con- 
ductor of  the  Borough  of  Hackney  Choral 
Association,  1876  ;  professor  of  harmony 
and  composition  at  the  National  Training 
School  for  Music,  1876  ;  at  the  Royal  Acad- 
emy of  Music,  1879  ;  at  Guildhall  School 
of  Music,  1884.  "Works  :  Love  and  Taxa- 
tion, comic  opera,  1883  ;  Hereward,  cantata, 
1878  ;  Alfred,  do.,  London,  1881  ;  Queen 
Aimee,  do.,  for  female  voices,  1885  ;  Hail  to 
the  chief,  chorus  with  orchestra,  1877 ; 
Freedom,  do.,  1885 ;  Magnificat  for  solo 
voices,  chorus,  and  orchestra,  1873  ;  The 
100th  Psalm,  for  soprano  solo,  chorus,  and 
orchestra,  1886  ;  Overture  to  Twelfth- 
Night,  1880;  4  symphonies,  1873,  1876, 
1884,  1886  ;  Minuet  and  trio  for  orchestra, 
1877  ;  Suite  for  do.,  1878  ;  2  concertos  for 
organ  and  orchestra,  1870,  1883  ;  Quintet 


for  pianoforte  and  strings,  1860  ;  2  quar- 
tets for  do.,  1865,  1881  ;  2  do.  for  strings, 
1862,  1881  ;  Sonata  for  pianoforte  and  flute  ; 
do.  for  organ  ;  Concertante  duet  for  piano- 
forte and  harmonium  ;  2  Evening  Services  ; 
Morning  and  Communion  Service  ;  Magni- 
ficat and  Nunc  dimittis,  in  D  ;  etc.  He  is 
author  also  of  "  Harmony,  its  Theory  and 
Practice  "  (London,  1889),  and  a  contribu- 
tor to  Grove's  Dictionary. — Grove  ;  Men- 
del, Ergilnz.,  3C6  ;  Riemann. 

PROVENZALE,  FRANCESCO,  Neapoli- 
tan church  composer  of  the  17th  century,  and 
one  of  the  most  learned  and  esteemed 
masters  of  the  Conservatorio  dclla  Pieti  de' 
Turchini,  at  Najsles.  Works  ;  Pauge  lingua, 
for  9  voices,  with  orchestra  ;  Tantum  ergo 
and  Genitori,  for  soprano  solo  and  organ, 
with  chorus ;  La  colomba  ferita,  sacred 
drama,  1069  ;  La  Geneviefa,  oratorio  ;  L'  in- 
fedeltii  abbattuta,  do. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

PRUDENT,  EMLE  (BEUNIE-),  born  at 
Angouleme,  Feb.  3, 
1817,  died  in  Paris, 
May  14,  1863.  Pi- 
anist ;  received  his 
first  lessons  from  a 
pianoforte  tuner  who 
had  adojited  him , 
then  pujsil  of  Le- 
couppey,  Laurent, 
and  Zimmerman,  at 
the  Paris  Conservatoire,  which  he  entered 
at  the  age  of  ten.  He  won  in  1833  the  first 
prize  for  pianoforte,  and  in  1834  the  second 
prize  for  harmony.  After  Thalberg's  ap- 
pearance in  Paris  in  1836  he  formed  his 
style  in  imitation  of  that  virtuoso,  and  es- 
tablished his  reputation  by  a  concert  given 
at  Rennes  in  1840.  He  first  appeared  in 
Paris  in  1842,  and  thenceforth  made  many 
concert  tours  in  France  and  abroad,  played 
a  concerto  of  his  own  at  the  London  Phil- 
harmonic in  1848,  and  was  heard  at  the 
New  Philharmonic  Concerts  in  1853.  He 
was  much  sought  as  a  teacher,  and  formed 
several  distinguished  pupils.  Works  :  Les 
trois  reves,  coucerto-symphonie  for  piano- 


159 


PEUME 


forte  and  orchestra  ;  Concerto  in  B-flat,  for 
do. ;  Trio  for  pianoforte  and  strings ;  Etudes 
and  transcrij)tions  with  and  without  vari- 
ations ;  Morceaus  de  genre,  etc. — Fetis  ; 
Grove  ;  Mendel ;  Eiemann. 

PKIBIE,  FEANgOIS  HUBEKT,  born  at 
Stavelot,  near  Liege,  June  3,  1816,  died 
there,  July  14,  1849.  Virtuoso  on  the  vio- 
lin, son  of  the  organist  of  his  native  town ; 
sent,  when  five  years  old,  to  Malmc'dy  to 
study  under  a  violinist ;  entered  in  1827  the 
newly  opened  Conservatoire  at  Liege,  and 
in  1830  that  of  Paris,  where  he  became  a 
pupil  of  Habencck.  He  was  appointed  in 
1833  professor  at  the  Liege  Conservatoire  ; 
started  iu  1839  on  a  concert  toui',  visiting 
Frankfort,  Leipsic,  Berlin,  Prague,  Sweden, 
Norway,  Denmark,  and  Russia,  and  returned 
in  1842  to  Stavelot.  He  afterwards  played 
in  Brussels,  Ghent,  Antwerp,  and  visited 
some  of  the  German  cities,  playing  with 
Liszt  at  Gotha,  spent  the  winter  of  1844 
iu  Paris,  and  was  recalled  to  Liege  as  chief 
professor  of  violin.  When  not  quite  thirty 
he  was  afflicted  with  an  incurable  disease 
of  the  eye,  which  resulted  iu  total  blind- 
ness. Works :  La  molancholie,  for  violin 
and  orchestra  or  pianoforte,  op.  1.  (Paris)  ; 
Concertino,  for  do.  ;  Morceau  de  concert,  for 
do.  ;  Grande  polonaise,  for  do.  ;  6  grandes 
etudes.— Fetis  ;  Hart,  The  Violin,  323  ;  Men- 
del ;  Eiemann  ;  Schilling,  Supplement,  350. 

PEU:\HER,  ANGE  CONEAD,  bom  about 
18-21,  died  in  Paris,  April  3,  1884.  Harp 
jjlayer,  son  and  pupil  of  Autoiue  Piiimier  at 
the  Conservatoire,  where  he  won  in  1836  the 
second  pi'ize,  in  1838  the  first,  and  iu  1843 
the  first  prize  for  fugue.  He  succeeded  his 
father  at  the  Opi'-ra  Comique,  and  after- 
wards entered  the  orchestra  of  the  Opera. 
In  1870  he  became  professor  at  the  Conser- 
vatoire. Works  :  Soli  and  etudes  for  haii^  ; 
2  nocturnes  for  horn  and  harp ;  Offertory 
for  military  band  ;  Les  trois  Nicolas,  fan- 
taisie  for  do.  ;  Les  quatre  fils  Aymon, 
march  ;  O  salutaris,  Agnus  Dei,  Ave  verum, 
Tantum  ergo,  for  tenor,  etc. — Fetis,  Sup- 
plement, ii.  371. 


PEXBHER,  ANTOmE,  bom  in  Paris, 
July  2,  1794,  died  there,  Jan.  20,  1868. 
Virtuoso  on  the  hai-ji,  pupil  of  his  mother, 
a  clever  amateur ;  then,  at  the  Conservatoire, 
of  Catel  in  harmony,  winning  in  1812  the 
second  prize.  After  this  he  was  comjjellcd 
by  militai'y  law  to  enter  the  £cole  Polytech- 
nique,  but  in  1815  gave  up  mathematics, 
and  finished  his  studies  at  the  Conservatoire 
as  a  pupil  of  Eler  iu  counterpoint.  He  be- 
came harpist  at  the  Theatre  Italien,  and  iu 
1835  at  the  Opera  Comique ;  and  in  the 
same  year  succeeded  Nadermann  as  pro- 
fessor of  the  harp  at  the  Conservatoire, 
where  he  formed  a  number  of  well-known 
pupils.  Legion  of  Honour  in  1845  ;  vice- 
president,  seventeen  yeai-s  consecutively,  of 
the  Association  des  artistes  musiciens ;  re- 
tired in  1867  from  the  Conservatoire.  He 
published  about  a  hundred  fantaisies,  ron- 
dos, and  airs  with  variations,  for  hai-p 
(Paris). — Fetis  ;  Grove. 

PSALM  XLH.  (Wie  der  Hirsch  sehreit), 
set  to  music  by  Mendelssohn,  for  chorus, 
soli,  and  orchestra,  op.  42,  first  performed 
in  Leipsic,  Jan.  1,  1838.  Published  by 
Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel  (Leipsic,  1839)  ;  ar- 
ranged for  j)ianoforte  for  four  hands  by  E. 
F.  Eichter  (ib.,  1841).  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel, 
Mendelssohn  Werke,  Serie  xiv.,  No.  89. 
— Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xli.  119,  289  ;  Eeiss- 
mann,  Mendelssohn,  211. 

PSALM  XL"VT.  (God  is  our  refuge),  set 
to  music  for  chorus,  soli,  and  orchestra,  by 
Dudley  Buck,  and  first  performed  by  the 
Handel  and  Haydn  Society,  Boston,  May  7, 
1874. 

PSALM  XC\Tn.  (Singet  dem  Herrn  ein 
neues  Lied),  set  to  music  by  Mendelssohn, 
for  eight-voice  chorus  and  orchestra,  op.  91, 
first  performed  at  the  festival  sei-vice  in  the 
Berlin  Cathedral,  New  Tear's  Day.  1844. 
Published  by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Mendels- 
sohn Werke,  Serie  siv.,  No.  92. 

PSALM  CXIV.  (.41s  Israel  aus  Aegypten 
zog),  set  to  music  by  Mendelssohn,  for 
chorus  of  eight  voices  and  orchestra,  op. 
51,  first  performed  in  Leijjsic,  Jan,  1,  1840, 


PSALM 


It  was  composed  in  1838-39,  and  dedicated 
to  the  painter  J.  W.  Schirmer,  of  Diissel- 
dorf.  It  was  sung  at  the  Niederrheinische 
Musikfeste  in  1883  and  in  1888.  Breitkopf 
&  Hiirtel,  Mendelssolin  Werke,  Serie  xiv., 
No.  91. — Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xlii.  2G  ; 
xliii.  289. 

PSALM  CXV.  (Nicbt  uuserm  namen, 
Herr),  Non  nobis  Dominc,  set  to  music  by 
Mendelssohn,  for  chorus  and  orchestra,  op. 
31,  first  performed  in  Leipsic,  Feb.  8,  1838. 
Published  by  Simrock  (Bonn,  183G).  Breit- 
kopf &  Hiirtel,  Mendelssohn  Werke,  Serie 
xiv..  No.  88. — Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xL  111  ; 
Neue  Zeitschr.,  iv.  133. 

PSYCHE,  cantata,  text  by  Lobedanz,  mu- 
sic by  Gade,  op.  CO,  first  performed  at  the 
Birmingham  (England)  Festival,  under  the 
composer's  direction,  Aug.  31,  1882,  with 
Mme  Marie  Eoze  as  Psyche  and  Mr.  Santley 
as  Eros.  It  was  well  received,  and  is  full 
of  graceful  melodies.  It  was  first  given  in 
London  by  the  Highbury  Philharmonic  So- 
ciety, Nov.  27,  1882.  Published  by  Ewer 
&  Novello,  London. — Athenaium  (1882),  ii. 
347. 

PSYCH15,  tragedie-lyrique  in  five  acts, 
text  by  Corneille,  music  by  LuUy,  first  rep- 
resented at  the  Acadenue  Royale  de  Mu- 
sique,  Paris,  April  9,  1G78.  Fontenelle 
claimed  to  have  written  the  text.  The 
words  of  one  trio,  "Deh,  j)iangete  al  pianto 
mio,"  are  written  in  Italian.  The  part  of 
Psyche  was  sung  by  Mile  Desmatins  and 
fillle  Journet  ;  Amour,  by  Cochereau ;  Ve- 
nus, by  Mile  Maupin  and  Mile  Heuse,  and 
Psycht-'s  father,  by  Thevenard.  Published 
by'christophe  Ballard  (Paris,  1720).  Lully 
also  wrote  music  for  a  tragi-comedie-ballet 
in  five  acts,  text  by  Moliere,  Quinault,  and 
Pierre  Corneille,  first  represented  at  the 
Tuileries,  Jan.  17,  1G71,  and  at  the  Palais 
Royal,  July  24,  1G71.  It  was  revived  of 
recent  years  at  the  Comedie  Franjaise, 
Paris. — Lajarte,  i.  33  ;  Hogarth,  i.  44  ; 
Clement  et  Larousse,  556. 

PSYCHE,  opera-comique  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Jules  Barbier  and   Michel   Carre, 


music  by  Ambroise  Thomas,  first  rep- 
resented at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris, 
Jan.  26,  1857.  Original  cast :  Psyche,  Mile 
Lefebvre  ;  Eros,  Mme  Ugalde ;  and  Mer- 
cure,  M.  Bataille.  This  is  a  delicate  and 
gracefid  composition  ;  it  was  revived  in 
Paris  with  additions.  May  21,  1878.  Other 
operas  on  the  same  subject :  In  Italian,  La 
Psiche,  intermezzo  in  two  acts,  by  Ales- 
sandro  Striggio,  represented  during  the 
marriage  of  Francesco  de'  Medici  and 
Jeanne  d'Autriche,  Florence,  1565  ;  Cuindo 
e  Psiche,  by  Marco  Scacchi,  Dantzic,  1634  ; 
Psiche  cercando  Amore,  sereuata  by  Antonio 
Draghi,  Vienna,  1688  ;  Psiche,  by  Benedetto 
Marcello,  text  by  Cassani,  Venice,  1711  ;  by 
J.  J.  Fux  with  Caldara,  test  by  Pariati,  Vi- 
enna, Nov.  19,  1720  ;  by  J.  J.  Fux  alone,  ib., 
Oct.  1,  1722  ;  Le  nozzedi  Psiche  con  Amore, 
by  Leo,  Naples,  1738 ;  L'  Amore  e  Psiche, 
by  J.  F.  Agricola,  textby  Laudi,  Berlin,  Oct. 
5,  1767  ;  and  Amore  e  Psiche,  by  Josef 
Schuster,  Naples,  1780  :  in  French,  Psyche, 
ballet  by  Blaise,  Paris,  about  1755  ;  L'A- 
mour  et  Psyche,  by  J.  J.  Cassanea  de  Mon- 
donville,  Paris,  June  24,  17G0  ;  Psyche  et 
I'Amour,  by  Saiut-Amans,  text  by  the  Abbe 
Voisenon,  Brussels,  1778,  Paris,  1782  ;  :fiti- 
enne  Nicolas  Mehul,  same  text,  ib.,  1785 ; 
and  L'Amour  et  Psyche,  by  August  Pilati, 
Paris,  Dec.  13, 1856  :  in  English,  by  Matthew 
Lock  (with  Giovanni  Baptista  Draghi),  text 
by  Shadwell  after  Quinault,  London,  1675  ; 
parodied  as  Psyche  Debauched,  by  Th.  Dai- 
fet,  same  music,  ib.,  1675 :  in  German,  Die 
wunderschOne  Psyche,  by  Eeinhard  Keiser, 
text  by  Postel,  for  the  birthday  of  Queen 
Sophie  Charlotte  of  Prussia,  Hamburg,  Oct. 
20,  1701  ;  Psyche,  ballet  by  J.  J.  Rodolphe, 
Stuttgart,  1762  ;  Amor  und  Psyche,  by  F. 
L.  Gassmann,  Vienna,  Oct.  5,  1767  ;  Psyche, 
by  Karl  Beruhard  Wessely,  Berlin,  1789  ; 
Psyche,  by  Peter  von  Winter,  Munich, 
1793  ;  and  Amor  und  Psyche,  by  Johann 
Christian  Abeille,  Stuttgart,  1801.— Clement 
et  Larousse,  556  ;  Revue  et  Gaz.  mus.  de 
Paris  (1857),  33  ;  Hanslick,  Musikalische 
Stationen,  120. 


161 


PUCCINI 


PUCCmi,  ANTONIO,  born  at  Lucca  in 
1747,  died  there,  Feb.  3,  1832.  Church 
comi^oser,  son  of  Giacomo  Puccini  (1712- 
81,  organist  and  maestro  di  cappella  of  the 
republic  of  Lucca),  pupil  of  Caretti  at  Bo- 
logna ;  in  1781  succeeded  his  father  at 
Lucca.  Member  of  the  Accademia  Filar- 
monica,  Bologna.  Works :  Masses,  psalms, 
motets,  for  2  to  8  voices ;  Requiem  for 
the  obsequies  of  Emperor  Joseph  U.  ;  20 
services,  with  orchestra,  for  the  feast  of  St. 
Cecilia. — Fetis  ;  do.,  Supplement,  ii.  372. 

PUCCINI,  DOJIENICO,  born  at  Lucca 
in  1771,  died  there.  May  2.5,  1815.  Dra- 
matic and  church  comjjoser,  son  of  the  lire- 
ceding  ;  studied  first  in  his  native  city,  then 
at  Bologna  under  Padi-o  Mattel  and  at  Na- 
ples under  Padi-e  Tesei.  After  his  return 
to  Lucca  ho  was  appointed  maestro  di  cap- 
pella of  the  republic,  replacing  his  father. 
Works — Operas :  Quinto  Fabio  ;  H  ciarla- 
tano  ;  Le  frecce  d'  Amore ;  La  moglie  ca- 
pricciosa  ;  L'  ortolanella.  Masses,  vespers, 
psalms,  hymns,  motets,  Te  Deum  for  2  to 
8  voices ;  Grand  motet,  for  IG  voices  and 
double  orchestra  ;  Several  cantatas. — Fetis, 
Sujjplcment,  ii.  372. 

PUCCINI,  mCHELE,  born  at  Lucca, 
Dec.  27,  1813,  died  there,  Jan.  23,  1864. 
Dramatic  and  church  composer,  son  of  the 
preceding,  pupil  of  Fauucchi  on  the  piano- 
forte and  in  theory,  and  of  Padre  Santucci 
and  Eugeuio  Galli  in  hai-mony  and  counter- 
point ;  then  at  Bologna  pupil  of  POoti,  and 
at  Naples  of  Mercadante.  After  his  return 
to  Lucca,  in  1841,  he  was  made  director  of 
the  musical  institute.  Works  :  Antonio 
Foscarini,  opera  ;  Cattani,  o  la  rivoluzione 
degli  Straccioni,  do. ;  2  masses  ;  Miserere 
and  Benedictus  ;  Several  motets,  for  2  to  4 
voices,  with  and  without  orchestra ;  8  ser- 
vices for  4  voices  and  orchestra  ;  Composi- 
tions for  8  voices  and  2  orchestras. — Fetis, 
Supplement,  ii.  372. 

PUCCITA  (Pucita),  \TNCENZO,  bom  at 
Civita  Vecchia  in  1778,  died  in  Milan,  Dec. 
20,  1861.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  at  the 
Conservatorio  della  Pietu,  Naples,  of  Fena- 


roli  and  Sala.  He  wrote  several  small  op- 
eras before  I  due  prigionieri,  Rome,  1801, 
made  him  widely  known.  In  1806  he  went 
to  London  as  musical  director  at  the  opera. 
He  travelled  with  Madame  Catalani,  as  ac- 
companist, through  Scotland,  L'eland,  Hol- 
land, Belgium,  and  the  Rhine  countries, 
and  followed  her  to  Paris  when  she  as- 
sumed the  direction  of  the  Italian  opera 
there.  About  the  end  of  1817  he  returned 
to  Italy  and  settled  in  Rome.  Works : 
L'  amor  platonico,  Lucca,  1800  ;  Le  uozze 
senza  sposa,  Pai-ma,  1800  ;  H  fuoi-uscito, 
Milan,  1801  ;  I  due  prigionieri,  Rome,  1801 ; 
n  puntiglio,  Milan,  1802  ;  Teresa  Wilk,  la 
fiuta  pazza  ;  Audromacca,  Lisbon,  1806 ; 
II  marchese  d'  un  giorno,  ossia  gli  sposi 
fehci,  Leghorn,  1808  ;  La  vestale,  Loudon, 
1809  ;  Le  tre  sultane,  ib.,  1811  ;  Laodicea, 
ib.,  1813  ;  L'  orgogUo  avvilito,  Paris,  1815  ; 
La  caccia  di  Enrico  IV.,  ib.,  1816  ;  La  prin- 
cipessa  in  campagna,  ib.,  1817  ;  La  festa 
del  ^iUaggio,  Rome,  1821  ;  I  prigionieri, 
Venice,  1831  ;  Adolfo  e  Chiara,  Milan,  1833. 
— Fetis ;  MeudeL 

PUGET,  LOlSA,  bom  in  Pai-is  about 
1810,  died  in  Pau,  1889.  Vocal  composer ; 
she  won  extraordinary  popularity  in  the  reign 
of  Louis  PhUippe  by  her  songs,  composed 
to  words  by  Gustave  Lemoine,  whom  she 
married  in  1842.  Among  the  best  known 
are  :  A  la  grace  de  Dieu  ;  Ave  Maria  ;  Le 
soleil  de  ma  Bretagne  ;  Ta  dot ;  Mon  pays  ; 
Les  rcves  d'une  jeune  fille.  After  study- 
ing composition  under  Adolphe  Adam,  she 
jjroduced  Le  mauvais  ceil,  at  the  Opera  Co- 
mique,  in  1836;  and  La  veilleuse,  ou  les  nuits 
de  milady,  operetta,  at  the  Gymnase,  1869. 
Her  songs  were  published  in  albums  which 
appeared  every  vear. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

PUGET,  PAUL  CHARLES  MARIE 
CURET-,  bom  at  Nantes,  June  25, 1848,  still 
living,  1890.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  at 
the  Paris  Conservatoire  of  Marmontel  on 
the  pianoforte,  of  Bazin  in  harmony,  and  of 
Masse  in  comijosition.  He  won  the  prix 
de  Rome,  1873,  for  his  cantata  Mazeppa. 
Other  works  :  Les  jardins  d'Armide,  opera- 


162 


PUGNANI 


bouffe  ;  Le  maitre  danseur,  Bouffes-Pari- 
siens,  1869  ;  La  Marocaine,  opora-comique, 
Thoutre  Lyrique  ;  Andrea  del  Sarto,  lyric 
drama. — Futis,  Supplc'ment,  ii.  372. 

PUGNANI,  GAETANO,  bora  in   Turin 
in  1727,  died  there 


in  1803.  Virtuoso 
on  the  violin,  one  of 
the  best  represent- 
atives of  the  Pied- 
montese  school, 
pujjil  of  Somis,  who 
liad  studied  under 
CorelU,  then  in 
Padua  of  Tartini. 
He    combined    the 

prominent  qualities  of  style  and  technique 
of  both  these  great  masters.  He  was  first 
violin  in  the  court  orchestra  at  Turin  in 
1752  ;  he  travelled  in  1751-70,  plaj-iug  at 
the  Concerts  Spirituels  in  Paris,  and  sjsend- 
ing  several  years  in  London,  where  he 
was  for  a  time  leader  in  the  orchestra  of 
the  Italian  opera.  In  1770  ho  returned 
to  Turin,  became  maestro  di  cappeUa  of  the 
royal  theatre,  and  ofiened  a  violin  school 
which  became  famous  for  its  pupils,  among 
whom  were  Viotti,  Conforti,  Buini,  and  Pol- 
ledro.  To  him  may  be  said  to  be  due  the  pre- 
servation of  the  grand  stylo  of  Corelli,  Tar- 
tini, and  Vivaldi,  and  its  transmission  to  the 
next  generation  of  riolinists.  Works — Ojie- 
ras  :  Tamas  Koulikan,  Turin,  1772  ;  Adone 
e  Venere,  Naples,  1784.  Nanetta  e  Lubino, 
opera  bufia,  Turin,  1781 ;  Achille  in  Sciro, 
ib.,  1785  ;  Demetrio  a  Eodi,  1789  ;  Coreso 
e  Calliroo,  ballet,  1792.  Two  cantatas : 
Issea,  1771,  and  1'  Aurora,  1775.  Nine  con- 
certos for  violin  ;  12  octets  (symphonies) 
for  string  quartet,  2  oboes,  and  2  horns  ;  6 
quintets  for  2  violins,  2  flutes,  and  bass  ;  G 
quartets  for  strings  ;  3  sets  of  trios,  2  do. 
of  duos,  for  violins. — Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Schil- 
ling ;  Wasielewski,  Die  Violine,  103  ;  Hart, 
The  Violin,  22G ;  Dubourg,  The  Violin, 
87. 

PUGNI,  CESAEE,  bom  in  Milan  in  1805 
died  at  St.   Petersburg  in  January,  1870. 


Dramatic  composer,  pufjil  in  1815-22  of 
Asioli  at  the  Milan  Conservatorio.  About 
1810  he  went  to  St.  Petersburg,  where  for 
thirty  j'ears  be  composed  ballets  almost  ex- 
clusively. Works  :  H  disertore  svizzero,  o 
la  nostalgia,  Milan,  1831  ;  La  vendetta, 
ib.,  1832  ;  Eicciardo  di  Edimburgo,  Trieste, 
1832  ;  H  contrabandiere,  Milan,  1833  ;  Un 
episodio  di  San  Michele,  ib.,  1834.  Among 
his  ballets  are  :  Le  fucine  di  Vulcano,  Pai-ma, 
182G  ;  Eutichio  della  Castagna,  Pelia  e 
Mileto,  Milan,  1827  ;  Esmeralda,  ilj.,  1845  ; 
La  fille  de  marbre,  Paris,  1847  ;  Edoardo, 
ib.,  1848  ;  La  vivandiere,  ib.,  1848  ;  Le 
violon  du  diable,  ib.,  1849  ;  Stella,  ou  les 
contrebandiers,  ib.,  1850  ;  Le  marche  des 
innocents,  ib.,  18G1  ;  Diavohna,  ib.,  1863  ; 
Gli  elementi,  ib.,  1866  ;  La  momie,  St. 
Petersburg,  1862  ;  etc. — Fetis ;  do..  Sup- 
plement, ii.  373. 

PUIG,  BERNARDO  CALV6,  born  at 
Vich,  Spain,  Feb.  22,  1819,  still  living  (?), 
1890.  Organist  and  singer,  pupil  of  Jos6 
Gallt's,  and  in  composition  of  Francisco  Bo- 
namieh  ;  then  at  Barcelona  pupil  of  Jose 
Rose's  and  of  Juan  Quintana,  the  latter  of 
whom  ho  succeeded  as  organist  of  Nuestra 
Dama  del  Pino.  He  resigned  this  post  to 
become  contralto  in  the  Chapel  of  Santa 
Maria  del  Mar,  and  afterwards  at  the  ca- 
thedral. In  1853  he  was  appointed  maestro 
de  capiUa  of  the  Church  de  la  Merced. 
Works  :  Carlo  il  temerario,  opera  ;  L'  astro- 
nomo,  comic  opera  ;  Un  novio  en  dos  per- 
sonas,  zarzuela  ;  Don  Gumersindo  ;  Don 
Francisco  de  Quevedo  ;  2  oratorios  ;  Stabat 
Mater  ;  Miserere  ;  Service  for  the  month  of 
May ;  About  200  hymns,  motets,  psalms, 
etc. — Fetis,  Supplement,  ii.  374. 

PUITS  D'AMOUR,  LE  (The  Well  of 
Love),  opora-comique  in  three  acts,  text  by 
Scribe  and  de  Leuven,  music  by  Balfe,  first 
represented  at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris, 
April  20,  1843.  A  young  king,  fidouard, 
lives  a  gay  life  with  his  noblemen,  and 
forces  them  to  throw  him  into  the  puits 
d'amour.  This  leads  into  a  subterranean 
hall,  a  rendezvous  for  the  adventurous  lords. 


1U3 


FUriLLE 


A  young  girl,  Geraldine,  throws  herself  into 
the  well,  because  she  was  forced  to  renounce 
her  lover  Tony,  the  sailor,  in  reality  Lord 
Salisbury,  by  the  king,  who  wanted  her  for 
a  waiting  woman  to  his  betrothed,  the  Prin- 
cesse  de  Hainault.  Guraldiue,  arriving  in 
the  haU  among  the  noblemen,  who  are  dis- 
guised as  demons,  believes  herself  to  be 
dead  and  in  hell,  but  Salisbury,  who  is 
among  them,  protects  her.  Edouard  is 
seized  by  the  sheriff,  is  released,  pardons 
the  shei-iflf,  and  consents  to  the  union  of 
Salisbury  with  Geraldine.  The  opera  was 
first  given  in  London,  as  Geraldine,  English 
translation  by  Gilbert  a  Becket,  in  August, 
1843.  It  was  given  in  Vienna  as  Der  Lie- 
besbrunnen  in  1845. — Clement  et  Larousse, 
557  ;  Athenanim  (1843),  757. 

PUPILLE  SDEGNOSE  !,  contralto  aria 
of  Muzio,  in  D  major,  with  accompaniment 
of  oboes  and  violins  in  unison,  and  bass,  in 
Handel's  Muzio  Scveola,  Act  III.,  Scene  3. 
Published  also  separatclj',  with  the  accom- 
paniment filled  out  by  Robert  Franz  (Leixj- 
sic,  Kistner). 

PUPPO,  GIUSEPPE,  born  in  Lucca, 
June  12,  1740,  died  in  Florence,  April  19, 
1827.  Violinist,  pupil  at  the  Naples  Con- 
servatorio  ;  became  a  virtuoso  in  Italy  at  an 
early  age.  He  went  in  1775  to  Paris,  thence 
to  Spain  and  Portugal,  where  he  is  said  to 
have  amassed  a  considerable  fortune,  and 
after  spending  several  years  in  London  re- 
turned in  1784  to  Paris,  where  he  became 
first  violin  at  the  Theatre  de  Monsieur,  and 
then  at  the  Feydeau,  and  finally  conductor 
of  the  orchestra  at  the  Theatre  Fran<;ais. 
In  1811  he  left  Paris  suddenly,  abandoning 
his  wife  and  children,  and  was  next  heard 
of  in  Naples,  where  he  was  conductor  at  a 
theatre  ;  he  went  thence  to  Lucca  and  to 
Florence,  where  he  finally  died  in  destitu- 
tion in  a  hospice.  His  published  comijosi- 
tions,  consisting  of  duos,  concertos,  and  fan- 
tasias for  violin  and  pianoforte,  are  few  and 
of  little  importance. — Grove  ;  Fotis  ;  Men- 
del ;  Hart,  The  Violin,  231  ;  xiii.  423  ;  Wa- 
sielewski.  Die  Violine,  126. 


PURCELL,  DANIEL,  born  in  London  in 
1660,  died  there.  Dee.  12,  1717.  Organist, 
brother  of  Henry  Purcell  ;  was  organist 
of  Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  in  1G88-95, 
and  of  St.  Andrew's,  London,  in  1713-17. 
Works — ]\Iusic  to  dramas  :  Love's  last  Shift 
(Cibber),  1G90  ;  Indian  Queen,  1G9G  ;  Bru- 
tus of  Alba,  or  Augusta's  Triumph,  1697  ; 
Cynthia  and  Endymion  (D'Urfey),  1697  ; 
PhaOton,  or  the  fatal  Divorce,  1698  ;  The 
Island  Princess  (Motteaux),  with  Clark  and 
Leveridge,  1699  ;  The  Grove,  or  Love's 
Paradise,  1700  ;  The  unhappy  Penitent, 
1701  ;  The  Inconstant  (Farquhar),  1702  ; 
The  Judgment  of  Paris,  a  pastoral  (Con- 
greve),  1700.  Odes,  psalms,  instrumental 
and  church  music,  and  songs. 

PURCELL,  HENRY,  the  younger,  born 
in  Old   Pye   Street, 


Westminster,  in  or 
about  1658,  died  in 
Dean's  Yard,  West- 
minster, Nov.  2  1, 
1695.  The  second 
son  of  Henry  Purcell 
the  elder  (Gentle- 
man of  Chapel  Roy- 
al, IGGO ;  member 
Royal  Band,  1663; 
died,  1G64),  he  lost  his  father  when  still  a 
boy.  He  entered  the  Chapel  Royal,  where 
he  studied  under  Cooke  and  Humphrey, 
and  received  instruction  also  fi'om  Dr. 
Blow.  In  1675,  when  only  seventeen,  he 
got  an  order  from  Josias  Priest,  a  theatrical 
dancing-master,  to  write  an  opera  on  Tate's 
Dido  and  53neas,  to  be  given  at  his  "  board- 
ing school  for  young  gentlewomen."  The 
success  of  this  work,  though  in  somewhat 
restricted  circles,  was  such  that  Purcell 
soon  had  orders  to  write  overtures,  songs, 
and  incidental  music  to  several  plays  bj- 
Dryden,  Shadwell,  and  Jlrs.  Behn.  The 
last  works  of  this,  his  first  period,  were 
music  to  Shadwell's  version  of  Shakespeare's 
"Timon  of  Athens,"  Lee's  "  Theodosius," 
and  D'Urfey "s,"  The  Virtuous  Wife."  In  1680 
he  was  appointed  organist  at  Westminster 


^'P^t 


164 


PUllCELL 


Abbey,  and  for  the  next  six  years  wrote 
nothing  for  the  stage,  but  composed  several 
occasioual  cantatas,  "  Welcome  Songs  "  to 
the  King,  and  twelve  sonatas  for  two  violins 
and  continuo.  In  1082  ho  was  appointed 
organist  to  the  Chapel  Royal.  In  168G  he 
began  once  more  to  write  for  the  stage, 
with  music  to  Dryden's  "  Tyrannic  Love," 
which  was  followed  by  music  to  other  plajs, 
until  iu  1G90  he  l)rought  out  his  first  real 
opera,  Dioclesian.  Next  year  followed  his 
masterpiece.  King  Arthur,  the  score  of 
which  was  published  by  the  Musical  Anti- 
quarian Society  in  1S43.  From  this  time 
to  his  death  he  continued  writing  operas 
and  incidental  music  to  plays,  as  well  as 
sacred  music  in  various  forms.  His  death 
is  said  to  have  been  Ijrought  on  by  a  cold 
caught  while  waiting  one  night  at  bis  own 
door,  his  wife  having  locked  him  out  as  a 
punishment  for  keeping  late  hours  ;  but 
it  is  more  probable  that  the  true  cause  was 
consumption.  He  retained  all  his  faculties, 
and  even  his  full  musical  creative  power,  to 
the  last,  and  one  of  his  best  works,  the 
cantata,  "  From  rosy  bowers,"  was  written 
during  his  last  illness.  He  left  all  his  prop- 
erty to  his  wife,  making  her  solo  executrix. 
He  was  buried  on  Nov.  2G,  1G95,  under  the 
organ  in  the  north  aisle  of  Westminster 
Abbey.  Purcell  was  without  doubt  the 
greatest,  perhaps  the  only  really  great,  mu- 
sical genius  England  has  ever  given  to  the 
world.  He  was  the  originator  of  a  form  of 
English  opera  which  was  followed  almost 
universally  for  over  a  century  and  a  half, 
and  was  even,  in  a  certain  sense,  the  father 
of  characteristically  English  melody.  His 
chief  model  in  di-amatic  music,  and  the 
composer  whose  works  he  principally  stud- 
ied, was  Jean  Baptiste  LuUy  ;  but  he  far 
surpassed  his  model  in  wealth  of  melody, 
while  he  equalled  him  in  dramatic  power. 
He  was  equally  great  in  dramatic  and 
church  composition,  and  Handel  studied 
his  odes  and  anthems  with  avidity.  His 
instrumental  chamber-music,  although  long 
since  obsolete,  was  remarkable  for  its  day. 


If,  instead  of  dying  at  the  age  of  thirty- 
seven,  he  had  lived  to  see  Italian  opera 
introduced  into  England,  and,  most  of  all, 
enjoyed  an  artistic  intercourse  with  Handel, 
the  very  greatest  things  might  have  been 
ex25ected  of  him.  As  it  is,  ho  shares  an 
undeserved  oblivion — as  far  as  the  musical 
world  at  large  is  concerned — with  all  other 
composers  of  the  pre-Handelian  period. 
A  Purcell  Club,  organized  in  London  in 
183G,    existed    until    18G3.      During   this 


Birthplace  of  Purcell. 

period  many  of  Purcell 's  works  were  per- 
formetl  and  published.  The  valuable  li- 
brary of  the  club  was  given  to  Westminster 
Abbey.  A  commemoration  to  celebrate  the 
bicentenary  of  Purcell's  birthday  was  held 
in  London,  Jan.  30,  1858.  On  Feb.  21, 
1S7G,  a  Purcell  Society  was  founded  to  pub- 
lish his  MS.  and  to  perform  his  works. 
Works — I.  Operas  and  music  to  tragedies 
and  comedies,  all  brought  out  in  London  : 
Dido  and  J3ueas  (text  by  Nahum  Tate), 
1G75  (published  in  score  by  the  Musical 
Antiquarian  Society,  1840)  ;  Aurenge-Zebe 
(Dryden),  1G7G  ;  Epsom  Wells  (Shadwell), 
1G76  ;  The  Libertine  (do.),  1G7G  ;  Abdelazor 
(Mrs.  Behn),  1G77  ;  Timon  of  Athens  (Shad- 
well's  adaptation  of  Shakespeare),  1678 ; 
Theodosius,  or  the  Force  of  Love  (Nat.  Lee), 
1G80  ;  The  Virtuous  Wife  (D'Urfey),  1G80  ; 
A  Fool's  Preferment  (do.),  1G88  ;  The  Tem- 
pest  (Shadwell's  adaptation  of  Shakcsiseare), 
1690  ;  The  Prophetess,  or  the  History  of 
Dioclesian  (Betterton,  after  Beaumont  and 
Fletcher),  1690  (published  in  score  by  sub- 


165 


PUECELL 


scription,  1691)  ;  The  Massacre  in  Paris 
(Nat.  Lee),  1690  ;  King  Ai'thur  (Dryden), 
1691,  and  with  additions  by  T.  A.  Ai-ne, 
1770  (pubhshed  in  score  by  the  Mus.  Antiq. 
Soc,  1843) ;  Distressed  Innocence,  or  the 
Princess  of  Persia  (Elkanah  Settle),  1691  ; 
The  Gordian  Knot  untyed,  1691  ;  Sir 
Anthony  Love,  or  the  Rambling  Lady 
(Southerne),    1G91  ;  Amphitryon    (Dryden), 

1691  ;  Tlie  Indian  Queen  (Howard  and  Dry- 
den), 1692  (published  in  part  by  May  and 
Hudgebutt,  1695,  and  entire  by  Goodison)  ; 
The  Indian  Emperor  (Dryden,  sequel  to  the 
foregoing),  1692  ;  Cleomenes  (do.),  1692  ; 
The  Wives'  Excuse  (Southerne),  1692  ;  The 
Marriage  Hater  match'd  (D'Urfey),  1692  ; 
CEdipus  (Dryden  and  Lee),  Act  HL,  1692  ; 
The  faii'y  Queen  (anonymous  adai^tation  of 
Shakespeare's  Midsummer  Night's  Di'eam), 

1692  ;  The  Old  Bachelor  (Congreve),  1693  ; 
The  Eichmond  Heiress,  or  a  Woman  once 
in  the  Eight  (D'Urfey),  1693  ;  The  Maid's 
last  Prayer  (Southerne),  1693  ;  Henry  the 
Second  (Bancroft),  1G93  ;  Don  Quixote 
(D'Urfey),  Parts  I.  and  H.,  1694  ;  The 
Double  Dealer  (Congi'eve),  1694  ;  The  Mar- 
ried Beau  (Crowne),  1694  ;  The  Fatal  Mar- 
riage (Southerne),  1604  ;  Love  Triumphant 
(Dryden),  1694  ;  lionduca  (PoweU,  after 
Beaumont  and  Fletcher),  1695  (published 
in  score  by  the  Mua.  Antiq.  Soc.)  ;  The 
Mock  Marriage  (Scott),  1695  ;  The  Eival 
Sisters  (Gould),  1695  ;  Oroonoko  (South- 
erne), 1695 ;  The  Canterbui-y  Guests  (Ea- 
venscroft),  1695  ;  The  Knight  of  Malta 
(Beaumont  and  Fletcher),  1695  ;  Don  Quix- 
ote (D'Urfey),  Part  HI.,  1695 ;  Circe  (Charles 
Davenant),  Act  I.  (never  perfonned,  and 
not  surely  authentic). 

IL  Odes :  Address  to  the  King,  1669  ; 
Elegy  on  the  death  of  Matthew  Lock, 
1677  ;  Welcome  song  for  His  Eoyal  High- 
ness's  return  from  Scotland,  What  shall  be 
done  in  behalf  of  the  man?,  4-part  sym- 
phony, solo,  and  4-part  chorus,  1680  ;  Song 
to  welcome  His  Majesty  home  from  Wind- 
sor, 1680  ;  Ode  for  the  King,  Swifter,  Isis, 
swifter   flow,   4-part   symphony,    solo,  and 


chorus,  1681  ;  Ode  to  the  King  on  his  re- 
turn from  Newmarket,  Oct.  21,  1682  ;  Ninth 
Ode  of  Horace  imitated  in  a  dialogue  be- 
tween the  poet  and  Lydia  ;  Music  for  the 
Lord  Mayor's  show,  1682  ;  Three  odes  for 
the  festival  of  St.  Cecilia,  1683  ;  Welcome 
song   for   the   King,    Fly,    bold    rebellion, 

1683  ;  Ode  for  Prince  George  of  Denmark's 
marriage  with  the  Princess  Anne,  From 
hardy    cHmes,    1683  ;    St.    Cecilia's    Ode, 

1684  ;  Ode  to  welcome  the  King  on  his  re- 
turn to  Whitehall  after  his  summer's  j)ro- 
gress,  1684 ;  Ode  in  honour  of  the  King, 
Why  are  all  the  Muses  mute  ?,  1685  ;  Ode 
for  the  King,  Ye  tuneful  Muses,  1686  ; 
Elegy  on  the  death  of  John  Playford  the 
younger,  text  by  Mi-.  Tate,  1687  ;  Ode  for 
the  King,  Sound  the  trumpets,  beat  the 
drum,  1687  ;  Ode  for  the  King,  1688  ;  Ode, 
"At  the  Prince  of  Denmark's  coming  home," 
1689  ;  Arise,  my  muse,  D'Urfey's  ode  for  the 
Queen's  birthday,  April  29,  1690 ;  Sound 
the  trumpet,  ode  for  King  William,  1690  ; 
Ode  for  the  Queen's  birthday.  Welcome, 
glorious  mora,  1691  ;  Sir  Chai-les  Sedley's 
ode.  Love's  goddess  sure  was  blind,  for  the 
Queen's  birthday,  1692  ;  Brady's  ode.  Hail, 
great  Cecilia,  for  the  anniversary  of  St. 
Cecilia,  1692  ;  Commemoration  ode  for 
Trinity  College,  Dublin,  Great  Parent,  hail, 

1693  ;  Celebrate  this  festival,  ode  for  the 
Queen's  birthday,  1693  ;  Come,  come,  ye 
sons  of  art,  ode  for  the  Queen's  birthday, 

1694  ;  The  art  of  descant,  ode  for  John 
Plaj'ford,  1694  ;  Who  can  from  joy  refrain?, 
a  birthday  ode  for  the  Duke  of  Gloucester, 
1695. 

ni.  Church  music  and  anthems  :  O  God, 
thou  art  my  God,  4q)art  anthem  ;  O  God, 
thou  hast  cast  us  out,  6-part  anthem  ;  O 
Lord  God  of  Hosts,  8-part  anthem ;  Thy 
way,  O  God,  is  hol^',  2-part  anthem  ;  Be 
merciful  unto  me,  O  God,  3-part  anthem  ; 
It  is  a  good  thing,  4-part  anthem,  with 
symijhony,  or  prelude,  two  violins  and  bass ; 
O  praise  God  in  his  holiness,  with  violins 
and  bass  ;  Awake,  put  on  thy  strength, 
ritoruels,  solo,  and  chorus  ;  Bless  the  Lord, 


166 


PURCELL 


O  my  soul,  six  voices,  two  choruses,  and 
symphony  ;  Why  do  the  heatlien?,  three 
voices  and  symphony  ;  Unto  thee  will  I  cry, 
three  voices  and  two  violins  ;  I  will  give 
thanks,  five  voices  ;  Praise  the  Lord,  sym- 
phony for  two  violins  and  bass,  solo,  and 
duets  ;  O  sing  unto  the  Lord,  four  and  five 
voices,  chorus,  and  symi^hony,  two  vioUns 
and  bass ;  Behold,  I  bring  you  glad  tidings  ; 
Thy  word  is  a  lantern  ;  O  give  thanks  ;  They 
that  go  down  to  the  sea  in  ships,  composed 
at  the  request  of  the  Kev.  Mr.  Gostliug, 
when  the  Iving  was  at  sea  (1G7'J)  ;  Peace  be 
within  thy  walls  ;  Lord,  how  long  ;  I  was 
glad  when,  ritornel  ;  The  way  of  God  ;  O  be 
joyful  ;  Blessed  is  he  ;  Blessed  is  the  man, 
and.  Thou  knowest.  Lord,  for  Queen  Mary's 
funeral  (1C95) ;  Two  elegies  upon  the  Queen's 
death  (1695)  ;  My  beloved  spake  ;  My  song 
shall  be  alway  ;  Rejoice  in  the  Lord  alway, 
for  three  voices  with  symphonies  ;  Praise 
the  Lord,  O  my  soul ;  Save  me,  O  God ;  We 
give  thanks  ;  I  was  glad,  and,  My  heart  is 
indicting,  for  the  ceremony  of  James  II.'s 
coronation  at  Westminster  Abbey,  1G85 ; 
Thanksgiving  anthem  for  the  recovery  of 
James  II.'s  Queen  ;  Blessed  are  they  that 
fear  the  Lord,  1G88  ;  The  Lord  is  King, 
1G88  ;  Church  service  in  B-flat  ;  5-pai-t 
Gloria  Patri ;  Two  Psalms  ;  Crucia  in  hac 
flamma,  hymn  for  two  voices  ;  Hymns  and 
psalms  for  three  and  foui'  voices ;  and  a 
Te  Deum  and  Jubilate  in  D,  with  orchestral 
accompaniments,  for  the  festival  of  St.  Ce- 
ciUa,  1694. 

IV.  Cantatas  and  songs :  How  pleasant  in 
this  flowery  plain,  pastoral  song,  two  voices, 
chorus,  two  flutes,  and  bass,  imfiuished  ; 
Hark,  how  the  wild  musicians  sing,  pastoral 
for  three  voices,  chorus,  two  violins,  and 
bass  ;  Hark,  Damon,  what  Musick's  this  ? 
pastoral ;  Above  the  tumult  of  a  busy  state, 
pastoral  duet ;  Dialogue  between  Charon 
and  Orpheus,  cantata  for  one  and  two 
voices  ;  No,  to  what  purpose  should  I  speak, 
cantata,  with  chorus  ;  Job's  curse.  Let  the 
night  perish,  song ;  Amidst  the  Shades,  etc., 
song;  See  where  she  sits,  etc.,   duet,   two 


violins  and  bass  ;  In  deep  vision's  intellect- 
ual scene,  recitatives,  arias,  and  chorus  ; 
With  sick  and  famished  eyes,  lamentation ; 
Flj',  bold  rebellion,  solo  and  finale  for  seven 
voices  ;  Oh,  oh,  what  a  scene,  etc.,  2-part 
song  ;  Though  my  mistress  be  fair,  do. ; 
Sylvia,  thou  brighter  eye  of  night,  do.  ;  Go 
tell  Aminta,  gentle  swan,  duet ;  From  those 
serene  and  rapt'rous  joys,  choruses  and 
airs ;  Cease,  anxious  world,  your  fruitless 
pain,  song  ;  They  say  you're  angry,  cantata ; 
W^hen  Teucer  from  his  father  fled,  2-part 
song  ;  Sighs  for  Charles  H.,  If  pray'rs  and 
tears ;  In  some  kind  dream,  2-part  song  ; 
Awake,  awake,  and  with  attention  hear,  one 
voice  ;  Here,  here's  to  thee,  Dick,  2-part 
song  ;  If  ever  I  more  riches  did  desire,  can- 
tata ;  Anacreon's  defeat.  This  poet  sings  the 
Trojan  wars,  song  ;  Celestial  music  did  the 
gods  iusfiire,  Aug.  5,  1789  ;  In  each  truck, 
2-i)art  song  ;  Sing,  all  ye  Muses,  Fair  Chloe 
my  heart  so  alarms  ;  When  Myra  sings ; 
From  rosy  bowers,  sung  by  Mrs.  Cross,  as 
Altifidora,  in  Don  Quixote  ;  Sweet  tunes 
are  so  bad,  dialogue  ;  Now  the  maids  and 
the  men,  do.  ;  Many  ballads,  glees,  rounds, 
and  catches. 

V.  Instrumental :  12  sonatas  of  three 
parts,  two  violins  and  bass,  with  organ  or 
harpsichord,  1683  ;  Lessons  for  the  harpsi- 
chord or  spinnet,  1696  ;  10  sonatas  in  four 
parts  for  the  clavecin,  the  ninth  of  which  is 
called  the  Golden  sonata,  1697  ;  March  and 
quick-stejj,  afterwards  adajjted  to  the  Irish 
ballad,  Lilliburlero  ;  Overtures,  dance-tunes, 
and  music  for  the  theatre.  Two  collections 
of  Purcell's  works  were  published  by  his 
widow,  "  Orpheus  Britannicus "  (2  vols., 
London,  1698-1702  ;  2d  ed.,  1706-13)  ; 
and  "A  collection  of  Ayres  compiosed  for  the 
theatre  and  other  occasions  by  the  late  Mr. 
Henry  Pureell"  (Loudon,  1697).  Many  of 
Purcell's  works  are  contained  in  Playford's 
Theatre  of  Music  (London,  1687)  ;  in  the 
Harmonia  Sacra  (ib.,  1688)  ;  and  others  in 
\  the  collections  of  Boj-ce,  Arnold,  and  Page. 
A  collection  of  "Purcell's  Sacred  Music" 
was  published  by  Vincent  Novello  (London, 


167 


PURITANI 


1826-36).     Henry  Purcell's  only  surviving 

son,   Edward  (1689-1740),  was  organist  of 

Af       w  St.    Clement's, 

^iT^PnAJCjMj>  Eastcbeap,  and  of 
7'        j^UA-^^  -^-^  g^    Margaret's, 

"Westminster,  1726.  He  left  a  sou  Henry 
(died  about  1750),  wbo  succeeded  bis  fatber 
as  organist.  —  W.  H.  Cummings,  Purcell 
(London,  1881) ;  Hawkins,  iv.  495  ;  Burney, 
iii.  483  ;  Fc'tis,  vii. ;  Grove,  iii. 

PUKITANI  DI  SCOZIA,  I  (Tbe  Puritans 
of  Scotland),  Italian  opera  in  two  acts,  text 
by  Count  Pepoli,  music  by  Bellini,  first  rep- 
resented at  tbe  Thi'atre  Italien,  Paris,  Jan. 
25,  1835.  Tbe  bbretto  is  tbe  poorest  iu  all 
Bellini's  operas,  but  tbe  score  contains  some 
of  bis  best  melodies.  Scene  in  England, 
during  tbe  reign  of  diaries  II.  Tbe  Puri- 
tan Elvira,  daugbter  of  Lord  Walton,  wbo 
bas  been  promised  to  Sir  Riccardo  Fortb, 
gains  bcr  fatber 's  consent  to  ber  marriage 
witb  Sir  Aiiuro  Talbot,  a  Cavalier,  wbo  is 
admitted  to  tbe  fortress  beld  by  Lord 
Walton.     On  tbe  day  for  tbeir  nuptials  Ai- 


I  and  sentenced  to  deatb.  At  tbis  crisis  a 
berald  announces  tbe  defeat  of  tbe  Stuarts, 
and  Cromwell  pardons  tbe  political  of- 
fenders. Tbe  joyful  news  restores  Elvira 
to  bealtb,  and  sbe  is  married  to  Arturo. 
Tbe   principal    numbers    are   tbe    quartet 


'^<t-K\yJi 


i 


Giovanni  Batlista  Rubini. 

tiu'o  aids  Enricbetta,  the  widow  of  Cbarles 
I.,  and  a  prisoner  tbere,  to  escape,  and  El- 
vira, believing  tbat  be  is  eloping,  loses  her 
reason.  On  bis  return  Ai-turo  makes  an 
explanation  to  Elvira,  and  they  renew  their 
vows ;  but  Arturo  is  arrested  for  treason, 


"A  te,  o  cara ; "  "Sou  vergin  vezzosa,"  a 
polonaise  sung  by  Elvira  ;  "  Non  casa, 
non  spiaggia,"  tbe  final  chorus  of  tbe  first 
act ;  Elvira's  mad  song,  "  Qui  la  voce  ; "  ber 
aria,  "Vien,  diletto;"  "  Suoni  la  tromba," 
duet  between  Riccardo  and  Giorgio,  known 
as  tbe  "Liberty  Duet;  "and  Arturo 's  ro- 
manza,  "  A  una  fonte,  afflitto  e  solo."  Bel- 
lini wrote  tbe  score  for  tbe  four  great  ar- 
tists wbo  sang  in  tbe  original  cast  : 

Elvira  (S.) Mme  CJrisi. 

Arturo  (T.) Signor  llubini. 

Riccardo  (B.) Signor  Tamburini. 

Giorgio  (B.) Signor  Lablache. 

Tbis  was  Bellini's  last  work,  for  be  died  on 
Sept.  23,  1835.  At  his  funeral  a  Laciymo.sa 
was  sung  by  Rubini,  Ivanoff,  Tamburini, 
and  Lablache,  tbe  music  of  which  was  ar- 
ranged from  the  tenor  aria,  "  A  una  fonte, 
afflitto  e  solo,"  from  IPuritani.  This  opera 
was  first  given  iu  Loudon,  at  tbe  King's 
Theatre,  for  the  benefit  of  Mme  Grisi,  May 
21,  1835,  and  sung  by  Grisi,  Rubini,  Tarn- 


PURITAN'S 


buriui,  and  Lablacbe,  long  known  as  the 
"  Puritani  Quartet."  Mme  Bosio  also  was 
successful  as  Elvira.  This  work  was  first 
given  in  Berlin,  Vienna,  Milan,  and  Rome 
in  183G,  and  first  in  New  York,  Feb.  3, 
1844.  Full  score  published  by  Schott 
(Mainz,  1835) ;  pianoforte  score  by  Tado- 
lini  (ib.),  and  by  Ch.  Rummel  (ib.,  1839), 
and  Grande  Fantaisie  for  the  pianoforte 
by  Liszt,  op.  7  (ib.,  1839).  Edition  by 
Natalia  Macfarreu,  Novello,  Ewer  &  Co. 
(London,  1872).— Clement  et  Larousse, 
558  ;  Grove,  i.  213  ;  Edwards,  Hist.  Opera, 
ii.  253  ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xxxviii.  113  ; 
Neue  Zeitschr.,  iv.  130  ;  Athenjcum  (1835), 
418  ;  Upton,  Standard  Operas,  54. 

PURITAN'S  DAUGHTER,  THE,  Eng- 
lish opera  in  three  acts,  text  by  J.  V.  Bridg- 
man,  music  by  Balfe,  first  represented  at 
Covent  Garden,  London,  Nov.  30,  1861. 
The  action  takes  place  in  England  in  the 
reign  of  Charles  II.     Original  cast : 

Mary Miss  Louisa  Pyne. 

Clifford Mr.  Santley. 

Rochester Mr.  Harrison. 

Wolf Mr.  Corn. 

Seymour Mr.  St.  Alban. 

King  Charles Mr.  Patey. 

The  chief  numbers  are  :  Mary's  ballad, 
"  Pretty,  lowly,  modest  flower  ;  "  the  duet 
between  Mary  and  Clifford,  "  Oh  would  that 
I  had  died  ere  now  ; "  "  Let  the  loud  tim- 
brel," a  duet  between  two  of  the  Puritans  ; 
Rochester's  drinking-song,  "  Let  others  sing 
the  praise  of  wine  ; "  the  quartet,  "  Ere 
long  Death,  perhaps,  shall  lay  me  low ; " 
Rochester's  song,  "  Hail !  gentle  sleep  ;  " 
and  Mary's  ballad,  "  My  father  dear,  though 
years  roll  by."— Athenseiim  (1861),  ii.  772  ; 
Upton,  Standard  Operas,  36. 

PUZONE,  GIUSEPPE,  born  at  Naples, 
December,  1821,  still  living,  1890.  Dramatic 
and  church  composer,  pupil,  at  the  Conserva- 
torio  di  San  Pietro  a  Majella,  of  Ferrazzano 
and  Rossi  on  the  oboe,  of  Lanza  on  the  pi- 
anoforte, of  Gennaro  Parisi  in  harmony,  of 
Francesco  Ruggi  in  counterpoint,  and  of 


Donizetti  and  Mercadante  in  composition 
and  orchestration.  In  1844  he  became 
maestro  concertatore  at  the  Teatro  San 
Carlo,  where  he  is  now  maestro  di  cappella. 
Works — Operas  :  II  marchese  Albergati, 
Naples,  1839  ;  II  figlio  dello  schiavo,  ib., 
1845 ;  Elfrida  di  Salerno,  ib.,  1849  ;  II 
dottor  Sabbato,  o^jera  bufPa,  ib.,  1852.  Lo 
tre  ore  d'  agonia,  oratorio  ;  3  masses,  with 
orchestra  ;  2  Credo,  do.  ;  2  Taiituni  ergo, 
do.  ;  Many  motets,  with  and  without  or- 
chestra ;  Several  overtures  for  orchestra, 
etc. — Fetis,  Supplement,  ii.  375. 

PYGMALION,  melodrama,  text  by  Jean 
Jacques  Rousseau,  music  by  Georg  Benda, 
first  represented  in  Gotha  about  1771,  in 
Leipsic  in  1780.  The  story  is  that  of  Pyg- 
malion and  Galatea.  It  was  given  in  Ber- 
lin, Nov.  14,  1808,  with  Horr  ItHand  as 
Pygmalion.  Other  operas,  melodramas, 
and  cantatas  on  this  subject :  In  Italian, 
Pimmaglione  in  Cipro,  by  Antonio  Draghi, 
text  by  Minato,  for  the  birthday  of  the  Em- 
press, Vienna,  1689  ;  Pimmaglione,  by  Gio- 
vanni Alb.  Ristori,  about  1750  ;  same  title, 
ballet  by  Florian  Deller,  about  1750  ;  can- 
tata by  Ziiigarelli,  Nai:)les,  1779 ;  drama, 
with  music,  by  Bonifazio  Asioli,  Turin, 
about  1789  ;  operetta  by  Cimadoro,  Ven- 
ice, 1788,  Milan,  Nov.  20,  1795  ;  by  Cima- 
rosa,  Vienna,  1792  ;  by  Sirotti,  Milan,  1793  ; 
and  opera,  by  Giovanni  Battista  Gordigiani, 
Prague,  1845  :  in  French,  Pygmalion,  by  La 
Barre,  in  Le  triomphe  des  arts,  text  by  La- 
motte,  Paris,  May  16,  1700  ;  melodrama  by 
J.  J.  Rousseau,  set  by  Horace  Coignet,  Paris, 
Oct.  30,  1775,  and  by  Antoine  L.  Baudron, 
ib.,  1780  ;  L'Anti-Pygmalion,  by  Jean  Bap- 
tiste  Rochefort,  Paris,  1778  ;  Le  nouveau 
Pygmalion,  by  Christian  Rheineck,  Lyons, 
about  1780 ;  duodrama  by  Benedetto 
Bonesi,  text  by  Du  Rosoy,  Paris,  Dec.  16, 
1780  ;  scene  with  orchestra,  by  Christian 
Kalkbrenner,  Paris,  1799  ;  ballet  pantomime 
by  Lefebre,  text  by  Milon,  Paris,  Aug.  20, 
1800  ;  opera-comique  by  Cherubini,  Paris, 
Nov.  30,  1809  ;  by  Halevy,  1823,  not  given  ; 
Galatee,  by  Victor  Masse,  Paris,  April  14, 


QUAGLIATI 


1852  ;  Monsieur  Pygmalion  et  la  statue, 
operetta  by  Auguste  Leveillu,  Paris,  about 
1865  ;  and  Pygmalion,  operetta  by  Mme  de 
Saiute-Croix,  Paris,  Feb.  9,  1875  :  in  Ger- 
man, Der  wunderbar  vergniigto  Pygmalion, 
by  Couradi,  text  by  Postel,  Hamburg,  IGOi  ; 
Pygmalion,  Singsj^iel  by  Franz  Aspelmayer, 
Vienna,  about  1775  ;  ballet  by  Karl  Hanke, 
in  the  castle  of  Graf  Haditz,  Eosswalde, 
1777 ;  Singspiel  by  T.  A.  Kuutz,  Prague, 
1781 ;  cantata  by  Fnuiz  Benda,  1785  ;  mo- 
nodrama  (?)  by  Ant.  Schweitzer,  about 
1785  ;  Singsisiel  by  Justin  Heinricli  Knecbt, 
about  1790  ;  Pj'gmalion  oder  die  Keforma- 
tion  der  Liebe,  Singspiel  by  Herklots,  com- 
poser unknown,  Berlin,  1792  :  Die  Reue  des 
Pygmalion,  ballet  by  Josef  Weigl,  Vienna, 
Oct.  1,  1794  ;  Pygmalion,  comic  oi:)era  by 
Karl  Jakob  Wagner,  Darmstadt,  1809  ; 
Singsjjiel  by  Franz  Volckert,  Vienna,  1827  ; 
Singspiel  by  J.  C.  H.  Kemde,  Weimar-, 
183G  ;  and  Die  scliOne  Galathea,  ojieretta  by 
Franz  vou  Sup2X',  text  by  P.  Henrion,  Vi- 
enna, Sept.  9,  18G5. 

PYERHUS  ET  POLYX^NE.   See  AchiUe 
et  Polyxene. 


QUAGLIATI,  PAOLO,  Roman  hai-psi- 
cbord  player  of  the  17th  century. 
He  was  maestro  di  cappella  of  Santa 
Maria  Maggiore  in  1G12  and  published 
Carro  di  fedelta  d'  amore  (IGll),  one  of  the 
oldest  musical  dramas  in  existence,  and  Mo- 
tetti  e  dialoghi  a  2-8  voci  (1G20).— Fctis  ; 
Mendel. 

QUAISAIN,  ADRIEN,  born  in  Paris  in 
17G6,  died  there.  May  15,  1828.  Dramatic 
singer  and  composer,  pupil  of  Berton  ;  made 
his  debut  in  1797,  and  was  chef  d'orchestre 
of  the  Theatre  de  TAmbigu-Comique  in 
1799-1819.  Works:  Sylvain  et  Lucette, 
ou  la  vendange,  1797  ;  La  musicomanie, 
Les  deux  ivrognes,  Lo  mari  d'emprunt, 
1800  ;  Une  etourderie,  ou  I'une  pour  I'au- 
tre.  La  dot,  ou  le  mari  d'un  jour,  1801 ;  Les 
amants  absents,  1803. — Fctis  ;  do..  Supple- 
ment, ii.  377. 


QUAL  COR  TRADISTL  See  Norma. 
QUAL  FARFALLETTA,  soprano  aria  of 
Partenope,  in  A  major,  with  accompaniment 
of  two  violins  and  bass,  in  Handel's  Parte- 
nope, Act  n.,  Scene  7.  Published  also  sepa- 
rately, with  the  accompaniment  fiUed  out 
by  Otto  Dresel  (Leipsic,  Breitkopf  &  Hilr- 
tel). 

QUAND  JE  QUITTAI  LA  NORMAN- 
DIE.     See  Hubert  le  Diable. 

QUANDO  RAPITA  IN  ESTiVSL  See 
Lucia. 

QUANT'  ^  Plil  BELLO  L'  A:M0R  CON- 
TADINO,  nine  variations  for  the  pianoforte, 
in  A,  by  Beethoven,  on  a  theme  from  Paisi- 
eUo's  opera.  La  Molinara,  composed  in  1796, 
and  dedicated  to  Sua  Altezza  il  Signoro 
Principe  Carlo  de  Lichnowsky.  Published 
byTraeg  (Vienna,  1796).  Breitkopf  &  Har- 
tel,  Beethoven  Werke,  Serio  xvii..  No.  6. 
— Thayer,  Verzeichniss,  15. 

QUANTO  AMORE.  See  Eli>;lre  d'  amore. 
QUANTZ  (Quanz),  JOHANN  JOACHDI, 
born  at  Oberschedeu, 
Hanover,  Jan.  30,  1697, 
died  in  Potsdam,  July 
12,  1773.  Virtuoso  on 
the  flute,  and  the  famous 
instructor  of  Frederick 
the  Great  ou  that  instru- 
ment. The  sou  of  a 
blacksmith,  ho  early 
played  double-bass  at 
village  festivals  ;  and  was  taken  by  his  un- 
cle, Justus  Quantz,  to  Merseburg  to  be 
brought  up  as  a  musician.  He  learned  sev- 
eral instruments  and  studied  the  pianoforte 
under  Friedrich  Kiesewetter.  When  his 
apprenticeship  was  over,  in  1713,  he  became 
assistant  musician  at  Radeberg,  then  at 
Pirna,  and  in  1716  in  Dresden.  He  stud- 
ied counterjjoint  under  Zelenka  and  Fux  in 
Vienna  in  1717,  and  in  1718  joined  the  Po- 
lish royal  orchestra  of  Warsaw  and  Dres- 
den, playing  first  the  oboe,  and  later  the 
flute  under  Buffardin.  In  1724  he  went  to 
Italy  in  the  suite  of  the  Polish  ambassa- 
dor, Count  Lagnasco,  received  instruction  in 


170 


QITAEENGHI 


counterpoint  from  Gasi^erini  in  Eome,  and 
made  the  acquaintance  of  the  Neapolitan 
masters ;  in  1726  he  remained  several 
months  in  Paris,  where  he  improved  the 
flute  by  adding  a  second  key  ;  in  1727  vis- 
ited London,  wliere  Italian  opera  was  flour- 
ishing under  Handel ;  and  returned  to 
Dresden  aud  entered  the  royal  orchestra 
again  in  1728.  His  playing  in  Berlin  in- 
spired the  crown  prince  to  learn  the  flute, 
and  twice  a  year  he  had  to  visit  Berlin,  un- 
til his  pupil  succeeded  to  the  throne  and 
became  Frederick  the  Great,  when  in 
1741  he  was  ajjpointed  chamber  musician 
and  court  composer,  with  a  yearly  salary 
of  2,000  Thalers,  extra  payment  for  every 
composition,  and  100  ducats  for  every  flute 
he  should  make.  Until  his  death  he  re- 
mained in  high  favour  with  Frederick  the 
Great,  and  was  eminent  as  a  virtuoso  and 
teacher.  Works :  300  concertos  and  200 
other  pieces  for  one  and  two  flutes,  trios, 
and  quartets,  most  of  them  presei-ved  in 
Potsdam.  He  irablished  6  flute  sonatas 
with  bass,  6  flute  duets,  and  Neue  Kii-cheu- 
melodien,  or  music  to  22  of  Gellert's  odes  ; 
a  few  songs  ;  a  serenade  ;  Versuch  einer 
Anweisung  die  FliUe  traversiere  zu  spielen 
(1752),  a  flute  method  that  was  translated 


into  French  and  Dutch  ;  Application  pour 
la  flilte  traversiere  a  deux  clefs. — Mendel ; 
Schilling  ;  Eiemann  ;  Fetis  ;  do.,  Supple- 
ment, ii.  377  ;  A.  Quantz,  Leben  und  Werke 
des  Fldtisten  J.  J.  Quantz  (Berlin,  1877)  ; 
Winterfeld,  Kirchengesang,  iii.  467  ;  Eeiss- 
mann,  Illustr.  Gesch.  der  Mus.,  400. 

QUARENGHI,  GUGLIELMO,  bom  at 
Casalmaggiore,  Oct.  22,  1826,  died  in  Mil- 
an, Feb.  4,  1882.  Violoncellist,  pupil  at 
the  Conservatorio,  Milan,  where  he  became 
professor  of  double-bass  in  1851.  He  was 
appointed  maestro  di  cappella  of  the  catlie- 
dral  there  in  1879.  Works  :  II  dl  di  San 
Michele,  opera,  Milan,  1863  ;  Several  masses; 


Quartets ;  Caprices,  fantasias,  etc.,  for  vio- 
loncello.— Fetis,  Supjjloment,  ii.  377. 

QUATRE  FILS  AYMON,  LES,  opera- 
comique  in  three  acts,  text  by  de  Leuven 
and  Brunswick,  music  by  Balfe,  first  repre- 
sented at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris,  July 
15,  1844.  Four  wanderers  return  to  their 
fatlier's  castle,  and  find  themselves  beggars 
instead  of  heirs.  Near  the  Chateau  Aymon 
dwells  the  Baron  de  Beaumanoir,  who  wishes 
to  marry  his  daughter  Hermine  to  the  wealth- 
iest of  his  neighbours,  and  places  his  three 
nieces  in  a  convent  to  obtain  their  patri- 
mony. An  old  seneschal,  Ivon,  invents  the 
story  that  the  eldest  Aymon,  Olivier,  is 
wealthy  and  eccentric,  assuming  poverty. 
But  Hermine  refuses  to  marry  before  her 
cousins.  This  difficulty  is  overcome,  for 
the  three  cousins  accept  the  brothers  of 
Olivier.  The  text  and  music  are  trivial  and 
the  ojjera  was  not  as  successful  as  Le  ini'ds 
d'amour,  which  it  followed.  It  was  given 
at  the  Princess's  Theatre,  Loudon,  as  The 
Castle  of  Aymon,  or  the  Four  Brothers, 
Nov.  20,  1844.— Athenreum  (1844),  1074; 
Clement  et  Larousse,  560. 

QUE  CES  MUBS  COQUETS.  See  Am- 
ba.'isadrice. 
QUEEN  CAROLINE'S  TE  DEUM,  by 
Handel,  written  on 
the  death  of  Queen 
Caroliue,  one  of  his 
best  friends,  and  first 
performed  in  King  Henry  VH.'s  Chapel, 
Westminster  Abbey,  at  Her  Majesty's  inter- 
ment, Dec.  17,  1737.  This  work  was  com- 
posed three  weeks  after  the  Queen's  death. 
The  text  was  probably  selected  by  Handel. 
The  first  chorus  is  based  on  the  German 
choral,  "  Herr  Jesu  Christ,  du  hOchstes 
Gut,"  known  in  Saxony  as  the  Funeral 
Hymn,  "Wenn  mein  Stiindlein  vorhanden 
ist,"  used  also  by  Mozart  as  the  cantus  firmus 
of  the  first  movement  in  his  Requiem.  The 
original  autograph,  in  Buckingham  Palace, 
is  dated  London,  December  12,  1737.  It 
contains  a  Vorspiel,  ten  choruses,  and  two 
quartets.    Burney  considered  this  the  finest 


171 


QUEEN 


of  all  of  Handel's  works.  Part  of  this  Fu- 
neral Authem  was  sung  at  the  Handel  Com- 
memoration, June  3,  1784.  First  pub- 
lished by  Arnold  (London)  ;  Chrysander's 
edition  for  the  Hiindelgesellschaft,  piano- 
forte score  by  Im.  Faisst,  published  by 
Breitkopf  &  Hilrtel  (Leipsic,  18G1).— Chry- 
sander,  Handel,  ii.  43G  ;  Hawkins,  v.  416; 
Burney,  iv.  419  ;  Eockstro,  Handel,  206. 

QUEEN  OF  SHEBA.  See  Kdnicjin  von 
Saba  ;  Heine  de  Saba. 

QUESTA  O  QUELLA.     See  rdgolelto. 

QUI  LA  VOCE.     See  Purilani. 

QUINTO  FABIO,  Italian  opera  in  three 
acts,  by  Cherubini,  first  rejiresented  in  Ales- 
sandria, Piedmont,  in  the  autumn  of  1780. 
This  was  the  composer's  first  opera,  and  it 
was  rewritten  and  given  in  Rome  in  Jan- 
uary, 1783.  The  subject  is  Quiutus  Fabius 
Maximns,  the  Roman  hero  of  the  Punic 
wars.  Other  Italian  oijeras  of  this  title,  by 
Dimitri  Bartnansky,  text  by  Metastasio, 
Modena,  Dec.  26,  1778  ;  by  Bertoni,  Padua, 
1778  ;  by  Marinelli,  Rome  and  Naples,  1791 ; 
and  by  Puccini,  about  1800.— Fetis,  ii.  783. 

QUbl !  C'EST  VOUS  (^U'ELLE  PRfi- 
FERE !     See  JjAfausse  magie. 


HABBONI,  GIUSEPPE,  born  at  Cre- 
mona, Italy.  July  16,  1800,  died  at 
Yarenna,  Lake  Como,  Jane  10,  1856. 
Virtuoso  on  the  flute,  pupil  at  the  Jlilan 
Conservatorio  (1808-17),  of  Buccinelli, 
whom  he  succeeded  in  1827  as  professor. 
H(!  was  also  first  flutist  at  the  Teatro 
della  Scala,  and  made  numerous  concert 
tours,  mostly  in  company  with  the  clarinet- 
ist Ernesto  Cavallini.  His  compositions 
for  the  flute  number  about  sixty-seven 
works,  and  were  highly  esteemed  by  the 
Italian  virtuosi  on  that  instrument. — Fctis, 
Supplement,  ii.  382. 

RABE,  CHRISTIAN  GOTTLIEB,  born 
at  Halle,  Oct.  18,  1815,  died,  Feb.  27,  1876. 
Instrumental  and  vocal  composer,  pupil  of 
Tiirk.  In  1839  he  was  Kaijellmeistcr  to 
Count  Hahn,  who,  with  his  opera  troupe. 


travelled  through  North  Germany  ;  in  1844 
he  returned  to  Halle,  and  was  employed  at 
the  Institute  for  the  Blind  ;  in  1846-47,  Ka- 
pellmeister at  the  Stadttheater  in  Cologne, 
then  at  Basel  and  Ziirich.  In  1848  he  be- 
came music  director  and  organist  at  Lenz- 
burg,  which  position  he  resigned  in  1875 
on  account  of  ill-health.  Some  of  his  op- 
eras were  given  at  Bernburg  ;  he  left  many 
instrumental  and  vocal  compositions  in 
manuscript. 

RABUTEAU,  VICTOR  ALFRED  PEL- 
LETIER-,  born  in  Paris,  June  7,  1843,  stiU 
living,  1890.  Pianist  and  violinist,  pupil,  at 
the  Conservatoire,  of  Bazin  in  harmony  and 
of  Ambroise  Thomas  in  fugue  and  compo- 
sition ;  won  in  1865  the  first  jjrize  for  har- 
mony, and  in  1868  the  grand  prix  de  Rome. 
Works  :  Le  passage  de  la  mer  rouge,  ora- 
torio, 1874  ;  Suite  symphonique. — Futis, 
Supplement,  ii.  384. 

RACHEL!  QUAND  DU  SEIGNEUR. 
See  La  Juive. 

RADAMSTO,  Italian  opera  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Nicholas  Haj-m,  after  an  episode  in 
the  "Annals"  of  Tacitus  (xii.,  cap.  51), 
music  bj'  Handel,  first  represented  at  the 
King's  Theatre,  London,  April  27,  1720. 
The  original  score,  in  Buckingham  I'alace, 
is  unsigned  and  undated.  This  opera  was 
received  with  extraordinary  enthusiasm. 
Burney  calls  it  "  solid,  ingenious,  and  full 
of  fire,"  and  Handel  considered  the  aria 
"  Ombra  cara,"  sung  by  Radamisto,  one  of 
his  best  solos.  The  bass  aria  for  Tiridate, 
"Alzo  al  volo,"  is  acccompanied  by  two 
horns,  then  new  instruments  in  a  London 
orchestra.  Characters  represented :  Rada- 
misto, son  of  Fai-asmene  (S.) ;  Zenobia, 
his  wife  (A.)  ;  Farasmene,  King  of  Thrace 
(B.) ;  Tiridate,  King  of  Armenia  (B.)  ;  Polis- 
sena,  his  wife,  daughter  of  Farasmene  (S.) ; 
Tigrane,  Prince  of  Pontus  (S.) ;  and  Fraate, 
brother  of  Tiridate  (S.).  In  the  following 
November,  1720,  when  the  score  was  re- 
vised, the  pai't  of  Radamisto  was  changed 
to  conti'alto  for  Senesino  ;  Tiridate  was 
made  a  bass  ;  and  the  character  of  Fraate 


172 


EADECKE 


was  omitted.  The  elaborate  aria,  "  Sposa 
ingrata,"  smig  by  Polissena,  originally  writ- 
ten for  one  of  Handel's  early  cantatas, 
"  Castri  amori,"  was  altered  for  Faustina  in 
1728,  when  the  work  was  revived.  It  was 
first  given  in  Hamburg,  as  Zenobia,  in  1721. 
The  score  was  first  published  by  Richard 
Mearcs,  at  Handel's  order  (London,  1720). 
The  only  other  edition  is  that  revised  by 
Chrysander,  and  published  for  the  Hiindel- 
gesellschaft,  by  Breitkopf  &  Hilrtel  (Leip- 
sic,  1875).  Other  Itahan  operas  on  this 
subject :  Zenobia  e  Radamisto,  by  Giovanni 
Legrenzi,  text  by  Matteo  Noris,  Ferrara, 
16G5  ;  same  text,  music  by  Chelleri,  Venice, 
1722  ;  by  NicoloPiccinni,  Naples,  1776  ;  and 
Eadamisto  e  Zenobia,  by  Pietro  Raimondi, 
Naples,  1817.  See  Zenobia. — Rockstro, 
Handel,  130  ;  Marshall,  Handel,  08 ;  Bur- 
ney,  iv.  259  ;  Hawkins,  v.  295. 

EADECKE,  ROBERT,  born  at  Ditt- 
mannsdorf,  Silesia,  Oct.  31,  1830,  still  liv- 
ing, 1890.  Pianist,  organist,  and  violinist, 
pupil  at  Breslau  of  Ernst  KOhlcr  on  the  pi- 
anoforte and  organ,  of  Liistner  on  the  vio- 
lin, and  of  Brosig  in  composition  ;  then,  at 
the  Lcipsic  Conservatorium,  of  Moscheles 
and  Hauptmann.  In  1850  he  became  first 
violinist  in  the  Gewandhaus  orchestra,  in 
1852  second  director  of  the  Singakademie 
with  Ferdinand  David,  and  in  1853  musi- 
cal director  of  the  Stadttheater  of  Leipsic. 
After  serving  a  year  in  the  army  he  settled 
in  Berlin,  gave  chamber  concerts,  played 
second  violin  in  Laub's  quartet,  and  in 
1858-G3  established  choral  and  orchestral 
concerts  with  great  success.  He  was  ap- 
pointed musical  director  of  the  royal  opera 
in  18G3  with  Taubert  and  Dorn,  and  in 
1871  was  made  royal  Kapellmeister  for  life. 
Works  :  Kimig  Johann,  overture  for  orches- 
tra ;  Am  Strande,  do.  ;  Die  Monkguter, 
Liederspiel ;  Symphony,  and  other  music 
for  orchestra  ;  About  100  songs  ;  Vocal 
duets,  trios,  and  quartets. — Mendel ;  Rie- 
mann  ;  Fetis. 

RADECKE,  RUDOLF,  born  at  Ditt- 
mannsdorf,  Silesia,   Sept.  6,  1829,  still  liv- 


ing, 1890.  Brother  of  the  preceding,  pupil 
of  Mosewius  and  Baumgart  at  the  Academi- 
cal Institute  for  Church  Music,  in  Breslau 
(1851-53),  then  of  Rietz,  Hauptmann,  and 
Moscheles  at  the  Conservatorium,  Leipsic  ; 
settled  in  Berlin  in  1859,  was  professor  at 
Stern's  Conservatorium  in  1804-71,  con- 
ductor of  the  Cilcilien-Verein  in  1804-08, 
then  founded  a  singing  society,  named  af- 
ter him,  and  in  1809  a  musical  institute,  of 
which  he  is  director.  Works  :  Symj^hony  ; 
Overtures  ;  Trios  ;  Duos  ;  Choruses  and 
songs. — Mendel ;  Riemann. 

RADICATI,  FELICE  ALESSANDRO, 
born  at  Turin  in  1778,  died,  April  14,  1823. 
Violinist,  pupil  of  Pugnani  ;  made  a  tour 
through  Lombardy  in  1816  and  was  in  Vi- 
enna two  years  later.  He  married  the 
singer  Teresa  Bertiuotti.  His  death  was 
the  result  of  injuries  received  in  being 
thrown  from  a  carriage.  Works  :  Ricciar- 
do  Cuor  di  Leone,  opera,  Bologna  ;  Quin- 
tets, quartets,  and  trios  for  strings  ;  Duos 
for  violins ;  Themes  varii's  for  violin,  and 
orchestra,  or  quartet  ;  Italian  ariettas,  with 
pianoforte. — Fc'tis. 

RADOUX,  JEAN  TH1^:0D0RE,  born  at 
Liege,  Nov.  9,  1835,  still  living,  1890.  Dra- 
matic composer,  sou  of  and  first  instructed 
by  an  artisan,  then  pupil,  at  the  Conserva- 
toire, of  Bacha  on  the  bassoon.  On  his 
master's  death,  in  1856,  he  obtained  his 
l^lace  by  competition,  also  won  the  first 
prize  for  pianoforte  ;  studied  counterpoint 
and  fugue  under  Daussoigne-Mt'hul,  whose 
favourite  pupil  he  became.  In  1857  a  Te 
Deum  by  him  was  performed  at  the  Liege 
Cathedral,  and  in  1859  he  took  the  Brussels 
grand  prix  de  Rome  for  his  cantata  Le  juif 
errant.  He  then  studied  in  Paris  under 
Halevy,  and  from  that  time  became  a  pro- 
lific composer.  In  1872  he  became  director 
of  the  Lioge  Conservatoire.  Officer  of  the 
Order  of  Leopold,  1877.  Works :  Le  Bi'ar- 
nais,  opera-comique,  Liege,  1800,  Brussels 
(remodelled) ;  La  coupe  enchantee,  do., 
Brussels,  1872  ;  Cain,  oratorio,  Lii'ge,  1877 ; 
La  fille  de  Jephte,  cantata  for  soli,  chorus, 


173 


KADZIWILL 


and  orchestra ;  Le  printemps,  chorus  for 
female  voices,  with  orchestra  ;  Le  festin  de 
Balthazar,  tableau  symphonique,  Liege, 
1861  ;  Te  Deum  (ordered  by  the  govern- 
ment), Sainte-Gudule,  Brussels,  1863  ;  Epo- 
pee nationale,  ouverture  symphonique,  ib., 
1863 ;  Several  other  national  hymns  and 
symphonies,  executed  at  Liege  and  Brus- 
sels on  state  occasions ;  Sacred  pieces  for 
one  or  several  voices,  with  and  without 
chorus,  and  organ  accompaniment ;  chor- 
uses for  male  voices  ;  ]\Ielodies  for  voice 
and  pianoforte  ;  Romances  sans  paroles  for 
pianoforte,  etc.  —  Fetis,  Supplement,  ii. 
385  ;  Mendel,  Erganz.,  372  ;  Gregoir,  ii. 
87  ;  Viotta. 

E.^DZnVILL,  Prince  AXTON  HEIN- 
RICH,  born  at  Wilna,  June  13,  1775,  died 
in  Berlin,  April  8,  1833.  Amateur  violon- 
cellist and  vocal  comijoser.  Married  to 
the  Princess  Luise,  sister  of  the  distin- 
guished amateur  Prince  Louis  Ferdinand 
of  Prussia,  he  was  known  in  Berlin  not  only 
as  an  ardent  admirer  of  good  music  but  as 
a  singer  of  much  taste  and  ability  and  a 
liberal  patron,  and  it  was  to  him  that  Beet- 
hoven dedicated  the  Namensfeier  Ouvertiire 
in  C,  op.  115.  Ho  was  best  known  by  his 
music  to  Goethe's  "  Faust,"  which  was 
repeatedly  performed  during  several  years 
in  Berlin,  Dantzic,  Hanover,  Lcipsic, 
Prague,  and  other  places.  He  was  one  of 
the  patrons  of  Frederic  Chopin,  whom  he 
placed  in  one  of  the  best  colleges  of  War- 
saw. Works :  Romances  for  voice  and 
pianoforte  ;  Songs  with  guitar  and  violon- 
cello ;  Duets  with  pianoforte  ;  Many  part- 
songs  composed  for  Zelter's  "  Liedertafel " 
(MS.).— Fetis  ;  Sowifiski  ;  Mendel. 

RAFAEL,  FRANTISEK  KAEEL  (Franz 
Carl),  born  at  Senftenberg,  Bohemia,  in 
1795,  died  at  Pettau,  Styria,  Nov.  14,  1864. 
Bass  singer  and  double-bass  player,  pupil 
at  the  Conservatorium  in  Prague  on  the 
double-bass,  which  he  afterwards  jslayed  in 
the  theatre  orchestra  at  BrQnn,  but  aban- 
doned to  become  a  dramatic  singer.  When 
his  voice  began  to  fail  he  taught  music,  and 


organized  an  orchestra,  which  was  among 
the  most  poj^ular  in  the  city.  He  then 
acted  as  Kapellmeister  at  several  theatres, 
in  1837  at  Breslau,  then  at  Troppau,  and  in 
1843  at  Marburg  and  at  Pettau,  where  he 
settled,  teaching  music  after  1845.  Works : 
Solemn  mass  ;  2  Requiems ;  Salutaris  hostia ; 
Tantum  ergo,  and  other  church  music  ; 
Songs.  — Wurzbach. 

RAFAEL,  FRANZ,  born  in  Briinn  in 
181G,  died  in  Gratz,  April  19,  1867.  Dra- 
matic composei",  son  and  pupil  of  the  fol- 
lowing, was  for  a  number  of  years  Kapell- 
meister of  the  theatre  at  Gratz.  Works : 
Wittekind,  opera,  Gratz,  18G1  ;  Hcinrich 
der  Fiukler,  do.,  Olmiitz,  1860;  Die  Sfiiun- 
stube,  operetta,  Gratz,  1864 ;  Burschen- 
schwiinke,  do. — Wurzbach. 

RAFF,  (JOSEPH)  JOACHDI,  born  at 
Lachen,  on  the  Lake 
of  Zili-ich,  May  27, 
1822,  died  in  BerUn, 
Juno  26,  1882.  Ho 
began  his  education 
at  Wiesenstetten,  in 
Wiirtemberg,  then 
entered  the  Jesuit 
Lyceum  at  Sehwyz, 
where  ho  won  first 
prizes  in  German,  Latin,  and  mathematics. 
Poverty  comjielling  him  to  stoj)  his  musical 
studies,  he  turned  school-master,  but  con- 
tinued the  study  of  music  without  a  teacher, 
making  much  progi'ess  on  the  pianoforte 
and  violin,  and  in  composition.  In  1843 
he  sent  some  MS.  compositions  to  Mendels- 
sohn, who  gave  him  an  introduction  to 
Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  which  led  to  the  pub- 
lication of  several  of  his  works.  From  that 
time  to  his  death  Raff  continued  to  com- 
pose and  publish  almost  unceasingly.  His 
poverty  continued  for  some  time  unabated  ; 
but  he  succeeded  in  interesting  Liszt,  who 
invited  him  to  join  him  on  a  concert  tour. 
Meeting  Mendelssohn  at  Cologne,  in  1846, 
he  was  invited  to  go  to  Leipsic  to  study 
under  him,  and  accordingl}'  severed  his 
connection  with   Liszt   for   that   purpose ; 


174 


RAFF 


but  Mendelssolin's  death  frustrated  tbis 
plan,  and  Kaff  was  fain  to  stay  in  Cologne, 
■where  he  supported  himself  for  a  time, 
partly  by  musical  criticism.  Liszt  again 
tried  to  help  him,  and  through  his  instru- 
mentality Eaff  was  just  about  to  enter  into 
remunerative  relations  with  Mechetti,  the 
Vienna  jjublishei*,  when  the  latter  also  died. 
Eaff  returned  to  his  studies,  pursuing  them 
partly  at  home,  and  partly  at  Stuttgart, 
where  he  had  the  good  luck  to  fall  in  with 
von  Billow,  who  helped  his  rei^utatiou  not  a 
little  by  playing  his  Couzertstiick  in  public. 
In  1850  he  went  to  Weimar  to  be  con- 
stantly near  Liszt.  Here  he  remodelled  an 
opera,  "KOnig  Alfred,"  which  had  been 
given  at  Stuttgart,  and  brought  it  out  with 
flattering  success.  Ho  also  became  en- 
gaged to  Doris  Genast,  the  actress  (daugh- 
ter of  manager  Genast),  whom  he  followed 
to  Wiesbaden  iu  185G,  and  finally  married 
in  1859.  In  Wiesbaden  he  was  for  a  long 
while  in  great  request  as  pianoforte  teacher. 
In  1863,  his  first  symphony,  An  das  Vater- 
land,  got  the  prize  offered  by  the  Gesell- 
schaft  der  Musikfreunde  of  Vienna.  In 
1870  his  opera.  Dame  Kobold,  was  pro- 
duced at  Weimar.  In  1877  he  was  ap- 
pointed director  of  Hoch's  Conservato- 
rium  at  Frankfort.  If  not  a  great  genius, 
Raff  certainly  was  a  man  of  prodigious 
talent.  He  was  a  hard  student,  and  suc- 
ceeded in  attaining  a  mastery  over  the  most 
intricate  technical  details  of  composition 
such  as  very  few  of  his  contemporaries 
could  boast  of.  Although  his  larger  works 
abound  in  passages  in  which  quite  excep- 
tional difficulties  have  been  conquered,  he 
always  seems  to  write  with  consummate 
ease.  His  fertility  of  melodic  invention 
was  immense,  and  he  rarely,  if  ever,  re- 
peated himself.  In  elaboration  and  perfec- 
tion of  workmanship,  he  compares  favorably 
with  the  best  writers  of  his  day.  His  be- 
setting fault  is  a  certain  lack  of  nobility  of 
inspiration,  and  real  depth  of  feeling.  The 
extraordinary  facility  with  which  he  wrote, 
and  the  almost  constant  necessity  he  was 


under  of  writing  rapidly,  to  satisfy  eager 
publishers,  made  him  careless  of  self-criti- 
cism. In  fact,  his  poverty  was  the  great 
bane  of  his  talent,  as  it  was  of  his  life.  Of 
over  two  hundred  opus-numbers  that  he 
gave  to  the  world,  by  far  the  greater  pro- 
portion were  mere  pot-boUers,  salon  pieces 
of  questionable  value,  and  few  even  of  his 
greater  works  are  wholly  free  from  a  cer- 
tain tawdriness  of  stylo.  Yet,  for  the  later 
half  of  his  hfe,  he  was  assuredly  one  of  the 
most  prominent  musical  figures  in  Ger- 
many, and  one  of  the  leaders  of  musical 
opinion.  His  best  known  works  are  also 
his  best  ones.  Among  them  are  the  second 
symjihony,  in  C,  oj).  140,  third  symphony 
Im  Waldo,  fifth  symphony  Lcuore,  the  con- 
certos for  pianoforte,  op.  185,  for  violin,  op. 
206,  and  for  violoncello,  op.  193,  the  suites 
for  orchestra,  op.  101  and  op.  194,  and  a 
great  deal  of  chamber  music.     Works  : 

I.  For  Voices  and  Orchestra  :  "  Wachet 
auf  "  (text  by  Geibel)  for  men's  voices  and 
orchestra,  op.  80  ;  Deulschland's  Aufersteh- 
ung,  festival  cantata  for  the  50th  anniver- 
sary of  the  Battle  of  Leipsic,  for  do.,  op. 
100  ;  Do  profundis  (Psalm  CXXX.)  for  8 
voices  and  orchestra,  op.  141  ;  Im  Kahn 
and  Der  Tanz,  2  songs  for  mixed  chorus 
and  orch.,  op.  171  ;  Blorgenlkd,  for  do.,  op. 
186  A.  ;  Eiuer  Entschlafenen,  for  soprano 
solo,  chorus,  and  orch.,  op.  186  n.  ;  Die 
Jiigerbraut  and  Die  Hirtin,  2  scenes  for  a 
solo  voice  and  orch.,  op.  199  ;  Die  Tages- 
zeiten,  4  movements  for  pianoforte,  chorus, 
and  orch.,  op.  209  ;  Weltende,  Gericht,  neue 
Welt,  oratorio  to  words  from  the  Apoca- 
lypse ;  4  Antiphons  of  the  Virgin,  5-8  voc, 
Kyrie  and  Gloria,  6  voc.  a  cappella.  Pater 
uoster  and  Ave  Maria,  8  voc,  without  ojsus 
number,  and  in  MS.  ;  2  choruses.  Die 
Sterne  and  DornrOschen,  do.,  do. 

II.  Dramatic  :  Konig  Alfred,  opera,  Wei- 
mar, 1850  ;  Dame  Kobold,  comic  opera,  op. 
154,  ib.,  1870 ;  Die  Eifersiichtigen,  do., 
not  performed  ;  Die  Parole,  do.,  not  per- 
formed ;  Benedetto  Marcello,  lyric  opera, 
not  performed  ;  Samson,  grand  opera,  not 


RAFF 


performed ;  Music   to    Genast's   Bernhard 
von  Weimar,  ^Yeimar,  1858. 

ni.  Songs  :  About  85  songs  for  a  voice 
with  pianoforte  :  op.  47-53,  G6,  98  (Sauges- 
frubliug,  30  songs),  172  (Maria  Stuart, 
Cyclus  of  11  songs),  173,  191,  211  (Bloudin 
de  Nesle,  cyclus),  and  two  without  ojjus 
number  ;  12  duets  with  do.,  op.  114 ;  G 
songs  for  3  female  voices  with  do.,  op.  184  ; 
30  four-i)art  songs  for  male  voices,  oj).  97, 
122,  195 ;  10  do.  for  mixed  voices,  op. 
198. 

IV.  For  Orchestra:  11  symj^honies  :  No.  1, 
All  das  Vaterland,  op.  9G  ;  No.  2,  in  C,  op. 
140  ;  No.  3,  Im  Widde,  in  F,  op.  153  ;  No. 
4,  in  G  minor,  op.  1G7  ;  No.  5,  Lenore,  in 
E,  op.  177  ;  No.  C,  Gelebt,  gestrebt— gelit- 
teu,  gestritteu — gestorben,  umworben,  in  D 
miu:or,  op.  189  ;  No.  7,  In  den  Alpen,  in  B- 
flat,  op.  201  ;  No.  8,  FrUhlingskldiuje,  in  A, 
op.  205  ;  No.  9,  Im  Sommer,  in  E  minor, 
op.  208  ;  No.  10,  Zur  Herbstzeit,  in  F  mi- 
nor, op.  213  ;  No.  11,  Der  Winter,  in  A  mi- 
nor (posthumous,  edited  by  Erdmanns- 
dOrfer),  op.  214  ;  Sinfonietta  for  10  wind 
instruments,  op.  188.  Four  suites  :  No.  1,  in 
C,  op.  101 ;  No.  2,  In  unQari»vher\i eise,  iuF, 
op.  194  ;  No.  3,  Italiiinische  S.,  in  E  minor, 
without  opus  number  ;  No.  4,  Thiiriuger  S., 
in  B-flat  (MS.),  op.  204.  Nine  overtm-es  : 
Jubelouverli'ire,  op.  103  ;  Festouferturc,  m  A, 
op.  117  ;  Conzertouverture  in  F,  op.  123  ; 
Festouvertiire  for  wind  instruments  for  the 
50th  anniversarj'  of  the  Deutsche  Burschen- 
schaft  at  Jena,  op.  124  ;  Overture  on  Ein' 
feste  Burg,  op.  127  ;  do.  to  Shakespeare's 
Borneo  and  Juliet  (MS.),  no  opus  number  ; 
do.  to  Othello  (MS.),  id.  ;  do.  to  Macbeth 
(MS.),  id.  ;  do.  to  The  Tempest  (MS.),  id. 
Festmarsch,  op.  139; 
Abends,  rhapsody,  op.  163 
B. ;  Elegy  (MS.),  no  opus 
number  ;  Fugue  (MS.,  un- 
finished), id.  ^ 

V.  For  Pianoforte  with 
Orchestra  :  Ode  au  printemps,  op.  76  ;  Con- 
certo in  C  minor,  op.  185  ;  Suite  in  E-flat, 
op.  200. 


VI.  For  Violin  with  Orchestra  :  La  fOte 
d' Amour,  op.  67  ;  Concerto  No.  1,  in  B  mi- 
nor, op.  161  ;  Suite,  op.  180  ;  Concerto  No. 

2,  in  A  minor,  op.  206. 

Vn.  For  Violoncello  with  Orchestra  : 
Concerto  No.  1,  in  D  minor,  op.  193  ;  do. 
No.  2,  in  G  (MS.),  no  opus  number. 

VILL  Chamber  Music  :  Octet  for  strings, 
in  C,  op.  176  ;  Sextet  for  do.,  op.  178  ; 
Quintet  for  jjianoforte  and  strings,  in  A  mi- 
nor, op.  107  ;  10  String  quartets :  No.  1,  in 
D  minor,  op.  77  ;  No.  2,  in  A,  op.  90  ;  No. 

3,  in  E  minor,  op.  136  ;  No.  4,  in  A  minor, 
op.  137  ;  No.  5,  in  G,  op.  138  ;  Nos.  G,  Suite 
iilterer  Form,  7,  Die  schOno  Miilleriu,  8, 
Suite  in  Canon-Form,  op.  192  ;  Nos.  9,  in  G, 
10,  in  C  minor,  op.  202.  Four  trios  for  pi- 
anoforte and  strings  :  No.  1,  op.  102  ;  No. 
2,  in  G,  op.  112  ;  No.  3,  op.  155  ;  No.  4,  in 
D,  oj).  158.  Five  sonatas  for  pianoforte 
and  violin  :  No.  1,  in  E  minor,  op.  73  ;  No. 
2,  in  A,  op.  78  ;  No.  3,  in  D,  op.  128 ;  No. 

4,  in  G  minor,  op.  129  ;  No.  5,  in  C  minor, 
op.  145  ;  Suite  for  do.,  op.  210 ;  Other 
pieces  for  do.,  op.  58,  63,  203  ;  one  duo  in 
MS.  Duo  in  A  for  jsianoforte  and  violon- 
cello, op.  59  ;  2  Fantasiestiickc  for  do.,  op. 
86  ;  2  Romances  for  horn  or  violoncello,  op. 
182  ;  Sonata  for  pianoforte  and  violoncello, 
op.  183. 

IX.  For  Pianoforte  :  2  Sonatas  ;  No.  1, 
with  fugue,  in  E-flat  minor,  op.  14 ;  Fan- 
tasie-Sonate  in  D  minor,  op.  168  ;  3  sona- 
tillas,  op.  99  ;  7  suites  :  op.  69  ;  in  C,  oj). 
71  ;  in  E  minor,  op.  72  ;  in  D,  op.  91  ;  in  G 
minor,  op.  162  ;  in  G,  op.  163  ;  in  B-flat,  op. 
204  (from  the  orchestral  suite) ;  about  125 
opus  numbers  of  other  pianoforte  music  in 
various  forms.     Two  Humoreskeu  for  pi- 


anoforte 4  hands,  in  D,  op.  159,  Todtentanz, 
op.  181  ;  Other  4-hand  music,  op.  82,  160, 
174  ;   Chaconne   in  A  minor  for  2  piano- 


176 


-'s*'^  '""* 
W      -- 


THE  SEW  YORK 
PUBLIC  UBRARY 


ASTBH,  tCN«X 
,.  TH.DtN  FOUNPATiaMa 

.  — M 


RAFFAEL 


fortes,  op.  150 ;  Phantasie  in  G  minor  for 
do.,  op.  207  A.;  The  same  arranged  for  pi- 
anoforte and  strings,  op.  207  b.  Kaff  also 
made  a  masterly  orchestral  arrangement  of 
Bach's  D  minor  chaconne,  and  wrote  the 
pamphlet  Die  Wagnerfrage  (1854). — Grove  ; 
Mendel ;  Riemann. 

EAFFAEL  (Raphael),  HYNEK  VACLAV 
(Iguaz  Wenzel),  born  at  Munchengriltz,  Co- 
liemia,  Oct.  IG,  17C2,  died  in  Vienna,  Feb. 
23,  1799.  Dramatic  and  church  composer, 
studied  music  in  Prague,  and  first  attracted 
attention  in  1781  as  a  tenor  singer  and  or- 
ganist. Kajoellmeister  of  a  theatre  in  Pesth 
several  years,  he  settled  afterwards  in  Vi- 
enna, where  he  obtained  a  government 
jjosition.  "Works  :  Das  Veilchenfest,  ballet, 
Vienna,  1795  ;  Pygmalion,  do.  ;  Virginia, 
melodrama  ;  Pater  noster,  with  orchestra  ; 
Te  Deum,  do.;  Canons  with  organ  ;  Songs 
and  pianoforte  music. — Dlabacz  ;  FOtis  ; 
Wurzbach. 

EAGUE,  LOUIS  CHARLES,  French 
amateur  harp  player,  lived  in  Paris  in 
1775-92,  then  in  the  neighborhood  of  Mou- 
lins.  Works :  Memnon,  opera,  Comedic 
Italienne,  1781 ;  L'amour  filial,  do.,  ib., 
178G  ;  Concerto  for  harp  and  orchestra  ;  3 
symphonies  for  orchestra ;  Quartets,  and 
trios  for  harp  and  strings  ;  Duos,  sonatas, 
etc.,  for  hai-p. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

RAIK,  DIEUDONNE,  born  at  Lit'ge, 
1702,  died  at  Antwerp,  Nov.  30,  1764.  Or- 
ganist, entered  the  choral  school  at  Antwerp 
as  a  boy,  became  a  priest  in  1726,  went  as 
organist  to  Louvain  in  1727,  to  Ghent  in 
1742,  and  finally  was  recalled  to  Antwerp, 
where  ho  became  vicar  and  choir  director. 
He  published  six  suites,  and  three  sonatas 
for  pianoforte  ;  other  compositions  remain 
in  manuscript  at  Ghent,  Louvain,  and  Ant- 
werp.— Mendel. 

RAIMONDI,  IGNAZIO,  born  in  Naples 
in  1733,  died  in  1802.  Violinist,  pupil  of 
Barbella,  settled  at  Amsterdam  about  1762, 
and  established  there  regular  concerts,  which 
be  conducted  until  about  1780  ;  he  then 
seems  to  have  gone  to  Paris,  and  afterwards 


to  London.  Works:  Les  aventures  de 
Tc'lemaque,  symphony,  Amsterdam,  1777 ; 
La  muette,  opera-bouffe,  Paris,  1791  ;  3  con- 
certos for  violin  ;  6  quartets  for  strings  ;  3 
trios  for  do. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

RAUIONDI,  PIETRO,  born  in  Rome, 
Dec.  20,  1786,  died  there,  Oct.  30,  1853. 
Dramatic  and  church  composer,  and  dis- 
tinguished conti'apuntist ;  pupil  at  the  Con- 
servatorio  della  Pieta  de'  Turchini,  Naples, 
of  La  Barbara  and  Tritto  for  six  years,  but 
was  then  forced  to  leave  because  the  relative 
who  had  sup^jorted  him  refused  to  do  so 
any  longer.  After  many  wanderings  he 
was  called  to  Florence  in  1810,  to  Naples  in 
1811,  and  in  the  following  twenty-five  years 
wrote  operas  and  ballets  for  Naples,  Sicily, 
Rome,  and  MUan.  He  was  director  in  1824 
-32  of  the  music  in  the  Royal  Theatres  at 
Naples,  and  in  1832  became  professor  of 
composition  at  the  Palermo  Conservatorio, 
where,  during  eighteen  years  he  educated 
some  remarkable  pupils,  among  others 
Chiaramonti.  He  was  called  to  Rome  in 
1850  to  succeed  Bassilj  as  maestro  di  cap- 
pella  at  St.  Peter's.  His  operas  would  prob- 
ably have  been  more  successful  but  for 
Rossini,  who  was  then  dwarfing  all  others. 
His  church  compositions  and  oratorios 
placed  him  in  the  front  rank.  Among  his 
more  remarkable  works  are  three  oratorios, 
Potifera,  Faraone,  and  lacob,  designed  to 
be  performed  either  separately  or  in  combi- 
nation as  one  work,  under  the  name  of  lo- 
sef.  When  given  at  the  Teatro  Argen- 
tino,  Aug.  7,  1852,  the  success  of  the  single 
oratorios  was  moderate,  but  when  united, 
the  three  orchestras  and  three  troupes 
forming  an  ensemble  of  400  musicians,  the 
enthusiasm  knew  no  bounds.  Works — Ope- 
ras :  Le  bizzarrie  d'  amore,  Genoa,  1807  ;  II 
battuto  contento,  ib.,  1808  ;  Ero  e  Leandro, 
ib.,  1809  ;  Eloisa  Werner,  Florence,  1810  ; 
L'  oracolo  di  Delfi,  Naples,  1811  ;  H  fanatico 
deluso,  ib.,  1811  ;  Lo  sposo  agitato,  ib., 
1812  ;  Amurat  Secondo,  Rome,  1813  ;  La 
lavandaia,  Naples,  1814 ;  R  ventaglio,  ib., 
1831,  and   all   over  Italy ;    and   45   other 


RALNrElTHTER 


operas ;  20  ballets,  Naples,  1812-1828  ;  7 
oratorios  ;  4  masses  with  full  orchestra  ;  2 
do.,  with  full  chorus  acappella  ;  Mass  for  8 
and  16  voices  ;  Credo  for  16  voices  ;  The 
whole  Book  of  Psalms  alia  Palestrina  for  i, 
5,  6,  7,  and  16  voices  ;  Many  Te  Deum  ; 
Stabats ;  ]\Iisereres,  Tantum  ergo,  etc.  ;  2 
books  of  90  j)artimenti,  each  on  a  sej)arate 
bass,  with  3  different  accompauimeuts  ;  Col- 
lection of  figured  basses  with  fugued  ac- 
companiments as  a  school  of  accompani- 
ment ;  Several  collections  of  fugues  for  4-8 
voices,  etc. — Cicconetti,  Memorie  intorno 
Pietro  Eaimondi  (Rome,  1867)  ;  Fetis ; 
Grove  ;  Mendel  ;  Eiemann. 

EAINPRUHTER,     JO H ANN    NEPO- 
MUK  FRANZ  SERAFIN,  bom  in  Bavaria, 
May  17,  1752,  died  at  Salzburg,  April,  1812.  : 
Violinist   and   church    composer,    first  in-  j 
structed  by  his  father,  a  musician  at  Alien-  j 
Otting,    Bavaria  ;    then   jsupil   of    Leopold 
Mozart  at  Salzburg,  where  he  became  choir 
director  in  the  monastery  of  St.  Peter  about 
1773.     "Works :    3   solemn   masses ;   Other 
masses,  vespers,  oifertories,    litanies,    etc.  ; 
Symphonies  ;  Concertos  for  various  instru- 
ments ;    Quartets,    trios,    duos,    serenades, 
etc.  — Wurzbach. 

rIkOCZY  INDULO,  the  most  cele- 
brated of  Hungarian  tunes.  It  shares  its 
name  with  a  number  of  older  Hungarian 
marches,  dating  from  the  beginning  of  the 
18th  century,  when  the  Transylvanian 
prince,  Rakoczy  Ferencz,  made  an  unsuc- 
cessful attempt  to  resist  the  power  of  Aus- 
tria. It  is  thought  that  he  composed  this 
march,  the  performance  of  which  on  public 
occasions  has  been  prohibited  by  the  Aus- 
trian government.  The  tune,  which  is  stir- 
ring, is  much  loved  by  the  Austrians.  Ber- 
lioz introduced  it  into  the  Damnation  de 
Faust,  writing  it  the  night  before  he  left 
Vienna  for  Prague,  during  his  first  visit  to 
Austria.  Berhoz's  arrangement  has  been 
adapted  for  the  pianoforte  for  two  bands, 
by  Ed.  Wolff,  published  by  Bote  &  Bock 
(Berlin)  ;  and  for  four  hands,  by  Julius 
Benedict  (ib.).     Arrangements,   by   Liszt : 


Marche  de  Rakoczy  for  the  pianoforte,  edi- 
tion populaire  (Kistner,  Leipsic) ;  Rakuczy- 
Marsch,  symphonic  arrangement  for  full  or- 
chestra, also  for  the  pianoforte  for  four  and 
for  eight  hands  (Schuberth,  Leipsic)  ;  and 
Rakoczy-Marsch  for  the  pianoforte,  Rliap- 
aodie,  hongroise.  No.  XV.  There  are  various 
arrangements  by  other  composers. — Engel, 
the  Study  of  National  Music,  192  ;  Apthorp, 
Beriioz,  52. 

RAMANN,  BRUNO,  born  at  Erfurt  in 
1830,  still  living,  1890.  Instrumental  and 
vocal  comjioser,  pupil  of  Brendel,  Riedel, 
and  Hauptmauu  ;  lives  and  teaches  at  Dres- 
den. Works :  Lob  der  Frauen,  for  male 
voices  and  pianoforte  ;  Ein  Tanz-Poem,  for 
pianoforte  four  hands  ;  Three  songs  for 
mixed  chorus  ;  Album  fiU'stlicher  Minne- 
siinger  und  Lieder  ;  Pianoforte  pieces,  etc. 
RAMEAU,  JEAN  PHILIPPE,  born  at 
Dijon,  France,  Sept. 
25,  1683,  died  in 
Paris,  Sept.  12,  1764. 
Dramatic  composer, 
son  of  an  organist  at 
the  Dijon  cathedral. 
He  was  intended  for 
the  magistracy,  but 
he  so  neglected  his 
studies  at  the  Jesuit 
College  for  music  that  his  parents  were 
asked  to  take  him  away.  He  was  already 
an  accomplished  clavecinist,  for  at  the  age 
of  seven  he  could  play  quite  difficult  mu- 
sic at  sight.  He  soon  mastered  also  the  or- 
gan and  violin,  and  in  1701  made  a  short 
visit  to  Italy,  but  soon  joined  a  theatrical 
company,  with  whom  he  travelled  through 
South  France  as  first  violinist.  In  1706  he 
was  living  at  Paris  as  organist  to  the  Jesuit 
convent  in  the  rue  Saint- Jacques,  and  of 
the  chapel  of  the  Pores  de  la  Merci.  It  is 
not  known  how  long  he  stayed  in  Paris, 
nor  where  he  lived  up  to  the  time  of  his 
second  visit  in  1717.  In  this  year  he  failed 
to  get  the  post  of  organist  at  the  church  of 
Saint-Paul,  and  went  to  Lille,  where  he  was 
organist  at  Saint-lfitienne  for  a  while,  going 


178 


KAMEAU 


theuce  to  Clermont  in  Auvergne,  where  be 
succeeded  his  brother,  Claude,  as  organist  at 
the  cathedral.  In  the  quiet  of  this  secluded 
mountain  town,  Eameau  gave  himself  up  to 
the  study  of  the  writings  of  Descartes,  Mer- 
senne,  Kirehei-,  and  Zarlino,  and  gradually 
drew  up  his  famous  "  Treatise  on  Harmony 
reduced  to  its  natural  principles,"  a  truly 
epoch-making  work.  Kameau's  system  of 
harmony  was  based  upon  the  equal  division 
of  the  monochord,  and  was  the  first  attempt 
ever  made  to  reduce  the  theory  of  harmony 
to  scientific  principles.  For  many  genera- 
tions it  was  the  basis  of  all  theoretic  writ- 
ings on  the  subject  in  France,  Germany, 
and  Ital}',  and  although  it  has  now  been 
suj)erseded  by  other  sounder  systems,  Ka- 
meau's theory  of  the  inversion  of  chords 
has  held  good  to  the  jsresent  day.  This 
was,  indeed,  his  one  really  important  dis- 
covery. As  soon  as  he  had  completed  his 
work,  which  he  did  in  four  years,  he  was 
anxious  to  go  again  to  Paris,  but  the  long 
engagement  which  he  had  signed  with  the 
Clermont  chajjter  had  still  several  years  to 
run,  and  his  only  means  of  obtaining  a  re- 
lease was  persistently  to  scorch  the  ears  of 
the  congregation  by  such  outrageous  freaks 
of  improvisation  on  the  organ,  that  the 
chapter  had  to  let  him  go  iu  self-defence. 
When  he  arrived  in  Pai-is  he  had  his  "  Traito 
d'harmonie  "  published  by  Ballard  (1722). 
The  work  did  not  attract  much  notice  at 
first,  and  Rameau  had  to  give  music  lessons 
for  a  living.  In  this  way  he  soon  became 
fashionable,  notably  with  ladies  of  rank  ;  he 
also  got  the  post  of  organist  at  the  church  of 
the  Sainte-Croix  de  la  Bretonnerie.  On  Feb. 
25,  1726,  he  married  Marie-Louise  Mangot, 
a  good  singer,  then  only  eighteen  years  old. 
By  this  time  his  "  Traite  d'harmonie  "  had 
excited  considerable  notice,  as  had  also  the 
music  he  wrote  to  several  little  pieces  of 
Alexis  Piron  for  the  Theatre  de  la  Foire, 
and  some  cantatas  and  clavecin  works  he 
had  published.  But  iu  spito  of  his  growing 
rejjutation  both  as  theorist,  organist,  and 
composer,  it  was  not  until   1733   that   he 


succeeded  in  having  a  five-act  grand  opera, 
Hippolyte  et  Aricie,  brought  out  at  the 
Academic  de  Musique,  which  made  more 
stir  than  anything  that  had  appeared  since 
Lully's  day,  and  became  the  subject  of  con- 
siderable controversy.  It  was  followed  by 
a  long  list  of  other  operas  and  ballets, 
written  either  for  the  Academic  de  Musique, 
or  for  the  court.  He  was  certainly  the 
greatest  French  composer  since  LuUy,  and 
did  much  toward  expanding  the  form  of 
French  opera  which  Lully  had  established. 
He  introduced  new  forms,  a  more  careful 
and  varied  treatment  of  the  orchestra,  richer 
harmony,  and  more  frequent  modulation. 
He  was  an  unequal  writer,  but  would  prob- 
ably have  been  less  so  had  he  not  persist- 
ently refused  to  recognize  the  fact  that  he 
wrote  best  when  thoroughly  inspu-ed  by 
his  subject.  Unlike  LuUy,  who  threw  the 
whole  weight  of  his  genius  upon  truth  of 
dramatic  expression,  and  was  always  care- 
ful to  secure  the  best  possible  libretti,  Ea- 
meau had  a  theory  that  it  mattered  little  to 
a  composer  what  he  set  to  music,  and  was 
correspondingly  careless  in  his  choice  of 
opera-texts.  Still,  when  at  his  best,  he 
wrote  music  the  beauties  of  which  can 
hardly  be  dimmed  by  time,  and  he  has 
always  been  esteemed  the  greatest  figure 
in  the  history  of  French  opera  between 
Lully  and  Gluck.  Works — I.  Operas  :  Sam- 
sou  (not  f)erformed,  written  1732)  ;  Ilijjpo- 
lyte  et  Aricie,  tragedie-02:)era,  Paris,  Aca- 
demie  Eoyale  de  Musique,  Oct.  1,  1733  ; 
Les  Indes  galantes,  opera-ballet,  ib.,  Aug. 
23,  1735  ;  Castor  Qi  Pollux,  tragedie-lyrique, 
ib.,  Oct.  24,  1737  ;  Les  fOtes  d'Hube,  ou  les 
talents  lyriques,  opera-ballet,  ib.,  May  21, 
1739  ;  Dardanus,  tragedie-opera,  ib.,  Nov. 
19, 1739  ;  La  princesse  de  Navarre,  comedie- 
hcroique,  Versailles,  Feb.  23,  1745  ;  Les 
fetes  de  Polhymnie,  opera-ballet,  Paris, 
Academic  Eoyale  de  Musique,  Oct.  12,  1745  ; 
Le  temple  de  la  glorie,  do.,  Versailles,  Nov. 
27,  and  Paris,  Academic  Eoyale  de  Musique, 
Dec.  7,  1745 ;  Les  fetes  d'Hymeu  et  de 
I'Amour,    ou   les    dieux    d'Egypte,    ballet- 


170 


RAMEAU 


heroique,  Versailles,  March  15,  1747,  and 
Paris,  Academie  Koyale  de  Musique,  Nov.  5, 
1748  ;  Zais,  opura-ballet,  ib.,  Feb.  29,  1748 ; 
Pygmalion  (act  from  Laroche's  opera  Le 
triomphe  des  arts,  reset  by  Rameau),  ib., 
Aug.  27,  1748 ;  Platoe,  ou  Junon  jalonse, 
comudie-ballet,  ib.,  Feb.  4,  1749 ;  Nais, 
opera-ballet,  ib.,  April  22,  1749  ;  ZoroaMre 
(the  music  of  Samson  remodelled  on  a  new 
libretto),  tragedie-lyrique,  ib.,  Nov.  5,  1749  ; 
Acanthe  et  Cophise,  ou  la  sympathie,  pas- 
toral-heroique,  ib.,  Nov.  19,  1751 ;  La  guir- 
lande,  ou  les  fleurs  euchantccs,  opera-ballet, 
ib.,  Sept.  21,  1751 ;  La  naissauce  d'Osiris, 
ou  la  fete  de  famille,  do.,  Versailles,  1751, 
and  Paris,  Academie  Eoyale  de  Musique, 
1754  ;    Daphnis    et    Egle,    do.,    Versailles, 

1753  ;  Lj'cis  et  Dclie,  do.,  ib.,  1753  ;  Zephire, 
opera,  Pai'is,  Academie  Royale  de  Musique, 

1754  ;  Nelee  et  Myrtis  (not  performed, 
written  about  1755)  ;  lo,  opera-ballet  (id., 
about  175G)  ;  Le  retour  d'Astree,  prologue, 
Paris,  Academie  Eoyale  de  Musique,  1757  ; 
Anacreon,  ballet-hc'roique,  ib.,  May  31, 
1757  ;  Les  surprises  de  I'amoui',  ojiera-bal- 
let,  ib..  May  31,  1757  ;  Les  Si/harites,  opera, 
ib.,  July  12,  1757  ;  Les  Paladins,  opera- 
ballet,  ib.,  Feb.  12,  17G0 ;  Le  procureur 
dupe,  opcra-comiquc  (not  performed,  written 
about  1760) ;  Linus,  tragedio-lyrique  (id., 
about  1700)  ;  Abaris,  ou  les  Boreades,  do. 
(id.,  about  17G2)  ;  Roland  (left  unfinished, 
1764).  Also  divertissements  for  L'enrole- 
ment  d'Ai'lequin,  Paris,  1726  ;  and  for  the  fol- 
lowing Inlays  by  Piron  :  L'Endriague,  Paris, 
1723  ;  Les  coui'ses  du  Tempe,  ib.,  1734  ; 
La  rose,  ib.,  March  5,  1744  ;  Le  faux  pro- 
digue,  ib.,  1744.  II.  Cantatas :  Thetis ; 
L'impatieuce  ;  La  musette ;  Aquilon  et 
Orithie  ;  Le  berger  fidele  ;  L'enlovement 
d'Orithie  ;  Orphee  et  les  amans  trahis ; 
Medee  ;  L' absence.  IIL  Instrumental  : 
Premier  livre  de  pieces  de  clavecin  (Paris, 
1706)  ;  Deuxic'me  livre  (ib.,  1721)  ;  Trois- 
ieme  livre,  pieces  de  clavecin  avec  uue  table 
pour  les  agremens  (ib.,  1730) ;  Nouvelles 
suites  de  pieces  de  clavecin  avec  des  re- 
marques   sur  les   differens  genres  de    mu- 


sique (ib.) ;  Three  concertos  for  the  clavecin, 
violin,  and  bass  viol,  published  by  Leclerc 
(Paris,  1741 ;  also  in  London)  ;  and  pieces 
for  the  organ  in  MS.  Some  of  his  harpsi- 
chord music  has  been  published  in  the 
"Tresor  des  pianistes  ; "  in  Pauer's  "Alte 
Klaviermusik  ;  "  in  Pauer's  "  Alte  Meister  ; " 
and  in  "Lesperlesmusicales."  IV.  Church 
music  :  Motets  with  choruses  :  In  conver- 
tendo  quam  dilecta ;  and  Deus  noster  re- 
fugium  (in  MS.)  ;  Motet,  Laboravi  for  five 
voices  and  organ  (in  Le  traite  de  I'harmo- 
nie,  vol.  iii.).  V.  Theoretical  works :  Traite 
de  I'harmonie  ri'duite  ;i  ses  principes  natu- 
rels  (three  books),  (Paris,  1722  ;  3d  book 
translated  into  English,  London,  1737  ;  3d 
English  ed.,  ib.,  1752) ;  Nouveau  Systeme  de 
musique  theorique,  etc.  (Paris,  1726) ;  Dis- 
sertation sur  les  differentes  methodes  d'ac- 
compagnement  pour  le  clavecin  ou  pour 
I'orgue  (ib.,  1732  ;  2d  ed.,  1742) ;  Lettre 
au  P.  Castel  au  sujet  de  quelques  nouvelles 
reflexions  sur  la  musique  (in  Menioires  de 
Trevoux,  July,  1736) ;  Generation  barmo- 
nique,  etc.  (Paris,  1737) ;  Demonstration  du 
principc  de  Tharmonie,  servant  de  base  a 
tout  I'art  musical  (1752)  ;  Reflexions  de  M. 
Rameau  sur  la  maniore  de  former  la  voLx, 
d'apprendrc  la  musique,  et  sur  nos  facultes 
pour  les  arts  d'exercice  (Mercure  de  France, 
1752) ;  Extrait  d'uno  reponse  de  M.  Rameau 
a.  M.  Euler  sur  I'identite  des  octaves,  d'oh 
resultent  des  verites  d'autaut  plus  curieuses 
qu'elles  n'ont  pas  encore  etc  soupgonnees 
(1753)  ;  Observations  sur  notre  instinct  pour 
la  musique  et  sur  son  principe  (1754)  ; 
Erreurs  sur  la  musique  dans  I'Encyclopcdie 
(1755)  ;  Suite  des  erreurs  sur  la  musique 
dans  I'Encyclopedie  (1756) ;  Reponse  de  M. 
Rameau  a  MIVL  les  editeurs  de  I'Encyclo- 
pi'die  sur  leur  dernier  avertissement  (1757) ; 
Lettre  de  M.  d'Alembert  a  M.  Rameau,  cou- 
cernant  le  corps  sonore,  avec  la  reponse  de 
M.  Rameau  (1758) ;  Prospectus  du  code  de 
musique  (1759)  ;  Code  de  musique  pra- 
tique, etc.  (1760)  ;  Origine  des  sciences 
suivie  d'une  controverse  sur  le  meme  sujet 
(1761)  ;  Lettre  aux  philosophes,  concemant 


180 


KANDEGGEll 


le  corps  sonore  et  la  sympathie  des  tons 
(Memoires  de  Trevoux,  1762) ;  Traite  de  la 
composition  dea  canons  en 
musique  ;  Verites  interes- 
santes  peu  connues  jusquTi 
nos  jours  ;  Des  avautagea  que  la  musique 
doit  retirer  dea  nouvelles  decoiivertes  (un- 
finished).— Ducbager,  Reflexioua  sur  divers 
ouvrages  de  M.  Rameau  (Rennes,  1701) ; 
Rameau  aux  Cbamps-Elysces  (Amsterdam, 
1764)  ;  Ordro  clirouique  des  deuils  de  cour 
l)our  raunc'e  1704  ;  Palissot,  Nucrologe  des 
liommes  ceK'bres  pour  I'anuee  1705  (Mercure 
de  France,  1705,  vol.  i.) ;  Maret,  Eloge  bis- 
torique  de  Rameau  (Paris,  1700)  ;  Jean- 
Francois,  poem  entitled  "  La  Rameide  " 
(Paris,  1700),  parodie  "La  nouvelle  Ra- 
meide;" Gautier  Dagoby,  Galerie  franjaise 
(1771)  ;  Croix,  Ami  des  arts  (Paris,  1776) ; 
Apotbeose  de  Rameau,  scenes  lyriques,  text 
by  M.  .  .  music  by  M.  .  .  (Dijon, 
1783)  ;  Rameau,  ballet-allegorique  in  one 
act,  by  M.  Lefebvre,  for  the  centenary  of 
Rameau's  birth,  Paris,  1784  ;  Maunce  Bour- 
ges,  Gaz.  mus.  de  Paris  (183!)),  201,  205, 
22S,  230  ;  Adolphe  Adam,  Rameau  (Paris, 
1804) ;  Charles  Poisot,  Notice  sur  Rameau 
(ik,  1804);  Th.  Nisard,  Mouographio  do 
Jean  Philippe  Rameau  (ib.,  1807)  ;  Deliber- 
ation du  conseil  municipal  de  Dijon  sur  la 
projiosition  d'eriger  une  statue  a  Rameau, 
rapport  presente  par  M.  Muteau  (Dijon, 
1870)  ;  H.  Grique,  Rameau,  sa  vie,  ses  ouv- 
rages (Dijon,  1876)  ;  Ai'thur  Pougin,  Ra- 
meau, Essai  sur  sa  vie  et  ses  oeuvres  (Paris, 
1876)  ;  Diderot,  Le  neveu  de  Rameau  (many 
editions) ;  Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Grove  ;  Rie- 
mann. 

RANDEGGER,  ALBERTO,  born  at 
Trieste,  April  13,  1832,  still  living,  1890. 
Dramatic  composer,  and  professor  of  sing- 
ing, pupil  of  Lafont  on  the  pianoforte,  and 
of  Luigi  Ricci  in  composition.  He  was 
musical  director  at  Fiume,  Zara,  Sinigaglia, 
Brescia,  and  Venice,  and  about  1854  left 
Italy  for  Paris,  then  went  to  London,  where 
be  has  since  resided  as  a  successful  vocal 
teacher.     He  became  in  1808  professor  of 


singing  at  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music,  and 
subsequently  director  of  that  institution  and 
member  of  the  com- 
mittee of  manage- 
ment. In  1857  be 
conducted  a  series 
of  Italian  operas  at 
St.  James's  Theatre, 
and  in  1879-85  the 
Carl  Rosa  companj-. 
He  was  also,  in  1880, 
conductor  of  the 
Norwich  Festival,  and  baa  conducted  oth- 
er festivals.  Works  :  La  fidanzata  di  Castel- 
lamare,  ballet,  Trieste,  about  1850 ;  La 
sposa  di  Appenzello,  do.,  ib.  ;  II  lazzarone, 
opera  bufi'a  (with  Rota,  Zelman,  and  Beyer), 
ib.,  1852  ;  Bianca  Capello,  opera,  Brescia, 
1854 ;  The  Rival  Beauties,  comic  opera, 
Leeds,  1804  ;  3Iedea,  dramatic  scena,  Leip- 
sic,  1869  ;  Saffo,  do.,  London,  1875  ;  Fri- 
dolin,  cantata,  Birmingham  Festival,  1873  ; 
Psalm  CL,  Boston  Festival,  1872  ;  Funeral 
anthem  in  memorj-  of  the  Prince  Consort ; 
Scena,  text  from  Byron's  "Prayer  of  Na- 
ture," for  tenor  and  orchestra,  1887  ;  Many 
songs,  and  concerted  vocal  music  with  or- 
chestra or  pianoforte. — Fetis,  Supplement, 
ii.  394  ;  Grove  ;  Riemann. 

RANDHARTINGER,  BENEDICT,  born 
at  Ruprecbtshofen,  Nether  Austria,  July  27, 
1802,  still  living,  1890.  At  the  age  of  ten 
he  became  a  choir-boy  in  the  court  chapel 
of  Vienna,  studied  later  under  Salieri,  and 
was  very  intimate  with  Schubert.  After 
studying  law,  he  was  for  seven  years  pri- 
vate secretary  to  Count  Szechenyi,  a  court 
official  ;  then  he  became  tenor  singer  of  the 
court  chapel  in  1832,  Vize-Kapellmeister  in 
1844,  and  Hof-Kapellmeister  on  the  death 
of  Assmayer  in  1862.  He  was  pensioned 
in  1806,  and  decorated  with  the  Franz  Jo- 
seph Order.  He  travelled  much  during  bis 
vacations.  Works  :  KOnig  Euzio,  opera  ;  20 
masses  ;  2  Requiems  ;  60  motets  ;  42  gradu- 
als  and  offertories  ;  20  sacred  arias  with  har- 
monium and  violoncello ;  2  symphonies  ; 
Quintet  for  strings  ;    2  quartets  for   do. ; 


181 


liANZ 


Trio  for  pianoforte  and  strings  ;  marclies 
and  variations  for  pianoforte  (4  hands) ;  400 
songs ;  10  three-part  and  76  four-part  songs ; 
4  books  of  Greek  popular  songs ;  Greek 
ritual  songs,  and  much  other  music.  Of 
his  works,  numbering  more  than  600,  only 
about  124  have  been  published. — Wurz- 
bach  ;  Schilling  ;  Mendel  ;  Fetis. 

EANZ  DES  VACHES  (Kuhreihen,  Kuh- 
reigen,  in  the  Appenzell  patois  Chiiereiba), 
a  strain  blown  upon  the  Alpine  horn  to  call 
the  cows  to  pasture.  The  word  Ranz, 
which  has  been  derived  from  various  roots, 
means  the  procession,  or  march  of  the  cows. 
There  are  numerous  Ranz  des  vaches,  vai-i- 
riously  played  in  the  different  cantons  of 
Switzerland,  and  possessing  great  charm 
when  heard  in  the  Alpine  valleys.  The 
most  celebrated  is  that  of  Appenzell,  a  copy 
of  which  is  supposed  to  have  been  sent  to 
Queen  Anne  of  England,  who  was  especially 
fond  of  the  Swiss  melody.  The  Ranz  des 
vaches  is  used  with  great  eftect  by  Rossini 
in  his  overture  to  Guillaume  Tell,  and  also 
by  Grotry  in  the  overture  to  his  opera  of 
the  same  title.  It  has  also  been  arranged 
by  Weigl,  Webbe,  and  by  Adam  in  his  "  Mc- 
thode  de  riauo  du  Conservatoire."  It  was 
first  iwinted  in  Georg  Rhaw's  "Bicinia" 
(Wittenberg,  1545).  The  Ranz  des  vaches 
has  been  arranged  by  ]\Ieyerbcer,  for  one 
and  two  voices,  with  French  and  German 
test  (Schlesinger,  Berlin,  1828).  One  version 
in  Rousseau's  "  Dictionnaire  de  Musique," 
arranged  for  four  voices  by  Laborde,  is 
printed  in  his  '"  Essai  sur  la  musique." 
Ranz  des  vaches,  melodie  by  Ferdinand 
Huber,  with  variations  by  Liszt,  dedicated 
to  Adolphe  Pictet. — Dissertation  on  Nostal- 
gia in  Zwiuger's  "  Fasciculus  Dissertationum 
Medicarum  "  (Basel,  1710)  ;  Cappeller,  Pi- 
lati  Montis  Historia  (1757)  ;  Stolberg,  Reise 
im  Deutschland  der  Schweiz  (1798) ;  Ebel, 
Schilderung  der  Gebirgsvijlker  der  Schweiz 
(1798) ;  Sigmund  von  Wagner,  Acht  Schwei- 
zer  Kuhreihen  (1805)  ;  Casteluau,  Conside- 
rations sur  la  Nostalgic  (1806) ;  Edward 
Jones,  Musical  Curiosities  (1811) ;  Tarenne, 


Sammlung  von  Schweizer  Kuhreihen  und 
VolksUedern  (1818)  ;  J.  R.  Wyss,  Texte  zu 
der  Sammlung  von  Schweizer  Kiihreihen 
und  VolksUedern  (Berne,  1826) ;  Huber, 
Recueil  de  Ranz  des  vaches  (1830) ;  Tobler, 
AppenzeUischer  Sprachschatz  (1837) ;  Grove, 
iii.  75  ;  Harmonicon  (1824),  37,  58  ;  AUgem. 
mus.  Zeitg.,  xxx.  599. 

RAOUL  DE  COUCY.     See  Counj. 

RAOUL  DE  CREQUI,  comedie-lyrique 
in  three  acts,  text  by  Slonvel,  music  by 
Dalayrae,  first  represented  at  the  Italiens, 
Paris,  Oct.  31,  1789.  It  was  first  given  in 
Berlin,  Nov.  19,  1804  ;  in  Vicuna  in  1805. 
A  ballet  was  arranged  to  the  music  by  Vi- 
gano,  Berlin,  1797.  Italian  operas  on  this 
subject :  Raoul  di  Crequi,  bj'  Simon  Mayr, 
text  by  Romauelh,  Jililan,  Dec.  26,  1809  ; 
by  Francesco  Morlacchi,  Dresden,  April, 
1811 ;  by  Valentino  Fioravanti,  Naj^les, 
1811  ;  and  by  Francesco  AltaviUa,  Turin, 
about  1848. 

RAOUX,  LOUIS  ALEXIS,  born  at  Cour- 
trai,  Sept.  11,  1814,  died  at  ]5vcre-les-Bru- 
xeUes,  Nov.  15,  1855.  Dramatic  composer, 
pupil  of  J.  H.  Mees'  music  academy  at  Brus- 
sels ;  became  in  1827  instructor  at  the  royal 
school  of  music,  and  in  1831  founded  a 
free  music  school.  In  1833  lie  became 
professor  at  the  Conservatoire,  in  1835 
opened  an  academy  of  music,  and  in  1839 
founded  a  conservatoire  for  classic  and 
sacred  music.  Works :  Les  deux  pro- 
ceptcurs,  opera-comique ;  Le  mariage  a 
I'anglaise,  do.  ;  Choruses  to  Athalie ;  Sym- 
phonies, overtures,  masses,  motets,  an  ora- 
torio, cantatas,  etc. — Fetis,  Sujjplument,  ii. 
395. 

RAPDIENTO  DI  CEFALO,  IL  (The 
Rape  of  Cephalus),  Italian  opera  in  five  acts, 
with  prologue  entitled  La  poesia,  text  by 
Chiabera,  music  by  Caccini,  first  represented 
at  the  Pitti  Palace,  Florence,  Oct.  9,  1597. 
It  was  composed  by  order  of  the  Gi'and 
Duke  of  Tuscany  for  the  marriage  festivi- 
ties of  Maria  de'  Medici  and  Henri  FV.  of 
France.  The  choruses  were  written  by 
Stefano  Veuturi  del  Nibbio,  Piero  Strozzi, 


182 


KAPPOLDl 


and  Liica  Bati.  It  was  represented  after- 
wards in  a  theatre  in  Florence,  and  was 
published  in  1605.  Same  subject,  II  ratto 
di  Cefalo,  Italian  opera,  text  by  Berni,  mu- 
sic by  Andrea  Mattioli,  given  in  Fen-ara, 
1651,  when  new  machinery  invented  by 
Carlo  Pasetti  was  used. — Futis,  ii.  140  ;  Am- 
bros,  iv.  272. 

RAPPOLDI,  EDUAED,  born  in  Vienna, 
Feb.  21,  1839,  still 
living,  1800.  Vir- 
tuoso on  the  violin, 
pupil  of  Jausa,  Hell- 
mesberger,  and 
Bohm,  and  in  com- 
position of  Sechter 
and  HUler.  He  was 
a  member  of  the 
opera  orchestra  in 
Vienna,  in  1854-61,  concertmeester  in  Rot- 
terdam in  1861-66,  Kapellmeister  in  Lii- 
beck,  Stettin,  and  Prague  in  1866-70. 
Then  he  became  instructor  at  the  royal 
school  of  music  in  Berlin,  where  he  was  a 
colleague  of  Joachim's  and  a  member  of  his 
quartet,  and  in  1876  was  apjDointed  royal 
professor.  In  1877  he  became  Conzert- 
meister  at  the  Opera  and  professor  at  the 
Conservatorium  in  Dresden.  In  1874  he 
married  the  pianist  Laura  Kahrer.  Though 
a  virtuoso  of  the  first  rank,  he  prefers  artis- 
tic inteq^retation  to  display.  Works  :  Sym- 
phonies, quartets,  sonatas,  and  songs  with 
p)ianoforte  accompaniment. — Mendel ;  Rie- 
maun  ;  Mus.  Wochenblatt,  ix.  480. 

RAPPRESENTAZIONE  DELL'  ANDLi 
E  DEL  CORPO,  LA  (Representation  of 
the  Soul  and  the  Body),  Italian  musical 
drama,  text  by  Lauro  Guidiccioni,  of  the 
house  of  Lucchesini,  music  by  Cavalieri,  first 
represented  in  the  oratory  of  Santa  Maria 
in  Vallicella,  Rome,  in  February,  1600.  It 
is  one  of  the  first  works  in  which  the  in- 
strumental bass  (basso  continuo)  differs 
from  the  vocal  bass.  It  is  evident  that  the 
composer  felt  the  need  of  modulation,  but 
his  harmonies  are  crude  and  in  false  rela- 
tion.    The   choruses    are   rhythmical,  and 


belong  to  the  style  of  the  Neapolitan  viUa- 
nelle,  and  the  arias  resemble  those  of  Peri 
and  Caccini.  Published  by  Alexander  Gui- 
dotti  (Bologna,  1600).— Ambros,  iv.  275. 

RASOUMOWSKY  QUARTETS,  three 
quartets  for  two  violins,  viola,  and  violon- 
cello in  F,  E  minor,  and  C,  by  Beethoven, 
op.  59,  dedicated  to  Count  Rasoumowsky, 
probably  first  played  at  the  Count's  house 
in  Vienna  by  his  quartet — Schuppanzigh, 
first  violin  ;  Count  Rasoumowsky,  second 
violin  ;  Weiss,  viola  ;  and  Lincke,  violon- 
cello. The  original  MS.  of  the  first  quartet, 
in  the  possession  of  Paul  Mendelssohn,  is 
dated  "Quartette  angefangen,  26  May,  1807." 
These  three  quartets  were  finished  and 
played  before  Feb.  27, 1807.  Mendelssohn 
considered  the  quartet  in  F,  op.  59,  and  that 
in  F  minor,  op.  95,  the  most  Beethovenish 
of  all  his  works.  The  finale  of  the  quartet 
in  F  has  a  Russian  theme  in  D  minor  for 
its  chief  subject.  No.  1,  in  F  :  I.  Allegro  ; 
n.  Allegretto  vivace  e  sempre  scherzando  ; 
in.  Adagio  molto  e  mesto  ;  IV.  Finale, 
Allegro.  No.  2,  in  E  minor :  I.  Allegro ;  II. 
Molto  adagio  ;  III.  Allegro  ;  IV.  Presto. 
No.  3,  in  C  :  I.  titroduzione.  Andante  con 
moto  ;  n.  Andante  con  moto  quasi  alle- 
gretto ;  m.  Minuetto  grazioso  ;  IV.  Finale, 
Allegro  molto.  Published  by  Andre  (Offen- 
bach) ;  by  Heckel  (Manheim)  ;  by  Lanner 
(Paris)  ;  by  Peters  (Leipsic)  ;  by  Breitkopf 
&  Hiirtel,  Beethoven  Werke,  Serie  vi.,  Nos. 
7,  8,  9. — Lenz,  Beethoven,  ii.,  part  i.  14-48  ; 
Marx,  Beethoven,  ii.  34-52  ;  Thayer,  Ver- 
zeichniss,  No.  127  ;  Grove,  iii.  77 ;  Nohl, 
Beethoven,  ii.  243,  495 ;  Allgem.  mus. 
Zeitg.,  ix.  400. 

RASTRELLI,  JOSEF,  born  in  Dresden, 
April  13,  1799,  died  there,  Nov.  14,  1842. 
Dramatic  and  church  composer,  son  of  the 
following ;  pupil  of  Poland  on  the  violin,  of 
the  organist  Feidler  in  harmony,  and  at 
Bologna,  whither  he  accompanied  his  father 
in  1814,  pupil  of  Mattel  in  counterpoint. 
In  1817  he  returned  to  Dresden,  and  en- 
tered the  royal  orchestra  as  violinist,  vis- 
ited Italy  again  in  1824,  was  appointed  in 


183 


RASTKELLI 


1829  second  Kapellmeister  of  the  court 
opera  in  Dresden,  and  in  1830  Hof-Kaisell- 
meister.  Works — Operas  :  La  distruzione 
di  Gerusalemme,  Ancona,  181G  ;  La  scbiava 
circassa,  Dresden,  1817  ;  Le  donue  curiose, 
opera  buffa,  ib.,  1821  ;  Velleda,  ib.;  Amina, 
Milan,  1824  ;  Salvator  Eosa,  Dresden,  1832  ; 
Bertha  de  Bretague,  ib.,  1835.  Der  Raub 
Zetulbeus,  ballet ;  Music  to  Macbeth  ;  Sev- 
eral masses  ;  Vespers  ;  Miserere  ;  Salve  Ee- 
gina,  etc. — Fetis;  MendeL 

KASTRELLI,  \TNCENZO,  born  at  Fauo 
in  17G0,  died  in  Dresden,  March  20,  1839. 
Church  composer,  pui)il  of  Mattel  in  Bo- 
logna, having  already  been  a  successful  in- 
structor of  singing  in  his  native  city,  whither 
he  returned  in  1786  to  become  maestro  di 
cappella  of  the  cathedral.  Shortly  after- 
wards he  entered  the  service  of  the  Elector 
of  Saxony  as  composer  of  the  court  chapel, 
and  remained  in  this  i)Osition  until  1802, 
when  he  went  to  Moscow.  About  the  end 
of  180G  he  visited  Italy,  and  was  soon  re- 
called to  Dresden,  but  resigned  in  1814  to 
make  another  journey  to  Italy.  After  his 
return  to  Dresden,  he  taught  singing,  and 
in  1824  was  reinstated  in  his  post  as  court 
composer,  and  pensioned  in  1831.  Works  : 
Tobias,  oratorio  ;  10  masses  ;  3  vcspei-s  ; 
Canzonette,  arias,  duos,  etc. — Fctis  ;  Men- 
del. 

RATAPLAN.  See  Fille  du  regiment; 
Hitguenotf. 

EATHGEBER,  VALENTIN,  composer, 
born  at  Ober-Elsbach,  Bavaria,  about  1690, 
died  after  1744.  He  was  a  Benedictine 
monk  at  Bantheln  in  Franconia,  and  a  most 
industrious  composer.  Works  :  Masses  ; 
Vespers  ;  Offertories  ;  Litanies  ;  Psalms ; 
Hymns  ;  Chelis  sonora  (1728),  containing 
concertos  and  sj'mpbonies  concertantes  for 
different  instruments  ;  Musikalischer  Zeit- 
vertreib  auf  dem  Klavier  (1743) ;  Songs  and 
other  pieces. — Walther  ;  Gerber  ;  SchiUing ; 
Mendel  ;  Fetis. 

RATTI,  LAURENTITJS,  born  in  Perugia, 
second  half  of  the  16th  century,  died  at 
Loreto  in  1630.     Church  comi^oser,  pupil 


of  Vincenzo  Ugolini  in  Rome,  where  he  was 
afterwards  maestro  di  cappella  in  the  Ro- 
man seminary  and  the  German  coUege. 
Later  he  occupied  the  same  position  in  the 
church  at  Loreto.  Works  :  MadrigaU  a 
cinque  voci,  1st  book  (Venice,  1615) ;  do., 
2d  book  (ib.,  1616)  ;  Mottecta,  1st  book 
(Rome,  1617)  ;  do.,  2d  book  (ib.,  1G19) ; 
Motetti  a  1-G  voci  (Venice,  1620)  ;  Litanie 
della  Beata  Vergine  a  5-12  voci  (ib.,  1626) ; 
Sacra)  modulationes,  seu  Graduali  et  Offer- 
torii  1-12  vocum  (ib.,  1628);  Cantica  Salo- 
monis  1-5  vocibus  concinenda,  etc.  (ib., 
1632).— Ft'tis. 

RATZENBERGER,  THEODOR,  born  at 
Grossbreitenbach,  Thuriugia,  Ajjril  14, 
1840,  still  living,  1890.  Pianist,  pupil  of 
Liszt,  and  in  theory  of  Peter  ComeHus. 
He  played  with  great  success  in  concerts  at 
Geneva,  Berne,  Zurich,  and  other  cities  of 
Switzerland,  and  in  1859  at  Sonder.shausen, 
where  he  was  made  court  pianist ;  in  1863  in 
Switzerland,  Belgium,  and  Paris,  settled  at 
Lausanne  in  1864,  at  Wilrzburg  in  1866, 
and  at  Diisseldorf  in  1868.  Works  :  2  con- 
certos for  pianoforte  ;  Orchestral  works  ; 
Pianoforte  pieces  and  songs. 

RAUB  DER  S.ABINERmNEN,  DER, 
(The  Rape  of  the  Sabines),  dramatic  cantata 
for  chorus,  soli,  and  orchestra,  text  by 
Arthur  Fitger,  music  by  Georg  Vierling, 
op.  50.  Published  by  Leuckart  (Lei23sic, 
1877).  Operas  on  the  same  subject  in  Ital- 
ian :  II  ratto  delle  Sabine,  by  Draghi,  text 
by  Minato,  Vienna,  1674,  on  the  birthday  of 
Leopold  I.  ;  by  Pietro  Simone  Agostini, 
text  by  Bussani,  Venice,  1680,  Bologna, 
1689  ;  by  Zlngarelli,  text  by  Rossi,  Venice, 
1800  ;  and  by  F.  Palmieri,  text  by  Alfano, 
Naples,  Dec.  4,  1878 ;  Le  Sabine,  by  Lauro 
Rossi,  text  by  Peruzzini,  Milan,  Feb.  21, 
1852  ;  and  Le  Sabine  in  Roma,  ballet  by 
Peter  Lichtenthal,  text  by  Vigano,  Milan, 
Dec.  26,  1820.  L'enlevement  des  Sabines, 
in  French,  by  Fran9ois  Devienne,  text  by 
Picard,  Paris,  Oct.  31,  1792  ;  Der  Raub  der 
Sabinerinnen,  in  German,  by  von  Zaytz, 
text  by  Betty  Young,   Aug.  4,   1870  ;  and 


184 


RAUCIIENECKER 


by  Josef  Platzer,  Munich,  Nov.  1876  ;  and 
El  robo  de  las  Sabinas,  by  F.  Barbieri,  Mad- 
rid, Feb.  17,  1879.— Signale  (1877),  99. 

EAUCHENECKER,  GEOIIG  (WIL- 
HELM),  born  in  Munich,  March  8,  1811, 
still  living,  1890.  Instrumental  and  vocal 
composer,  j'upil  of  Theodor  Lachner  on 
the  pianoforte  and  organ,  of  Baumgartner 
in  counterpoint,  and  of  Josef  Walter  on  the 
violin.  Li  1800-G2  he  was  violinist  at  the 
Grand  Tlicdtre  iu  Lyons,  vmtil  18C8  maitre 
de  chai^elle  at  Aix  and  Carpentras,  then 
director  of  the  Conservatoire  at  Avignon, 
and  since  1873  music  director  at  Wiuter- 
thur.  Works  :  Le  Florentin,  opera  ;  Ni- 
klaus  von  der  FlUe,  cantata  (prize),  music  fes- 
tival, Ziirich,  1874  ;  Symphony  ;  3  quartets 
for  strings,  etc. — Eiemann. 

KAULT,  FELIX,  born  at  Bordeaux  in 
173C,  died  iu  Paris  after  1800.  Flute 
player,  pupil  of  Blavel  in  Paris,  where  he 
entered  the  orchestra  of  the  Opera  in  1753  ; 
Member  in  17G8-92  of  the  King's  jDrivate 
orchestra.  During  the  reign  of  terror  he 
lost  his  pension  from  the  Opera,  granted 
in  1776,  and  on  the  close  of  the  orchestra 
of  the  Theatre  de  la  Cite,  where  ho  played, 
became  destitute.  Works  :  2  concertos  for 
flute  and  orchestra ;  Trios  for  flutes  and 
bassoon  ;  Do.  for  flute  and  strings  ;  6  duos 
concertants  ;  Sonatas  for  flute  and  bass  ; 
Duos,  recueils  d'airs,  etc.,  for  flutes. — Fe- 
tis ;  Mendel. 

'EAUS  MIT  DEM  NASS.     See  Straddla. 

EAUZZINI,  MATTEO,  born  in  Eome  in 
1754,  died  in  Dublin  iu  1791.  Dramatic 
singer  and  composei-,  brother  of  the  follow- 
ing, whom  he  joined  at  Munich  iu  1770, 
and  accompanied  to  England  in  1774  ; 
shortly  after  he  was  engaged  at  the  theatre 
in  Dublin,  and  settled  there  to  teach  sing- 
ing. Works  :  Le  finte  gemelle,  opera  buffa, 
Munich,  1772  ;  II  ro  pastore,  DubHu,  1784. 
— Fetis. 

EAUZZINI,  VENANZIO,  born  in  Eome 
in  1747,  died  at  Bath,  England,  April  8, 
1810.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  in  com- 
position of  a  cantor  of  the  Pontifical  Chapel. 


He  made  his  debut  in  1765  ;  sang  in  Vi- 
enna in  1767,  and  next  in  Munich,  where 
four  of  his  ojseras 
were  represented. 
In  1774  he  mado 
his  first  appearance 
at  the  King's  The- 
atre, London,  where 
he  remained  until 
1787  as  a  singing 
teacher,  number- 
ing among  his  pu- 
jiils  Miss  Storace, 
Braham,  Miss  Poole,  and  Incledon.  In 
1787  he  settled  at  Bath,  as  a  teacher  and 
concert  giver.  He  entertained  there  Haydn, 
who  wrote  a  4-part  canon  or  round  to  his 
dog  Turk.  Works  —  Operas  :  Piramo  e 
Tisbe,  Munich,  1769  ;  L'  ali  d'  amore,  ib., 
1770  ;  L'  eroecinese,  ib.,  1770  ;  Astarte,  ib., 
1772  ;  La  regina  di  Golconda,  Loudon, 
1775  ;  Armida,  ib.,  1778  ;  Creusa  in  Delfi, 
ib.,  1782  ;  La  vestale,  ib.,  1787.  String 
quartets ;  Sonatas  for  pianoforte ;  Italian 
arias  and  duets,  and  English  songs  ; 
Eequiem,  produced  at  Haymarket  Theatre 
in  1801. — Grove  ;  Fetis  ;  Hogarth,  Mem.  of 
Mus.  Drama,  ii.  174;  Burney,  Hist.,  iv.  51 ; 
Schilling  ;  Gerber  ;  Mendel  ;  Harmouicon 
(1832),  147. 

EAVAL,  SEBASTIANO,  Spanish  contra- 
puntist of  the  end  of  the  16th  and  begin- 
ning of  the  17th  century.  After  occupying 
various  positions,  he  became  maestro  di 
cappella  to  the  viceroy  of  Sicily  in  the  ca- 
thedral at  Palermo.  Works  :  II  prinio  libro 
di  canzonette,  etc.  (Venice,  1593) ;  Libro  de' 
Motetti  a  3-8  voci,  etc.  (Palermo,  1601)  ; 
Madrigali  a  5  voci  (Venice,  1585). — Fetis  ; 
Mendel. 

EAVENSCEOFT,  JOHN,  English  com- 
poser of  the  close  of  the  17th  century,  died 
about  1745.  He  was  one  of  the  Waits  of 
the  Tower  Hamlets  and  violinist  at  Good- 
man's Fields  Theatre.  He  published  a  col- 
lection of  hornpipes,  two  of  which  are  given 
in  Hawkins's  History,  and  a  set  of  sonatas 
by  him  in  three  parts  (two  violins  and  vio- 


185 


KAYENSCROFT 


lone  or  arch-lute)  were  printed  in  Kome  in 
1695. 

EAVENSCROFT,  TH0:MAS,  bom  in 
England,  about  1582,  died  in  London  about 
1635.  He  was  a  chorister  of  St.  Paul's  un- 
der Edward  Pearce,  and  was  graduated  in 
1G07  as  Mus.  Bac.  at  Cambridge.  Works  : 
PammeUa  .  .  .  Roundelayes  and  de- 
lightful Catches  of  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9,  10 
Parts  in  one  (London,  1G09  ;  2d  ed.,  1618), 
the  earliest  coUectiou  of  rounds  and  catches 
published  iu  Britain  ;  Deuteromelia,  a  col- 
lection of  roundelays  and  catches  (ib., 
1609) ;  Melismata,  Musical  Phansies  .  . 
to  3,  4,  and  5  voyces  (ib.,  1614)  ;  The  Whole 
Booke  of  Psalmes  .  .  composed  into  4 
parts  by  Sundry  Authors  (ib.,  1G21  ;  2d 
ed.,  1633).  Four  of  his  anthems  (MS.) 
are  preserved  at  Christ  Church,  Oxford. 
—Grove. 

KA"VTNA,  JEAN  HENRI,  born  at  Bor- 
deaux, May  20,  1818,  still  li\-ing,  1890.  Pi- 
anist, pupil  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire  of 
Laurent  and  Zimmerman  ;  won  the  second 
prize  in  1832,  the  first  in  1834,  and  aj> 
pointed  assistant  instructor  in  the  same 
year ;  studied  composition  under  Reicha 
and  Leborne.  Having  obtained  the  first 
prize  for  hai-mouy  in  1835,  he  resigned  his 
j)osition  in  Februai-y,  1837,  to  appear  in 
public  as  a  vii'tuoso.  He  travelled  iu  Russia 
iu  1858,  and  in  Sixain  iu  1871.  Legion  of 
Honour,  1861.  Works  :  Concerto  for  pi- 
anoforte and  orchestra  ;  Morceau  de  con- 
cert, for  do.  ;  £tudes  de  concert ;  Etudes 
caracteristiques  ;  Rondeaux,  fantaisies,  etc. 
— Fctis,  Sujiplcment,  ii.  395. 

EAYITS  (Ravets),  ANTOINE  GUIL- 
LAUME,  born  at  Louvaiu,  in  1758,  died  at 
Antwerj),  iu  1827.  Church  composer,  pupil 
of  Mathias  Van  den  Gheyn.  He  was  organist 
at  St.  James'  Church  in  his  native  city,  after- 
wards at  the  Augustine  Church  in  Antwerp. 
Works :  Many  motets  and  organ  preludes 
with  orchestra  ;  Quis  sicut  Dominus  ; 
Requiem  with  orchestra  ;  De  j)rofundis  for 
2  voices,  organ,  and  orchestra  ;  Jesu  Corona 
vu'ginum  ;    Confiteantur  ;    Verbum   super- 


num  ;  Tecum  principum ;  Juravit  Dominua 
— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

RAYMOND,  EDUARD,  born  at  Breslau, 
Sept.  27, 1812,  still  living,  1890.  Violinist, 
Ijupil  of  Karl  Luge,  with  whom  he  played 
in  pubUc  at  the  age  of  fourteen.  In  1834- 
38  he  was  a  member  of  the  theatre  orches- 
tra in  his  native  city,  in  1839  became  con- 
ductor of  the  Laetitia  Society,  and  in  1844 
of  the  Sonntags  -  Gesellschaft.  Works  : 
Three  operas  (MS.) ;  2  symphonies  ;  2  over- 
tures ;  Nocturne  for  strings,  flute,  clarinet, 
bassoon,  and  horn  ;  Grande  polonaise,  for 
violin,  with  orchestra  or  pianoforte  ;  Grande 
fantaisie,  for  do.  ;  Pieces  for  violin  and  pi- 
anoforte.— Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

REA,  WILLLUI,  born  in  London,  March 
25,  1827,  still  living,  1890.  Organist,  pu- 
jiil  on  the  pianoforte  and  organ  of  Josiah 
Pittman,  whose  deputy  he  was  for  several 
years  ;  appointed  in  1843  organist  to  Chiist 
Church,  Watney  Street.  He  studied  for  a 
time  under  Sterndale  Bennett,  in  1849  in 
Leipsic  under  Moscheles  and  Eichter,  and 
in  Prague  under  Dreyschock.  On  his  re- 
turn to  England  in  1853  he  gave  concerts, 
and  became  organist  to  the  Hai-monic 
Union.  In  1856  he  founded  the  London 
Polyhymnian  choir,  in  1858  became  organ- 
ist of  St.  Michael's,  Stockwell,  and  in  1860 
to  the  corporation  of  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
In  1880  he  became  organist  of  St.  Hilda's, 
South  Shields.  Works  :  Organ  and  piano- 
forte music  ;  Anthems  ;  Songs. — Grove  ; 
Riemann. 

READ,  DANIEL,  born  at  Rehoboth, 
Massachusetts,  Nov.  2,  1757,  died  in  New 
Haven,  Connecticut,  Dec.  4,  1836.  He  was 
of  American  parentage  (son  of  Daniel  and 
ilary  Read),  and  was  a  comb-maker  by 
trade.  One  of  the  earliest  of  American 
psalmodists,  his  music  is  full  of  vigour,  and 
several  of  his  tunes,  especially  Sherburne, 
Winter,  Windham,  Lisbon,  and  Russia,  are 
still  sung.  In  1778  he  removed  to  near 
Stratford,  Conn.,  and  thence  to  New  Haven. 
Works  :  The  American  Singing  Book  (New 
Haven,  1785)  ;  The  American  Musical  Maga- 


18t 


EEALM 


zine  (ib.,  178G) ;  The  Child's  Instructor  in 
Vocal  Music  (ib.,  before  1793) ;  Columbian 
Harmonist  (No.  1,  ib.,  1793;  No.  2,  ib., 
1794  ;  No.  3,  ib.,  1795 ;  2d  ed.,  with  sup- 
plement of  24  pages  by  Joel  Read,  Dedliam, 
Mass.,  1804  ;  3d  ed.,  supplement  of  32  pages 
by  Daniel  Read,  ib.,  180G — enlarged,  Bos- 
ton, 1807;  4th  ed.,  Boston,  1810);  Now 
Haven  Collection  (New  Haven,  1818).  His 
brother  Joel  (born,  1753)  wrote  music  and 
published,  besides  the  above  supplement, 
The  New  England  Selection,  or  Plain  Psal- 
modist  (1809).  Another  brother,  William 
(born,  17G4),  also  wrote  music,  and  a  neph- 
ew, Ezra  Read  (born,  1777),  was  associated 
with  Daniel  in  pubUshing  music  books. 

REALM  OF  FANCY,  THE,  cantata  for 
soprano  solo,  chorus,  and  orchestra,  music 
by  John  Knowles  Paine,  op.  36,  set  to 
Keats's  poem  of  this  title,  written  for  and 
first  performed  by  the  Boylston  Club,  Bos- 
ton, in  1882. — Upton,  Standard  Cantatas, 
288. 

REAY,  SAMUEL,  born  at  Hexham, 
Northumberland,  England,  March  17,  1S2G, 
still  living,  1890.  Organist,  pujiil  of  his 
father  (organist  of  Hexham  Church)  ;  chor- 
ister in  Durham  Cathedral,  where  he  stud- 
ied under  Rev.  P.  Penson,  and  later  under 
James  Stimpson.  In  1843  he  became  or- 
ganist of  St.  Andrew's,  Newcastle  ;  in  1847 
of  St.  Peter's,  Tiverton  ;  in  1854  of  St. 
John's,  Hampstead  ;  in  185G  of  St.  Saviour's, 
Paddington  ;  in  1859  of  St.  Peter's  College, 
Radley,  and  in  1864  of  church  at  New- 
ark-on-Trent.  Mus.  Bac,  Oxford,  1871. 
Works  :  Morning  and  evening  service  in  F  ; 
Anthems  and  other  church  music ;  Songs 
and  part-songs. 

REBEKAH,  English  oratorio,  text  by 
Arthur  Mathison,  music  by  Joseph  Barnby, 
first  performed  at  St.  James's  Hall,  Loudon, 
May  11,  1870.  It  contains  but  two  scenes  : 
the  meeting  of  Abraham's  servant  and  Re- 
bekah  at  the  well,  and  the  meeting  of  Isaac 
and  his  bride. — Athenaeum  (1870),  i.  685. 

REBEKKA,  biblical  idyl,  for  soli,  chorus, 
and  orchestra,  text  from  the  Bible,  music 


by  Ferdinand  Hiller,  op.  182,  first  performed 
in  Stuttgart,  under  Hiller's  direction,  June 
19,  1878.  Full,  and  pianoforte  score  pub- 
lished by  Alt  &  Uhrig  (Cologne,  1878). 

REBEL,  FRANyOIS,  born  in  Paris,  June 
19,  1701,  died  there,  Nov.  7,  1775.  Violin- 
ist, son  and  pupil  of  Jean  Ferry  Rebel ; 
joined  the  orchestra  of  the  Opera  at  the  age 
of  thirteen,  became  intimate  with  Fran9ois 
Francceur,  and  conjointly  with  him  com- 
posed ten  operas.  Both  were  chefs  d'or- 
chestre  at  the  Opt'ra  in  1733-44,  later  in- 
spectors, and  in  1753-57  directors  there, 
and  then  till  17G7  impresarios.  Louis  XV. 
appointed  Rebel  superintendent  of  music, 
and  in  1772  inspector-general  of  the  Opera. 
Works :  Pyrame  et  Thisbc'',  given  at  the 
Op6ra,  Paris,  172G  ;  Tharsis  et  Zelie,  ib., 
1728  ;  Scanderbeg,  ib.,  1735  ;  Le  ballet  de 
lapaix,  ib.,1738  ;  Les  Augustales,  prologue, 
ib.,  1744;  Zeliudor  et  Ismone,  ib.,  1745; 
Les  genies  tutelaires,  ib.,  1751  ;  Le  prince 
de  Noisy,  ib.,  1760  ;  Te  Deum  ;  De  pro- 
fundis.  Concert  Spirituel. — Fotis  ;  Mendel  ; 
Riemaun. 

REBEL,  JEAN  FERRY,  born  in  Paris 
iu  1G(!9,  died  there  in  1747.  Violinist, 
entered  the  Opera  orchestra  in  1699,  became 
accompanist  and  in  1707  chef  d'orchestre. 
Ciiamber  composer  to  the  King  and  one  of 
his  24  violins.  His  opera,  Ulysse,  given  in 
1703,  had  little  success,  but  a  pas-seul,  Le 
caprice,  written  for  a  then  celebrated  dan- 
seuse,  remained  a  favourite  ballet  piece  for 
years.  He  composed  violin  solos  for  other 
ballets,  duo  sonatas  for  violin,  and  a  book 
of  trios  for  two  violins,  with  basso  con- 
tinue for  harpsichord.  —  Fetis  ;  Lajarte, 
Biblio.  mus.  de  I'Opera,  i.  1661 ;  Riemann  ; 
Schilling. 

REBELLO,  JOlO  SCARES  (or  Lau- 
renyo),  born  at  Caminha,  Portugal,  in  1609, 
died  at  San  Amaro,  near  Lisbon,  Nov.  16, 
1661.  Church  composer,  entered  the  ser- 
vice of  the  house  of  Braganza  at  the  age  of 
fifteen,  and  was  the  teacher  of  King  Joao 
IV.  Contemporary  writers  exalt  him  as 
one  of  the  greatest  Portuguese  composers. 


187 


llEBEFt 


Of  his  numerous  works  only  a  book  of 
psalms  for  16  voices,  Magnificats,  lamenta- 
tions, and  Misereres  ■with  continuo,  were 
published  (Rome,  1057).  Masses  and  other 
music  are  in  manuscript  at  Lisbon. — Fctis  ; 
Vasconcellos. 

REBEK,  NAPOLlfiON  HENRI,  bom  at 
Miihlhauseu,  Alsace, 
Oct.  21,  1807,  died  in 
Paris,  Nov.  24,  1880. 
Dramatic  composer, 
pupil  of  Reicha  and  Le- 
sueur  at  the  Paris 
Conservatoire,  where 
he  became  professor 
of  harmony  in  1851, 
and  of  composition  in 
18fi2,  succeeding  Ha- 
Icvy.  In  1853  he  was  elected  member  of 
the  Acadi'mie,  and  in  1871  appointed  iu- 
sjiector  of  the  branch  schools  of  the  Con- 
servatoire. He  distinguished  himself  in 
instrumental  composition,  in  the  spirit  of 
the  German  classics.  "Works — Operas  :  La 
nuit  de  NoOl,  given  at  the  Ojn'ra  Comique, 
1848  ;  Le  p^re  Gaillard,  ib.,  1852  ;  Les  pap- 
illotes  de  M.  Benoist,  ib.,  1853 ;  Les  dames 
capitaines,  ib.,  1857 ;  Le  mt'ui'tricr  a  la 
cour,  comic  opei'a,  and  Nairn,  grand  opera, 
not  given.  4  sj'mphonies ;  Overture  for 
orchestra  ;  Suite  for  do.;  Iloland,  sci'ucs 
lyriques  for  do.,  Paris,  1875  ;  Quintet  for 
strings;  3  quartets  for  do.;  Quartet  for 
pianoforte  and  strings ;  7  trios  for  do. ; 
Pieces  for  violin  and  pianoforte  ;  Do.  for 
pianoforte  (2  and  4  hands)  ;  Chorus  of 
Pu-ates  for  three-part  male  chorus  and  pi- 
anoforte ;  Le  soir,  for  four-part  male  chorus 
and  pianoforte  ;  Ave  Maria  and  Agnus  Dei, 
for  2  soprani,  tenor,  bass,  and  organ.  His 
Traite  d'harmonie  (18G2)  counts  among 
the  best  modern  theoretical  works. — Fotis  ; 
Mendel ;  Rieniann. 

REELING,  GUSTAV,  born  at  Barby, 
Magdeburg,  July  10,  1821,  still  living,  1890. 
Virtuoso  on  the  organ  and  church  com- 
poser, first  instructed  by  his  father,  then  in 
Dessau,    in    183G-39,    pupil    of    Friedrich 


Schneider.  He  was  appointed  in  1839  or- 
ganist of  the  French  church  at  Magdeburg, 
in  1847  instructor  at 
the  seminary,  in  1853 
choinnaster  at  t li e 
cathedral  and  vocal 
teacher  at  the  gym- 
nasium, and  in  185(5 
court  music  director. 
Since  1858  he  has 
been  organist  of  St. 
John's  church.  In 
1846  he  established  the  Kirchcngesangve- 
rein.  Works :  Psalms  for  4-8  voices  a 
capella  ;  Do.  for  one  voice  with  organ  ;  Mo- 
tets ;  Music  for  organ  ;  Do.  for  pianoforte  ; 
Sonata  for  violoncello  ;  Choruses  ;  Songs. 
— Mendel ;  Riemauu. 

RECHENBERG,  ERNST,  born  at  Frie- 
dersdorf-am-Queiss,  SUesia,  Oct.  12,  1800, 
died  (?).  Church  and  instrumental  com- 
poser, pupil  in  Berlin  at  the  royal  institute 
for  chui-ch  music,  and  of  B.  Klein  in  com- 
position. He  devoted  himself  to  teaching, 
and  settled  in  Berlin  as  professor  of  music. 
Carl  Eckert  is  one  of  his  pupils.  Works  : 
Gott  ist  unser  Heil,  Psalm  for  voices,  or- 
chestra and  organ  ;  Allgemeines  Choralbucli 
with  jireludcs  and  conclusions,  selected 
from  the  works  of  old  masters  ;  Pianoforte 
music  ;  Songs. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

REDEIU^TION  HYMN,  for  contralto 
solo,  chorus,  and  orchestra,  text  from 
Isaiah  (liii.),  music  by  James  C.  D.  Parker, 
first  performed  by  the  Handel  and  Haydn 
Society,  Boston,  May  17,  1877,  when  the 
solo  was  sung  by  Annie  Louise  Cary.  It 
has  been  given  by  various  musical  societies 
throughout  this  country.  The  pianoforte 
score  is  published  by  Oliver  Ditson  &  Co., 
Boston. — Upton,  Standard  Oratorios,  296. 

REDEMPTION,  LA,  oratorio  or  sacred 
trilogy  in  three  parts,  text  and  music  by 
Gounod,  first  performed  at  the  Birming- 
ham (England)  Festival,  Aug.  30,  1882. 
The  solos  were  sung  by  Mme  Albani,  Mme 
Marie  Ruze,  Mme  Patey,  Jlr.  E.  Lloyd,  Jlr. 
W.  H.  Cummings,  Mi-.  Santley,  Mi-.  F.  King, 


188 


EEDERN 


and  Signer  Foli.  Gounod  began  this  work 
in  18G7,  in  Rome,  wbere  be  wrote  tbe 
words,  and  two  fragments  of  the  music  : 
tbe  "  March  to  Calvary,"  and  "  The  Pente- 
cost." Tbe  comjioser  calls  it  a  "lyrical  set- 
ting forth  of  tbe  three  great  facts  on  which 
depends  the  existence  of  tbe  Christian 
Church."  Prologue,  tbe  Creation  ;  I.  Cal- 
vary ;  n.  From  the  Resurrection  to  tbe  As- 
cension ;  in.  Tbe  Pentecost.  Characters 
represented:  Jesus  (Bar.) ;  Mary  (S.)  ;  and 
two  Narrators  (B.  and  T.).  This  oratorio 
was  first  sung  in  Loudon  at  Albei't  Music 
Hall,    Nov.    1,    1882  ;   in   Vienna,   Nov.   4, 

1883  ;  in  Paris  at  the  Trocade-ro,   April  3, 

1884  ;  in  Rome,  in  April,  188.5  ;  and  first  in 
New  York  by  the  New  York  Chorus  Society, 
Dec.  15,  1882  ;  and  it  was  one  of  tbe  prin- 
cipal works  given  at  bis  festivals  in  various 
cities  of  the  United  States  in  tbe  spring  of 
1884.  Pubbsbed  by  Novello,  Ewer  &  Co. 
(Loudon,  1884)  ;  pianoforte  arrangement 
by  Berthold  Tours  ;  German  translation  by 
J.  Weyl. — Godard,  Joseph,  Reflections  on 
Ch.  Gounod's  Sacred  Trilogy,  Tbe  Redemp- 
tion (London,  1882)  ;  Atheureum  (1882),  ii. 
316,  G05  ;  Neue  Zeitschr.  (1884),  G7  ;  Up- 
ton, Standard  Oratorios,  98;  Sigualc  (1883), 
1057. 

REDERN,  FRTEDRICH  ^VILHELM, 
Graf  VON,  born  in  Berlin,  Dec.  9,  1802, 
died  there,  Nov.  5,  1883.  Amateur  com- 
poser, pupil  of  Grell  in  1859.  Ho  studied 
law,  entered  the  government  service  in  1823, 
was  intendant  general  of  tbe  royal  opera  in 
1828-42,  and  after  that  of  tbe  royal  court 
music,  having  also  had  the  sujJervisiou 
of  the  Domcbor  and  of  all  tbe  military 
music.  He  was  also  royal  Prussian  lord 
steward,  privy  councillor,  and  chamberlain. 
Works  :  Christine,  opera,  given  in  Berlin, 
18G0  ;  Laut  t/ine  uuser  Lobgesang,  cantata, 
ib.,  Singakademie,  1858  ;  Liturgy  for  4 
voices  and  chorus ;  Musica  sacra ;  Agnus 
Dei  ;  Adoramus  ;  Veni  Sancte  Spiritus  ; 
Sanctus  Dominus  ;  Nunc  dimittis  ;  Hymnus 
angelicus  ;  Magnificat  ;  Cbristus  factus  est  ; 
Overture  for  orchestra,  Berlin,  1820  ;  Con- 


cert overture,  for  do. ;  Triumphal  march  to 
tbe  tragedy  Kaiser  Friedrich  HI.  for  piano- 
forte ;  Torchlight  dances,  marches,  quad- 
rilles, etc. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

REDIN  (Redein),  JEAN  FRAN(;^OIS, 
born  in  Antwerp,  baptized  Nov.  5,  1748, 
died  there,  Feb.  24,  1802.  Violinist,  about 
wbo.se  musical  education  nothing  is  known. 
He  was  first-violin  at  tbe  Cathedral  of  Ant- 
werjj,  and  seems  to  have  resided  in  London 
in  1789.  Works  :  G  duos  for  2  violins  ;  6 
sonatas  for  do.  ;  6  symphonies  for  2  vio- 
lins, viola,  bass,  2  oboes,  and  2  horns  ;  6 
quartets  for  strings. — Fotis  ;  Mendel. 

REEVE,  WDLLIAM,  born  in  London,  in 
1757,    died     there,  aa'^ 

June  22, 1815.  Or- 
ganist, and  dramatic 
composer,  pupil  of 
Richardson,  organ- 
ist of  St.  James, 
Westminster.  He 
was  organist  at  Tot- 
nes,  in  Devonshire, 
from  1781  to  1783, 
when  h  e  became 
composer  at  Astley's  Theatre,  London, 
and  was  an  actor  in  several  theatres.  In 
1791  be  was  commissioned  to  finish  the 
music  of  a  ballet  j)antoinime,  Oscar  and 
Malvina,  left  unfinished  by  Shield,  and  was 
appointed  composer  to  Covent  Garden,  and 
in  1792  organist  of  St.  Martin's,  Ludgate 
Hill.  Works— Music  to  plays  :  Oscar  and 
Malvina,  Tippoo  Saib,  1791  ;  Orpheus  and 
Eurydice,  ballet,  adapted  froniGluck,  1792  ; 
Tbe  Apparition,  British  Fortitude,  Hercules 
and  Ompbale,  Tbe  Purse,  1794  ;  Merry 
Sherwood,  1795  ;  Ramah  Droog  (with  Maz- 
ziugbi),  1798  ;  The  Turnpike  Gate  (do.), 
1799  ;  The  Cabinet  (with  Braham,  Davy, 
and  Moorebead)  ;  Family  Quarrels  (with 
Braham  and  Moorebead),  1802  ;  and  many 
others,  in  all  nearly  a  hundred. — Grove ; 
Futis  ;  Schilling  ;  Gerber ;  Mendel. 

REEVES,  DAVID  WALLIS,  born  at 
Owego,  New  York,  Feb.  14,  1838,  still  liv- 
ing, 1890.     Mostly  self-educated,  but  stud- 


ies 


KEFORMATION 


ied  the  violin  and  comet  under  Thomas 
Canham,  Owego,  and  harmony  under 
Jacob  Kochkeller,  New  York.  He  was  solo 
cornet  in  Dodworth's  Band,  New  York, 
1864-GG,  when  he  succeeded  Joseph  C. 
Green  as  director  of  the  American  Band 
and  Orchestra  of  Providence,  Rhode  Island, 
a  position  he  still  retains.  He  has  been 
also  conductor  of  the  Eocky  Point  Musical 
Festivals,  1875-78,  bandmaster  of  several 
military  organizations,  and  director  of  the 
Khode  Island  Choral  Association.  He  has 
made  six  visits  to  Eurojie,  playing  the  cor- 
net in  concerts  in  London,  Liverpool,  and 
other  English  cities,  and  in  Berlin  and 
Dresden,  and  has  made  concert  tours  in  all 
parts  of  the  United  States.  "Works :  The 
Ambassador's  Daughter,  comic  opera,  given 
in  Providence,  1879  ;  The  Mandarin  Zune, 
do.  pis.)  ;  More  than  70  military  marches 
(45  published)  ;  Arrangements  and  trans- 
criptions for  band  and  orchestra. 

REFOEMATION  SYMPHONY,  for  or- 
chestra, in  D,  by  Mendelssohn,  op.  107,  first 
performed,  under  the  composer's  direction, 
in  Berlin,  November,  1832.  This,  his  fifth 
symphony,  was  written  with  a  view  to  per- 
formance at  the  Tercentenary  Festival  of 
the  Augsburg  Protestant  Confession  (June 
25,  18'50),  presented  in  1530  l)y  Luther  and 
Melanchthon  to  the  Emperor  Charles  V., 
but,  owing  to  the  fierce  opposition  of  the 
Roman  Catholics  to  the  celebration,  it  was 
not  given.  In  1832  it  was  rehearsed  in 
Paris,  but  was  again  deferred,  and  after 
Mendelssohn  first  conducted  it  in  Berlin, 
for  the  benefit  of  the  "Orchestral  Widows' 
Fund,"  it  was  not  again  given  until  revived 
at  the  Crystal  Palace,  London,  Nov.  30, 1867. 
It  was  first  given  by  the  New  York  Philhar- 
monic in  the  season  of  1867-68.  The  sym- 
phony is  constructed  in  strict  form,  and  illus- 
trates the  conflict  between  the  old  and  new 
faith.  The  first  movement  contains  the 
passage  used  for  "  Amen  "  in  the  Catholic 
Church  of  Dresden,  known  as  the  "  Dres- 
den Amen,"  which  is  employed  also  by 
Wagner  for  a  Leitmotif  in  Parsifal.     The 


fourth  movement  is,  in  part,  based  on 
Luther's  hymn,  "  Ein'  teste  Burg  ist  unser 
Gott,"  which  is  combined  with  a  fugue.  I. 
Andante.  Allegro  con  fuoco  ;  II.  Allegro 
vivace  ;  IH.  Andante  ;  IV.  Chorale,  Alle- 
gro vivace,  AUegi-o  maestoso.  Published 
in  score  and  in  parts  by  Novello  &  Co. 
(London) ;  and  by  Simrock  as  Symphony 
No.  5,  op.  107,  Posthumous  works  No.  36. 
Breitkojif  &  Hilrtel,  IMendelssohn  W^erke, 
Serie  i..  No.  5. — Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xxxv. 
22  ;  Athenfcum  (1SG7),  ii.  771  ;  Grove,  iii. 
93  ;  iv.  31  ;  Upton,  Standard  Symphonies, 
185. 

EEGINA  DI  CIPRO,  LA  (The  Queen  of 
Cyprus),  Italian  opera,  music  by  Pacini, 
first  represented  in  Turin  in  1846,  with 
Frezzolini,  Fraschini,  and  Balzar  in  the 
cast.  Subject,  Catarina  Cornaro,  the  fa- 
mous Queen  of  Cyprus.  It  was  given  in 
Naples,  March  10,  1847,  and  in  Trieste  in 
1864.  Other  operas  on  the  same  theme : 
Catarina  Cornaro,  by  Donizetti,  Venice, 
1844  ;  Katherina  Cornaro,  by  Franz  Lach- 
ner,  Munich,  1841  ;  an<l  La  rriiic  de  Chypre, 
by  Halovy,  Paris,  1841. — Allgem.  mus. 
Zeitg.,  xlix.  231. 

REGIS  (De  Roi),  JEAN,  known  also  as 
Koninck  or  De  Coninck,  one  of  the  cele- 
brated Belgian  composers  of  the  middle 
and  last  half  of  the  15th  century.  Ho  was 
contemporary  with  Okeghem,  Busnois,  and 
Caron,  and,  according  to  Tiuctoris's  "  Pro- 
portionale  "  (1476),  one  of  the  most  clever 
musicians  of  his  time.  Little  else  is  known 
of  him  ;  from  the  researches  made  by  de 
Burbure  and  Pinchai't,  it  is  certain  that  he 
never  was  a  member  of  the  ducal  chapel  of 
Burgundy,  nor  of  the  Cathedral  of  Antwerp, 
as  so  many  of  the  composers  of  that  time 
were.  Works :  Credo  for  5  voices  from  his 
mass,  Village,  in  Petrucci's  fragments  of 
masses  by  different  celebrated  authors 
(1508).  In  the  first  book  of  motets  by  the 
same  collector  there  are  4  by  Regis  :  Ave 
Maria  ;  Clangat,  plebs,  floret ;  Salve  Sponsa 
tui  genitrix  ;  Lux  soleranis  adest.  In  the 
3d  vol.  of  Harmonice  Musices  Odhecaton 


190 


EEGNARD 


(Venice,  1503)  is  the  clianson  franjaise 
for  4  voices,  S'il  vous  plaisist.  Several  of 
his  masses  in  MS.  are  in  the  Pontifical 
Chapel,  Eome. — Fetis  ;  Mendel ;  Van  der 
Straeten,  vi.  47. 

EEGNARD  (Regnart),  FRANQOIS,  born 
at  Douai  in  the  first  half  of  the  16th  cen- 
tui-j-.  Chm-ch  composer  and  writer  of  chan- 
sons, brother  of  Jacques  Regnard.  He  was 
first  attached  to  the  Cathedral  of  Tournay, 
and  was  maitre  de  chapelle  also  for  a  short 
time  about  1573  ;  afterwards  musician  to 
the  Archduke  Mathias.  Woi'ks :  Missfe 
tres,  quatuor  et  quinque  voc.  (Antwerp, 
1583)  ;  Cinquante  chansons  a  quatre  et  cinq 
jjarties  convenant  tant  aux  instruments 
qu'a  la  voix  (Douai,  1375)  ;  Poesies  de  P. 
Ronsard  et  autres  pontes  mises  en  musique 
a  quatre  et  cinq  parties  (Paris,  1579  ). — Fu- 
tis ;  Riemann  ;  Gerber ;  Schilling  ;  Mendel. 

REGNARD  (Regnart),  JACQUES,  born  at 
Douai  about  1531,  died  in  Prague  in  1600. 
Composer,  tenor,  and  Vize-Kapellmeister 
in  the  imperial  chaj^el  at  Prague  under  Maxi- 
milian n.  and  Rudolph  II.  from  1564  to 
1599.  He  was  educated  in  the  Jesuit  Col- 
lege of  Douai,  and  began  composing  early, 
as  his  works  were  published  in  1552,  in  a  col- 
lection of  Magnificats  by  different  authors. 
Twenty  of  his  motets  are  in  Joannelli'a 
Thesaurus  musicus  (1568).  He  married 
Anna  Fischer,  of  Munich,  in  1570,  and  Fe- 
tis says  he  was  called  about  that  time  to 
Munich  by  Orlando  Lasso  to  serve  in  the 
chapel  of  Albert,  Duke  of  Bavaria.  Works  : 
Fifteen  collections  of  chansons  and  masses 
(1573  to  1593).  The  last  were  posthumous, 
and  were  published  by  his  wife.  Among 
the  first,  Fetis  specifies  Teutsche  Lieder  mit 
dreyer  Stimmen  nach  Art  der  Neapolitanen 
(Munich,  1573) ;  Neue  kurzweilige  teutsche 
Lieder  mit  fiinf  Stimmen  zu  singen  und  auf 
allerley  Instrumenten  zu  gebrauchen  (Nu- 
remberg, 1580) ;  Canzoni  italiane  a  cinque 
voci,  lib.  i.  et  ii.  (ib.,  1581).  Among  the 
collections  of  masses  are  :  IX.  Missse  sacrse 
(Frankfort,  posthumous,  1602) ;  2d  suite 
(ib.,  1003)  ;  and  another  posthumous  pub-, 


lication :  Corollarium  missarum  sacrarum, 
etc.  (Munich,  1603) ;  etc.— Fetis ;  Biog.  Gen., 
xli.  844  ;  Dutihceul,  Galerie  douaisienne  ; 
Gerber ;  Riemann,  749  ;  Mendel ;  Ergilnz., 
377  ;  Van  der  Straeten,  v.  109-115  ;  Viotta, 
iii.  213. 

REGNAVA  NEL  SILENZIO.    See  Lucia. 

REICHA,  ANTON,  born  in  Prague,  Feb. 
27,  1770,  died  iu  Paris,  May  28,  1836.  In- 
strumental composer  and  didactic  writer, 
nephew  and  ijupil  of  Joseph  Reicha,  at 
Bonn,  where  he  entered  the  Elector's  or- 
chestra as  flutist  in  1788,  and  enjoyed  the 
intercourse  of  young  Beethoven,  who  played 
the  viola  in  the  same  orchestra.  After  the 
dissolution  of  the  latter  in  1794,  Reicha 
settled  at  Hamburg,  to  teach,  and  there 
composed  a  French  opera,  which  he  hoped 
to  bring  out  in  Paris,  in  1799.  This  plan 
failed,  but  he  won  success  as  an  instrumen- 
tal composer,  with  two  symphonies,  played 
iu  the  then  celebrated  concerts  of  the  rue  de 
Clury.  In  1802  he  went  to  Vienna,  where  he 
renewed  his  intimacy  with  Beethoven,  and 
entertained  friendly  relations  with  Haydn, 
Albrechtsberger,  and  Salieri.  He  left  Vi- 
enna in  1808,  at  the  time  of  the  French  in- 
vasion, and  settled  in  Paris,  where  he  suc- 
ceeded in  producing  several  operas,  though 
without  any  great  success,  so  that  he  de- 
cided to  devote  himself  thereafter  to  instru- 
mental composition.  He  established  a  new 
system  of  teaching  composition  which  drew 
many  pupils,  among  them  BoiUy,  Jelensjjer- 
ger,  Bienaime,  Millaut,  Lefebvre,  Elwart, 
Pollet,  Lecai-pentier,  and  Dancla.  In  1818 
he  succeeded  Mehul  as  professor  of  coun- 
terpoint and  fugue  at  the  Conservatoire. 
He  married  in  Paris  and  was  naturalized  in 
1829  ;  Legion  of  Honour,  1831  ;  Member  of 
the  Institut,  1835.  Works— Operas :  Obal- 
di,  ou  les  Franjais  en  Egj'pte ;  Ai'gina,  regina 
di  Granata,  Vienna  ;  Cagliostro,  Paris,  1810  ; 
Natalie,  ib.,  1816  ;  Sapho,  ib.,  1822  ;  2  sym- 
phonies ;  overture  ;  Diecetto  for  5  strings 
and  5  wind  instruments  ;  Octet  for  4  strings 
and  4  wind  instruments  ;  24  quintets  for 
flute,  oboe,  clarinet,  horn,  and  bassoon  ;  6 


m 


REICIIA 


quintets  and  24  quartets  for  strings  ;  Quin- 
tet for  clarinet  and  strings  ;  Quartet  for 
pianoforte,  flute,  violoncello,  and  bas- 
soon ;  Do.  for  4  flutes  ;  6  quartets  for  flute, 
violin,  viola,  and  violoncello ;  Trio  for  vio- 
loncellos ;  6  trios  for  strings  ;  24  do.  for 
horns  ;  G  duos  for  violins ;  22  do.  for  flutes  ; 
12  sonatas  for  pianoforte  and  violin  ;  a  num- 
ber of  sonatas  and  other  jjieces  for  ijiauo- 
forte.  Theoretical  works  :  £tudes  ou  theo- 
ries pour  le  pianoforte,  etc.  (1800)  ;  Traitu 
de  melodic,  etc.  (1814)  ;  Cours  de  compo- 
sition musicale,  etc.  (1818) ;  Traitu  de  haute 
composition  musicale  (1824-20)  ;  L'ai-t  du 


^^-/.' 


compositeur  dramatique,  ou  cours  complet 
de  comi)osition  vocale  (1833)  ;  Petit  traite 
d'harmonie  pratique. — Futis  ;  do.,  Supple- 
ment, ii.  398  ;  Diet.  delaConv.,  xv.  327  ;  La- 
rousse,  xiii.  873  ;  Wurzbach  ;  Riemann  ; 
Schilling  ;  Gerber  ;  Mendel ;  do.,  Ergiinz., 
377. 

REICHA,  JOSEPH,  born  in  Prague  in 
174G,  died  at  Bonn  in  1795.  Violoncellist 
and  instrumental  composer.  After  several 
years  in  the  service  of  the  Count  von  Wal- 
lerstein,  he  was  appointed  in  1787,  by  the 
Elector  of  Cologne,  Conzertmeister  and 
conductor  of  the  orchestra,  at  the  National 
Theatre  at  Bonn.  Works  :  3  concertos  for 
violoncello  and  orchestra ;  3  symphonies 
for  10  instruments  ;  2  synq)honics  concer- 
tantes  for  violin  and  violoncello  ;  S^'mphonie 
concertante  for  2  horns  ;  G  duos  concertants 
for  violin  and  violoncello  ;  Symphonic  con- 
certante for  2  violins,  or  violin  and  violon- 
cello ;  3  duos  for  violin  and  violoncello. 
— Meudel ;  Eiemann  ;  Fetis. 

KEICHAEDT,  GUSTAV,  born  at  Schmar- 
sow,  near  Demmin,  Pomerania,  Nov.  13, 
1797,  died  in  Berlin,  October  19,  1884.  Vo- 
cal composer,  pupil  of  Bernhard  Klein  ; 
settled  in  Berlin  to  teach  music,  and  was 
for  several  years  conductor  of  the  Lieder- 
tafel.  He  composed  only  thii-ty-six  works, 
mostly  songs,  among  which  "  Was  ist  des 


Deutschen  Vaterland  ?  "  has  made  his  name 
widely  popular. — Mendel. 

REICHAEDT,  JOHANN  FRIEDRICH, 
born  at  Konigs- 
berg,  Prussia, 
Nov.  25,  1752, 
died  at  Giebich- 
enstein,  near 
Halle,  June  17, 
1814.  Dramatic 
composer,  pujiil 
of  Carl  GottUeb 
Richter  on  the 
pianoforte  and  in 
composition,  and  of  Veichtuer  on  the  vio- 
Hn.  He  studied  in  17G9-70  at  Kiinigsberg 
University,  and  in  1771  at  Leipsic  University  ; 
then  travelled  over  Germany,  and  embodied 
his  observations  in  a  book.  On  hearing  of 
the  death  of  court  Kapellmeister  Agricola, 
he  applied  to  Frederick  the  Great  for  the 
place,  and  received  it  in  177G.  In  1783  he 
founded  the  Concerts  Spirituels  for  the 
performance  of  novelties  with  short  analj'- 
litical  jjrogi-ammes,  but  his  position  hardly 
allowed  him  to  produce  his  own  works  as 
much  as  he  would  have  liked.  In  1782  he 
made  a  brief  trip  to  Italy,  and  in  1785  he 
availed  himself  of  a  leave  of  absence  to  visit 
London  and  Paris,  obtaining  in  the  French 
capital  an  order  for  the  composition  of  two 
operas,  and  went  to  Paris  again  in  1786  to 
prepare  for  their  performance  ;  but  the  news 
of  Frederick  the  Great's  death  recalled  him 
to  Berlin  to  wi'itc  the  customarj'  funeral 
cantata.  Under  Friedrich  Wilhelm  H.  his 
orchestra  was  enlarged  and  he  secured  new 
singers  from  Italy,  but  his  enemies  informed 
the  king  of  his  sympathies  with  the  French 
Revolution  and  so  prejudiced  the  monarch, 
that  his  position  became  untenable.  First 
he  received  a  three  years'  leave  of  absence 
with  full  pay,  and  in  1794  was  dismissed, 
and  settled  in  Altona.  In  1797  he  was  ap- 
pointed inspector  of  salt  works  at  Halle, 
and  after  the  king's  death  he  appeared 
again  in  Berlin  as  a  composer.  He  visited 
Paris  also  several  times.     The  French  inva- 


193 


REICIIEL 


sion  of  Germany  drove  him  from  home  in 
180G,  but  the  fear  of  losing  his  fortune 
eaiiseJ  him  to  return,  and  Jerome  Napoleon 
api^ointed  him  Kapellmeister  at  Cassel. 
He  could  not  long  retain  this  place,  and  was 
given  leave  to  visit  Vienna.  As  he  did  not 
succeed  to  his  satisfaction,  he  went  back  to 
his  estate  near  Giebichensteiu,  and  remained 
there  until  his  death.  It  seems  to  have  been 
difficult  for  him  to  live  in  harmony  with  his 
associates.  His  writings  show  that  he  was 
more  of  a  literary  musician  than  a  learned 
one.  While  culture,  melody,  and  dramatic 
feeling  are  found  in  his  compositions,  they 
lack  the  fertility  of  invention  which  belongs 
to  genius.  He  was  one  of  Mendelssohn's 
favorite  composers  ;  his  Singspiele  are  im- 
portant factors  in  the  develoj)ment  of  Ger- 
man oj)era,  and  his  Lieder  are  interesting 
as  being  among  the  earliest  of  their  kind, 
so  that  he  must  always  hold  a  considerable 
place  in  musical  history.  Works — Operas  : 
Hilnschcn  uud  Gretchen,  KOuigsberg,  1772  ; 
Amor's  Guckkasten,  Riga,  1773  ;  La  gioja 
dopo  il  duolo,  o  le  feste  superbe,  Berlin, 
177G  ;  Andromeda,  ib.,  1788  ;  first  act  of 
Protesilao,  1789  ;  Brenno,  1789;  Olimjjiade, 
1791 ;  Tamerlan,and Panth(Je,French  ojieras, 
not  performed ;  Rosamunda,  Italian  opera, 
1801;  Das  Zauberschloss,  1802;  Bradamante, 
Vienna,  1808  ;  L'heui-eus  naufrage,  1808  ; 
4  Singspiele  to  Goethe's  Claudina  von  Villa- 
bella,  Jery  und  Biltely,  Erwin  und  Elmire, 
and  Lilla ;  Die  Geisterinsel,  SingS23iel  after 
Shakespeare's  Tempest ;  Other  operas  and 
Singspiele  ;  Oratorios  and  cantatas  ;  Music 
to  Biirger's  translation  of  Macbeth,  Goethe's 
Faust,  Egmont,  Tasso,  and  to  other  dramas  ; 
Many  songs,  including  Goethe's  lyrical 
poems ;  Ouvertura  di  Vittoria  and  Schlacht- 
symphonie  in  honor  of  the  battle  of  Leipsic ; 
(5  other  symphonies  :  Concertante  for  string 
quartet,  and  orchestra ;  14  concertos  for 
pianoforte  ;  17  sonatas  for  do.;  11  do.  for 
violin  ;  concerto  for  do. ;  6  trios  for  strings  ; 
2  quartets  for  pianoforte  and  strings  ;  Quin- 
tet for  pianoforte,  2  flutes,  and  2  horns  ; 
Sonata  for  flute,  etc.     He  edited  several  mu- 


sical periodicals,  and,  besides  lesser  literary 
works,  wrote :  Briefe  eines  aufmerksamen 
Reisenden  die  Musik  betreffend  (Frankfort 

and  Leipsic,  1774) ;  Ueber  die  deutsche 
komische  Oper  (Hamburg.  1774)  ;  Vertraute 
Briefe  aus  Paris  (ib.,  1804-5) ;  Vertraute 
Briefe,  geschrieben  auf  einer  Reise  nach 
Wien  (Amsterdam,  1810). — Autobiography 
in  Berhn  Musikalische  Zeitung  (1805) ; 
Ft'tis  ;  Mendel  ;  Riemann  ;  Schlettcrer,  J. 
F.  Reichardt,  sein  Leben  (Augsburg,  18G5) ; 
Gerber;  Schilling;  do.,  Supplement,  357; 
Lindner,  Geschichte  des  deutschen  Liedes, 
132. 

REICHEL,  ADOLF  (HEES'RICH  JO- 
HANN),  born  at  Tursznitz,  West  Prussia, 
in  181G,  still  living,  1890.  Vocal  and  in- 
strumental composer,  pupil  at  Elbing,  of 
Cantor  Brandt,  and  later,  in  Berhn,  of  Dehn 
and  Louis  Berger  in  composition.  After 
travelling  in  Germany  and  Switzerland,  he 
settled  in  Paris,  where  he  taught  music 
fourteen  years.  In  1857  he  was  appointed 
instructor  of  composition  at  the  Conserva- 
torium  in  Dresden,  and  director  of  Dreis- 
sig's  Singakademie,  and  in  18G7  went  to 
Berne,  as  director  of  the  city  music. 
Works :  Mass  ;  Trio  for  pianoforte,  violin, 
and  violoncello  ;  4  preludes  and  fugues  for 
pianoforte  ;  Sonatas  and  mazurkas  for  do.; 
Choruses  ;  Songs. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

REICHEL,  FRIEDRICH  (CARL),  born 
at  Oberoderwitz,  near  Zittau,  Jan.  27,  1833, 
still  living,  1890.  Instrumental  composer, 
pupil  in  Dresden  of  F.  Wieck  on  the  piano- 
forte, and  of  Julius  Otto  and  Rietz  in 
theory.  At  the  age  of  twelve  he  took  part 
in  the  church  music  of  his  native  town, 
playing  the  organ,  the  violin,  the  flute,  the 
horn,  and  the  trombone,  or  singing.  About 
1852  he  settled  in  Dresden  as  instructor  of 
music,  and  in  18G0  became  director  of  the 
Liedertafel  there,  in  18G9  leader  of  the 
Neustadter  Chorgesangverein,  and  in  1870 


EEicn 


director  of  the  Amateur  Orchestra  Society. 
Works :  Die  geangstigten  Diplomaten,  ope- 
retta, given  at  the  Dresden  Court  Theatre, 
1875  ;  Symphonies  ;  Octet  for  wind  instru- 
ments ;  Quartets  for  strings  ;  Gesang  der 
wandernden  Musensohne,  for  chorus  and 
orchestra  ;  Festival  song,  for  do. ;  4  cho- 
ruses for  men's  voices ;  4  terzets  for  female 
voices ;  5  songs  for  mixed  chorus  ;  Piano- 
forte music  ;  Songs. — Mendel. 

REICH  MIR  DIE  HAND,  seven  varia- 
tions for  two  oboes  and  an  English  horn, 
in  C,  by  Beethoven,  on  the  theme,  Reich 
mir  die  Hand  (Lt'i  ci  darem  la  mauo),  from 
Don  Giovanni.  The  original  autograph,  in 
the  possession  of  Artaria  &  Co.,  was  pub- 
lished (Vienna,  1800). 

REIF,  WILHELM,  born  at  Schwallung- 
en,  in  1833,  still  living,  1890.  Clarinet 
player,  music  director  of  the  court  orches- 
tra at  Meiuingen ;  has  composed  several 
operas,  among  which  Abu  Said  was  espe- 
cially successful,  and  symjjhonies,  overtures, 
suite  for  orchestra,  festival  marches,  Con- 
zertstilcke  for  solo  instruments,  pianoforte 
pieces,  etc. 

REDUNN,  IGNAZ,  born  at  Albendorf, 
Silesia,  Dec.  27,  1820,  died  at  Rengersdorf, 
ib.,  June  17,  1885.  Church  composer,  pu- 
pil at  the  Seminary  at  Breslau.  Works  : 
7-1  masses  ;  24  Requiems  ;  4  oratorios  ;  4 
Te  Deums  ;  37  Htanies  ;  83  offertories  ;  50 
gradiials,  cantatas,  etc.  ;  9  overtures,  and 
other  works  for  orchestra. — Riemann. 

REINAGLE,  JOSEF,  born,  of  German 
parentage,  at  Portsmouth,  England,  in 
1762,  died  at  Oxford,  in  1836.  Violoncel- 
list, entered  the  king's  service  as  a  hoi-n 
player,  but  afterwards  took  up  the  violon- 
cello, and  became  director  of  concerts  at 
Edinburgh.  In  1789  he  went  to  Ireland, 
1)ut  returned  to  London  and  finally  lived 
at  Oxford.  Woi-ks:  30  progressive  duets 
for  2  violoncellos  ;  Quartets  for  strings ; 
24  lessons  for  harpsichord  ;  Method  for 
violoncello.  His  brother  Hugo  (born  at 
Portsmouth,  1766,  died  young  at  Lisbon) 
was  a  virtuoso  on  the  violoncello,  pupil  of 


Crosdil.     He  composed  solos  and  duos  for 
his  instrument. 

REINECKE,  KARL  (HEINRICH  CAR- 
STEN),bornatAltona, 
June  23,  1824,  still 
living,  1890.  Pianist, 
pupil  of  his  father,  an 
able  theorist  ;  made 
his  first  concert  tour, 
in  1834,  to  Denmark 
and  Sweden,  and  after 
perfecting  himself  at 
Leii^sic,  where  Men- 
delssohn and  Schu- 
mann then  highly  influenced  the  musical 
world,  played  again  iu  the  northern  cities 
of  Germany,  and  at  Copenhagen,  where  in 
1846-48  he  was  court  pianist  to  Christian 
Vni.  ;  then  lived  for  some  time  in  Paris. 
In  1851  he  became  instructor  at  the  Con- 
servatorium  of  Cologne,  was  music  director 
at  Barmen  in  1854-59,  at  Breslau  in  1859- 
60,  when  he  was  appointed  Kapellmeister 
of  the  Gewandhaus  at  Leipsic,  and  professor 
at  the  Conservatorium.  He  still  continues 
to  appear  as  a  virtuoso,  playing  with  suc- 
cess in  London  and  other  cities,  and  on  his 
annual  tours  to  Scandinavia,  England,  Hol- 
land, and  Switzerland  always  meets  with  an 
enthusiastic  reception.  As  an  interpreter  of 
Mozart  he  has  few  rivals.  Among  his  pupils 
in  composition  are  Bruch,  Grammann,  Grieg, 
Klauwell,  Sullivan,  Svendsen,  etc.  ;  among 
those  on  the  pianoforte,  Josefly,  Louis  Maas, 
Kwast,  etc.  He  is  at  present  undoubtedly 
the  most  prominent  musical  figure  of  Leip- 
sic. Works — Operas  :  Konig  Manfred,  five 
acts,  given  at  W^iesbaden,  1867,  Leipsic, 
1885  ;  Der  vierjilhrige  Posten,  not  given  ;  Aiif 
hohen  Befehl,  Hamburg,  1886  ;  Ein  Aben- 
teuer  Hiindels,  Schwerin,  1874.  Belsazar, 
oratorio;  2  masses  ;  Music  to  Schiller's  Wil- 
helm  Tell  ;  Ilakoit  Jarl,  for  male  chorus, 
soli,  and  orchestra  ;  Die  Flucht  nach  Agyp- 
ten,  do.  ;  Sommerbilder,  do.  (1885) ;  Schnee- 
uiUchen,  for  female  chorus,  soli,  and  piano- 
forte ;  AschenbrOdel,  do.  ;  DornrOschen, 
do.  ;  Die  wilden  Schwiine,  do.  ;  20  canons 


194 


REINECKE 


for  3  female  voices,  -with  pianoforte  ;  2  sym- 
phonies. Overtures  :  Dame  Kobold  ;  Ala- 
din  ;  Friedensfeier  ;  Fest-Ouvertilre,  op. 
148  ;  Zeuobia ;  In  memoriam,  introduction 
and  fugue  with  choral  for  orchestra  ;  Fu- 
neral march  for  Emperor  Wilhelm  I.,  op. 
200  ;  Concerto  for  violin ;  do.  for  violon- 
cello ;  do.  for  hai-p  ;  3  quartets  for  strings  ; 
4  concertos  for  pianoforte  and  strings  ;  Quin- 
tet for  do.  ;  Quartet  for  do. ;  G  trios  for  do.  ; 
2  sonatas  for  violoncello  ;  4  do.  for  violin  ; 
Phantasie  for  pianoforte  and  violin  ;  Undine, 
sonata  for  flute  and  pianoforte ;   Sonatas, 


fantasias,  caprices,  etc.,  for  pianoforte  ;  Sev- 
eral collections  of  songs ;  Choruses  for 
male,  and  mixed  voices,  etc. — Mendel;  Eie- 
mann. 

EEINECKE  (Eeinicke),  KARL  LEO- 
POLD, born  at  Dessau,  in  1774,  died  at 
Quedlinburg,  Oct.  22,  1820.  Dramatic 
composer,  first  instructed  on  several  instru- 
ments by  his  father,  court  musician  at  An- 
halt-Dessau,  later  pupil  of  Eust  on  the  vio- 
lin, and  in  179G-98,  in  Dresden,  of  Nau- 
mann  in  composition.  In  1798  he  was  aj)- 
pointed  Conzertmeister  and  music  director 
at  Dessau.  Works — Operas  :  Adelaide  von 
Scharfeneck  ;  Feodora  ;  Peronka  und  Al- 
fred, given  at  Dessau.  Symphonies  ;  In- 
strumental pieces  ;  Songs. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

EEENE  DE  CHYPEE,  LA  (The  Queen 
of  Cyprus),  opera  in  five  acts,  text  by  Saint- 
Georges,  music  by  Halevy,  first  represented 
at  the  Acadomie  Eoyale  de  Musique,  Paris, 
Dec.  22,  1841.  The  time  of  the  action  is 
14G9.  A  Venetian  patrician,  who  has  prom- 
ised his  daughter,  Catarina  Cornaro,  to  a 
French  nobleman,  Gerard  de  Courcy,  is 
informed  by  Mocenigo  that  the  Council  of 
Ten  orders  her  to  be  given  in  marriage  to 
Lusignan,  King  of  Cyprus.  He  yields  only 
on  threat  of  death,  and  Catarina  is  forced 


to  renounce  her  lover.  The  third  act  is 
placed  in  Cyprus,  where  Gerard  is  discov- 
ered, attacked,  and  saved  by  one  who  is  un- 
known to  him.  He  still  resolves  to  kill 
Lusignan,  and  during  a  fete  is  about  to  take 
his  life  when  he  recognizes  him  as  his  de- 
liverer, and  Lusignan  again  protects  him. 
After  several  years,  during  which  Catarina 
has  become  reconciled  to  her  fate  and  Ge- 
rard has  been  made  Chevalier  of  Ehodes, 
the  latter  discovers  a  plot  against  Lusignan 
and  tells  Catarina  of  it.  Mocenigo  appears 
at  this  moment,  and  says  he  will  fasten  the 
crime  upon  them.  Lusignan,  who  over- 
hears this  threat,  orders  Mocenigo  to  prison, 
but  the  latter  has  had  time  to  give  signal 
for  the  Venetians  to  attack  the  city.  Dur- 
ing the  conflict  Lusignan  is  seconded  by 
Gerard,  but  is  wounded,  and  dies  in  Cata- 
riua's  arms.  She  brings  out  her  son  to  her 
subjects,  who  proclaim  him  their  sovereign, 
and  Gerard  returns  to  Rhodes.  Original 
cast : 

Catarina Mme  Stoltz. 

Gerard M.  Dnprez. 

Lusignan M.  Baroilhet. 

Mocenigo M.  Massol. 

This  opera  was  first  given  in  Leijisic,  Sept. 
19,  1842.  Published  by  Lemoine  (Paris, 
1842) ;  by  Schlesinger,  German  translation 
by  Griinbaum  (Berlin,  1842).  Pianoforte 
score  by  Wagner  (Paris,  1841).  See  Cata- 
rina Cornaro. — Clement  et  Larousse,  567  ; 
Lajarte,  ii.  1G9  ;  Allgem.  mus.  Zeitg.,  xliv. 
705  ;  Neue  Zeitschr.,  xvii.  IIG. 

EEINE  DE  FEANCE,  LA  (The  Queen  of 
France),  symjDhony  in  G  minor,  by  Haydn, 
supjjosed  to  have  been  written  in  178G.  I. 
Adagio,  Vivace  ;  II.  Eomanze,  allegretto  ; 
III.  Menuetto,  allegretto ;  IV.  Finale, 
piresto.     Published  by  Simrock. 

EEINE  DE  SABA,  LA  (The  Queen  of 
Sheba),  French  opera  in  four  acts,  text  by 
Jules  Barbier  and  Michel  Carre,  music  by 
Gounod,  first  rejDresented  at  the  Opera, 
Paris,  Feb.  28,  1862.  The  Queen  of  Sheba, 
Balkis,  visits  Solomon,  and  falls  in  love  with 


195 


REINER 


an  artisan,  Adoniram,  with  whom  she  runs 
away.  The  last  act  takes  place  in  the  ravine 
of  Cedron,  where  Adoniram  is  assassinated 
by  three  other  artisans,  whose  demands  for 
salary  he  had  ignored.  The  work  ends 
with  the  Queen's  distress,  she  believing  the 
murder  to  have  been  instigated  by  Solomon 
for  revenge.     Original  cast  : 

La  reine  (Balkis) Mmc  Gueymard. 

Adoniram J\I.  Gueymard. 

Soliman M.  Belval. 

Phanor M.  Marie. 

Benoni lllle  Hamackers. 

An  English  version,  entitled  Irene,  by  H. 
Famie,  was  given  as  a  concert  at  the  Crystal 


Mme  Gueymard. 

Palace,  Aug,  12, 1865.  Published  by  Chou- 
dens  (Paris,  18G2)  ;  Schott  (Mainz)  ;  Eng- 
lish edition  by  Cramer  &  Co.  (London). 
Transcription  for  the  pianoforte  by  Liszt. 
— CU'ment  et  Larousse,  5G8  ;  Athenaeum 
(18G5),  ii.  253. 

REINER,  AMBROSIUS,  church  com- 
poser of  the  17th  century,  about  the  middle 
of  which  he  lived  in  Prague,  then  at  Inns- 
bruck, as  composer  and  Kapellmeister  to 
the  Archduke  Ferdinand  Karl  of  Austria. 
Woi-ks  :    Motets    for     2-4     voices,     with 


vioUns  (Munich,  1645)  ;  Motets  for  4-6 
voices,  with  2  violins  (ib.,  1648)  ;  Motets  for 
8  voices  (ib.,  1654) ;  Psalms  for  8  voices 
(ib.,  1G54)  ;  Mass  for  5  voices  and  3  instru- 
ments (Innsbruck,  1655). — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

REINER,  JAKOB,  born  about  1560  at 
Altdorf,  "Wiirtemberg,  died  in  the  Convent 
of  Weingarten,  Aug.  12,  1606.  Church 
composer,  first  instructed  in  the  Convent 
school  at  Weingarten,  then,  in  Munich, 
pupil  of  Orlando  Lasso.  Ho  was  ap- 
pointed vocal  instructor,  and  later  choir- 
master of  the  Convent  of  Weingarten. — 
Works  :  Liber  cantionum  sacrarum,  22  mo- 
tets for  5-6  voices  (1579,  new  ed.  by  O. 
Dressier,  1872)  ;  Schone  neue  deutscho 
Lieder,  32  songs  for  4-5  voices  (1581) ; 
Christliche  Gesang,  teutsche  Psalmen,  15 
psalms  for  3  voices  (1589)  ;  Selectse  pireque 
cantiones,  20  motets  for  6  voices  (1591) ; 
Cantica  sive  mutctfc,  29  songs  for  4-5  voices 
(1595)  ;  Liber  motettarum,  32  motets  for 
6-8  voices  (1600)  ;  Liber  motettarum,  18 
motets  for  6  voices  (1603)  ;  Sacrarum 
missamm,  for  5-6  voices  (1G04)  ;  Glorio- 
sissimfc  Virginis  Magnificat,  for  8-12  voices 
(1604) ;  Miss.T)  tres  cum  litaniis  for  8 
voices  (1G04) ;  Miss«3  aliquot  sacrre  cum 
officio  B.  M.  V.  et  Antiphonis,  for  3-4 
voices  (1608)  ;  Many  songs  in  MS.— Fi'tis  ; 
Mendel  ;  Riemann  ;  IMonatshefto  fiir  Mu- 
sik-Geschichte,  iii.  97. 

REINE  TOPAZE,  LA  (Queen  Topaz), 
opera-comique  in  three  acts,  text  by  Lock- 
roy  and  Leon  Battu,  music  by  Victor  Jlasse, 
first  reijresented  at  the  Theatre  Lyrique, 
Paris,  Dec.  27,  1856.  Topaze  is  a  young 
girl,  who  in  infancy  was  stolen  from  her 
parents,  and  becomes  queen  of  a  band  of 
gypsies.  She  loves  the  captain,  Rafael, 
whom  she  wins  from  his  betrothed,  a 
wealthy  noblewoman.  He  falls  in  love  with 
Topaze,  but  hesitates  to  marry  her  until 
the  secret  of  her  birth  is  revealed  to  him 
by  the  gypsies.  The  success  of  this  opera, 
one  of  the  composer's  best,  was  greatly 
owing  to  the  brilliant  execixtion  of  Mme 
Miolan-Carvalho,  whose  name  is  inseparably 


196 


KEINIIOLD 


conrioctefl  with   the   work.     Tlie   Carnaval 
de  Venise,  with  Pagaiiiui's  variations,  which 


In  ff^-  -^^ 

Euphrosyne  Parepa-Rosa. 

is  interpolated  in  the  second  act,  was  sung 
by  her  with  gi'cat  facihty  find  precision. 
Original  cast : 

La  reinc  Topaze  . . .  Mme  Miolan-Carvalho. 

Lc  cajiitaino  It.ifacl M.  Montjauzc. 

Annibal M.  Meillet. 

Francai3pa ]M.  Balanque. 

Fritellino M.  Froment. 

Filomolo Mile  Pannetrat. 

This  ojiera  was  given  a,t  Her  Majesty's, 
London,  with  ]\Ille  Parepa  in  the  title-role, 
Dec.  24,  18G0.  Published  by  Schott 
(Mainz,  1857). — Clement  et  Larousse,  569  ; 
Eevue  et  Gaz.  mus.  de  Paris  (1857),  2  ; 
Athenffium  (1860),  ii.  301  ;  Neue  Zeitsch. 
(1859),  i.  32. 

EEINHOLD,  HUGO,  born  in  Vienna, 
March  3,  1854,  still  living,  1890.  Instru- 
mental composer,  pupil  at  the  Vienna 
Conservatorium,  of  Bruckner,  Epstein,  and 
Dessoff  in  1868-74,  and  received  a  silver 
medal.  His  compositions  are  very  prom- 
ising. Works  :  Prelude,  minuet,  and  fugue 
for  orchestra ;    Suite   for   pianoforte,    and 


strings  ;  String  quartet  ;  Im  Walde,  and 
Fantasie-Bilder,  for  pianoforte  (4  hands)  ; 
Other  pianoforte  f)ieces,  and  songs. — Fetis, 
Supplement,  ii.  399  ;  Riemann. 

REINKEN  (Eeinke,  Eeinicke),  JOHANN 
ADAM,    born    at  _       ,,. , 

D  e  V  e  n  t  e  r,  Hol- 
land, April  27, 
162  3,  died  in 
Hamburg,  Nov. 
24, 1722.  Organ- 
ist, pupil  of  Jan  ,, 
Pieter  Sweelinck 
in  Amsterdam ; 
became  in  1654 
organist    of    t  h  e  ^'  *»  ^ 

church  of  St.  Catherine,  in  Hamburg.  So 
great  was  his  reputation  that  Johanu  Sebas- 
tian Bach  walked  twice  at  least  from  Lune- 
burg  to  Hamburg  to  hear  him.  On  the  latter 
occasion  Bach  in  turn  played  for  the  aged 
organist,  who  exclaimed  "I  thought  that 
this  art  was  dead,  but  I  see  that  it  still  lives 
in  you."  Works  :  Hortus  Musicus  for  two 
violins,  viola,  and  bass  (Hamburg,  1704)  ; 
Toccata  for  organ  ;  2  arrangements  of 
chor.als  ;  2  variations  for  clavier. — Mendel  ; 
F6tis  ;  Schilling ;  Mattheson,  Ehren-Pforte, 
292. 

EEINTHALEE,  KAEL  (MAETIN),  born 
at  Erfurt,  Oct.  13, 
1822,  still  living, 
1890.  Pupil  of  G. 
A.  Eitter  and  A.  B. 
Marx  ;  visited  Paris, 
where  he  studied 
singing  under  Ge- 
raldi  and  Bordogni, 
then  spent  some 
time  at  Naples,  Mi- 
lan, and  Eome.  He  became  instructor  of 
singing  at  the  Cologne  Conservatorium,  in 
1853  ;  was  appointed  city  music  director, 
organist  of  the  Cathedral,  and  director  of 
the  Singakademie  at  Bremen  in  1858,  and 
later  conductor  of  the  Liedertafel  there. 
He  is  royal  Prussian  music  director,  and 
since  1882  member  of  the  Berlin  Academy. 


197 


REISS 


Works  —  Operas  :  Edda,  Bremen,  1875  ; 
KiitLcben  von  Heilbronn,  Frankfort,  1881. 
Jephtha  and  bis  daughter,  oratorio  ;  In 
der  Wiiste,  for  chorus  and  orchestra ; 
Das  Miidchen  von  Kolab,  do. ;  Symphony  ; 
Psalms  ;  Choruses  ;  Songs. — Mendel ;  Rie- 
mann  ;  Fotis  ;  do.,  Supplement,  ii.  400. 

REISS,  CARL  HEINRICH  ADOLF, 
born  in  Frankfort-ou-the-Main,  in  1829, 
still  living,  1890.  Pianist,  pupil,  in  Frank- 
fort, of  Rosenhain  on  the  pianoforte,  of 
Ferdinand  Kessler  in  harmony,  and  later, 
in  Leipsic,  pupil  of  Moritz  Hauptmann.  At 
the  age  of  fourteen,  he  appeared  with  suc- 
cess in  a  concert  in  Frankfort,  and  when  not 
yet  twenty  years  old,  was  appointed  chorus- 
master  in  the  Stadttheater  of  Mainz.  He 
was  music  director  successively  at  the  thea- 
tres of  Berne,  Basel,  and  Wiirzburg,  and 
in  1854  returned  to  Mainz  as  first  Kapell- 
meister of  the  Stadttheater.  In  1856  he 
was  called  to  the  Court  theatre  at  Cassel, 
where  later  he  succeeded  Spohr  as  Hof- 
Kapellmeister ;  in  1881-86  he  filled  the 
same  position  at  "Wiesbaden.  Works  :  Otto 
der  Schiitz,  opera,  given  in  Cassel  and 
Mainz  ;  Pianoforte  music  ;  Songs. — Fctis  ; 
Mendel  ;  Riomann. 

REISSIGER,  FRIEDRICH  AUGUST, 
bora  at  Belzig,  Prussia,  July  26,  1809,  died 
at  Frederikshald,  Norway,  March  2,  1883. 
Brother  of  the  following,  first  instructed 
by  his  father,  then  pupil  of  Schicht  and 
Weinlig  at  the  Thomasschule  in  Leipsic, 
and  of  Dehu  in  Berlin.  He  was  music 
director  at  the  theatre  in  Christiania  in 
1840-50,  and  thence  went  to  Frederikshald, 
as  organist  and  miUtary  Kapelmester. 
Works :  Music  to  Tie  Saters,  and  to  Ogte- 
mandens  Reprsesentant ;  Several  masses  ; 
Requiem  ;  Cantatas  ;  Concert  overtures  ; 
Pianoforte  music  ;  Many  songs,  and  chor- 
uses for  male  voices. — Mendel. 

REISSIGER,  KARL  GOTTLIEB,  born 
at  Belzig,  Jan.  31,  1798,  died  in  Dresden, 
Nov.  7,  1859.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil 
in  1811  of  Schicht  at  the  Thomasschule, 
Leipsic.     In   1818  he  began  the  study  of 


theology,  but  soon  gave  himself  up  to  mu- 
sic ;  pursuing  his  studies  in  Vienna,  in 
18  21,  he  appeared 
the  following  year  as 
a  singer  and  pian- 
ist. He  then  visited 
Munich,  where  he 
became  the  pujjil  of 
Winter,  went  to  Ber- 
lin in  1823,  and  trav- 
e  1 1  e  d  in  Holland, 
France,  and  Italy  in 
1824-25,  to  inform  himself  about  the  musi- 
cal institutions  of  those  countries,  by  order 
of  the  Prussian  government.  He  was  then 
for  a  short  time  instructor  at  the  royal  in- 
stitute for  church  music,  and  in  October, 
1826,  was  summoned  to  The  Hague,  to  or- 
ganize the  Conservatorium,  which  is  still 
flourishing.  In  the  same  year  he  succeeded 
Marschner  as  music  director  of  the  Ger- 
man Opera  in  Dresden,  and  soon  after  was 
appointed  Hof-Kapellmeister  to  succeed 
Weber.  Works — Operas :  Das  Rockenweib- 
chen  (1821,  not  given)  ;  Didone  abban- 
donata,  Dresden,  1823  ;  Der  Ahneuschatz 
(1824,  do.)  ;  Yelva,  melodrama,  Dresden, 
1827  ;  Libella,  ib.,  1828  ;  Die  Felsenmiihle 
von  Etalieres,  ib.,  1829  ;  Turandot,  ib., 
1835  ;  Adole  de  Foix,  ib.,  1841  ;  Der  Schiff- 
brueh  der  Medusa,  ib.,  1846  ;  Overture  and 
entr'actes  to  the  tragedy  Nero,  Munich, 
1822.  David,  oratorio  ;  10  masses  ;  Hymns, 
j)salms,  motets,  vespers,  etc. ;  Symphony  for 
orchestra  ;  Overture  for  do.  ;  Concerto  for 
flute  ;  Concertino  for  clarinet ;  Quintet  for 
pianoforte  and  strings  ;  6  quartets  for  do.  ; 
27  trios  for  do.  ;  Quintet  for  strings  ;  8 
quartets  for  do.  ;  2  sonatas  for  violin  and 
pianoforte  ;  Sonata  for  clarinet  ;  Sonatas 
(4  and  2  hands),  rondos,  variations,  and 
other  music  for  pianoforte  ;  Many  songs, 
some  of  which  have  become  veiy  popular. 
— Ftitis  ;  Mendel  ;  Riemann  ;  Schilling ; 
Schumann,  Ges.  Sehriften,  ii.  292. 

REISSHLiNN,  AUGUST,  born  at  Fi-an- 
kenstein,  Silesia,  Nov.  14,  1825,  still  living, 
1890.     Dramatic  composer,  and  writer  on 


19S 


EEITER 


music,  pupil  in  his  native  place  of  Heinrich 
Jung,  and  in  Breslau  of  Mosewius  and 
Baumgart  in  theory,  of  Ernst  Richter  on 
the  pianoforte  and  organ,  of  Liistner  on  the 
violin,  and  of  Kahl  on  the  violoncello. 
The  favourable  reception  given  his  com- 
positions sti-engthened  his  purpose  to  be- 
come a  composer,  but  a  residence  in  1850- 
52  in  Weimar,  vphere  the  new  school  of  mu- 
sic had  its  most  ardent  chamjiions,  turned 
him  more  to  literary  work.  After  living 
several  years  at  Halle,  he  settled  in  1863  in 
Berlin,  where  he  lectured  in  18GG-74:  on 
musical  history  at  the  Couservatorium  ;  and 
afterwards  took  up  his  residence  in  Leip- 
sic.  He  was  a  prominent  contributor  to 
Mendel's  Musikalisches  Conversations-Lexi- 
kon,  and  after  his  death  continued  and 
completed  it.  In  1875  the  degree  of  Ph.  D. 
was  conferred  upon  him  by  Leijjsic  Uni- 
versity. His  compositions  have  not  at- 
tracted great  attention,  and  his  literary 
works  are  sometimes  injured  by  liis  fond- 
ness for  putting  all  music  into  a  system, 
but  his  industry  and  good  use  of  his  op- 
portunities have  made  him  of  considerable 
authority  in  the  musical  world  of  Germany. 
Works — Operas  :  Gudi'un,  Leipsic,  1871  ; 
Das  Gralspiel  (not  given)  ;  Die  Biirger- 
meisteiin  von  Schorndorf,  Leipsic,  1880. 
Two  dramatic  scenes,  Drusus  Tod  and  Lo- 
reley  ;  Wittekind,  oratorio  ;  2  sonatas  for 
pianoforte  and  violin  ;  Concerto  for  violin 
and  orchestra  ;  Suite  for  do.  ;  Many  songs 
and  ballads,  duets,  terzettos,  and  choruses. 
Writings :  Von  Bach  bis  Wagner  (Berlin, 
18G1)  ;  Das  deutsche  Lied  in  seiner  his- 
torischen  Entwickelung  (1861),  rewritten 
as  Geschichte  des  deutschen  Liedes  (1874), 
his  most  important  work  ;  Allgemeine  Ge- 
schichte der  Musik  (1863-65,  3  vols.) ;  Allge- 
meine Musiklehre  (1861,  2d  ed.,  1874)  ; 
Grundriss  der  Musikgeschichte  (1865)  ; 
Robert  Schumann  (1865,  3d  ed.,  1879)  ; 
Lehrbuch  der  musikalischen  Komposition 
(1866-71,  3  vols.)  ;  Felix  Mendelssohn-Bar- 
tholdy  (1867,  2d  ed.,  1872)  ;  Franz  Schu- 
bert  (1872)  ;    Die   konigliche   Hochschule 


fiir  Musik  in  Berlin  (1875)  ;  Leichtfassliche 
Musikgeschichte  (1877) ;  Zur  Aesthetik  der 
Tonkunst  (1879) ;  Joseph  Haydn  (1879)  ; 
Illustrirte  Geschichte  der  deutschen  Musik 
(1880) ;  J.  S.  Bach,  and  G.  F.  Hiindel  (1881) ; 
Gluck,  and  Weber  (1882)  ;  and  other  works. 
— Mendel  ;  Riemann  ;  Fctis,  Supplement, 
ii.  101. 

REITER,  ERNST,  born  at  Wertheim, 
Baden,  in  1811,  died  at  Basel,  July  14, 
1875.  Violinist,  professor  at  the  Conserva- 
torium  at  Wiirzburg,  where  he  apj)eared 
also  in  concerts  in  1835-37.  In  1839  he 
went  as  music  director  to  Strasburg,  and 
in  1841  to  Basel.  In  1843  he  conducted 
the  music  festival  at  Lucerne.  Works  :  Die 
Fee  von  Elverhoe,  Wiesbaden,  1865  ;  Das 
neue  Paradies,  oratorio,  Basel,  1845,  Vienna, 
1847  ;    2  quartets  for  strings  ;  Songs. 

REJOICE  GREATLY,  soprano  aria  in 
B-flat  major,  with  accompaniment  of  violins 
in  unison,  and  coutiuuo,  in  Handel's  3Ies- 
mih.  Part  I.,  No.  16. 

RELLSTAB,  JOHANN  KARL  FRIED- 
RICH,  born  in  Berlin,  Feb.  27,  1759,  died 
at  Charlottenburg,  Aug.  19,  1813.  Com- 
poser and  writer,  pupil  of  Agricola  and 
Fasch.  His  father's  death  compelled  him 
to  take  charge  of  a  printing  establishment 
in  Berlin,  to  the  business  of  which  he  added 
music  printing  and  selling,  and  in  1785 
opened  a  circulating  music  library.  In 
1787  he  founded  a  concert  for  amateurs, 
and  the  concerts  given  by  the  Singakademie 
and  others  were  often  held  at  his  house  and 
expense.  The  war  of  1806  caused  the  loss 
of  almost  his  whole  fortune,  but  his  love  of 
music  revived  on  the  return  of  peace.  He 
wrote  musical  criticisms  for  the  Vossische 
Zeitung,  lectured  on  harmony,  inspired 
wealthier  men  to  give  private  concerts,  and 
instructed  his  children  musically.  In  1811 
he  visited  Italy  and  Vienna.  His  composi- 
tions are  little  more  than  mechanical,  but 
his  books  give  evidence  of  critical  observa- 
tion. Works  :  Die  Apotheke,  opera  ;  Die 
Hirten  an  der  Krippe  zu  Bethlehem,  can- 
tata ;    Pygmalion,  do. ;  Ode  ;   Passion  ora- 


199 


EEMBT 


torio  ;  Mass  ;  Te  Deum  ;  Marches,  waltzes, 
sonatinas,  and  other  music.  He  published 
Versuch  iiber  die  Vereinigung  der  musi- 
kalischeu  und  oratorischen  Deklamation  (Vi- 
enna, 1785)  ;  Ueber  die  Bemerkungen  eines 
Reisendeu  (Berlin,  1789),  a  reply  to  a  work 
by  Reichardt ;  Anleitung  f  iir  Klavierspieler, 
den  Gebrauch  der  Bach'scheu  Fingerset- 
zung,  die  Manieren  und  den  Vortrag  be- 
treffend  (ib.,  1790).— Fotis  ;  Gerber  ;  Men- 
del ;  Kiemann  ;  Schilling. 

EEMBT,  JOHLV^vN  ERNST,  born  at 
Suhl,  Prussian  Saxony,  in  1749,  died  there, 
Feb.  2G,  1810.  Organist,  formed  himself 
by  the  study  of  Bach's  works,  of  which  he 
was  an  eminent  interpreter.  Ho  was  organ- 
ist in  his  native  city  from  1772,  and  left  it 
only  once  in  his  life,  to  visit  Leiiisic  in 
1797.  Works  :  G  trios  for  organ  (1787)  ;  6 
do.  ;  50  four-part  fughettas  for  do.  ;  Cho- 
rals, fugues,  preludes,  etc.,  for  do. — Fetis. 

REMDE,  JOHANN  CHRISTIAN  HEIN- 
RICH,  born  at  Berka-ou-the-Ilm,  Saxe- 
Weimar,  iu  1790,  died  at  Weimar  (?)  after 
1840.  Dramatic  comiioser,  first  instructed 
by  his  father,  then  pupil  of  Tiirk  at  Halle. 
He  taught  music  in  Berlin,  then  lived  at 
Leipsic  and  at  Memmingen,  Suabia,  and 
settled  at  Weiruar,  where  he  attracted  Goe- 
the's attention,  and  was  appointed  music 
director  of  the  court  theatre,  and  professor 
at  the  pages'  school.  Works — Operas  :  Die 
lustigen  Studenten  ;  Der  Zaubersee,  given 
at  Weimai-,  1836  ;  Die  entwaffnete  Rache ; 
Pygmalion,  melodrama.  Der  Wandel  des 
Irrthuuis,  cantata.  Pianoforte  music,  part- 
songs,  ballads,  and  songs. — Fetis. 

REMfiNYI,  EDUAED,  born  at  Heves, 
Hungary,  iu  1830  ;  reported  drowned  off 
^Madagascar  iu  1887,  but  living  at  Cape 
Town,  South  Africa,  in  1890.  Virtuoso 
on  the  violiu,  pupil  in  1842-45,  at  the  Vi- 
enna Conservatorium,  of  BOhm.  He  took 
an  active  part  in  the  insurrection  of  1848, 
and  was  adjutant  to  the  famous  general 
GOrgey  ;  when  the  revolution  was  crushed 
he  left  his  countiy  and  travelled  in  the 
United   States    in    1849-50,    giving    many 


successful  concerts.  In  1853  he  went  to 
Weimar  to  study  under  Liszt,  and  in  1854 
to  London  as  solo 
violinist  to  the 


Queen, 
obtained 
nesty   in 
returned 


Having 
an  am- 
18G0,  he 
to   Hun- 


gai-y,  and  was  made 
solo  violinist  to 
the  Emperor  of 
Austria.  In  18G5 
he  appeared  successfully  in  Paris ;  then  vis- 
ited Germany,  Holland,  and  Belgium,  and 
in  1875  settled  temporarily  in  Paris.  He 
went  to  London  again  in  1877,  to  America 
in  1878,  travelled  extensively  in  the  United 
States,  Canada,  and  Mexico,  and  stai-ted  on 
a  new  concert  tour  around  the  world  in 
188G.  Among  his  works  are  a  concerto  for 
violin  and  orchestra  ;  most  of  his  other 
compositions  consist  of  aiTangements  which 
he  has  made  for  his  own  jjlayiug,  chiefly 
of  Hungarian  airs,  and  of  Field's,  Chopin's, 
Schubert's,  Bach's,  Rameau's,  and  Mozart's 
music,  which  he  has  i^ublished  as  Nouvelle 
£cole  de  violon  (Paris).  —  Fetis,  Supple- 
ment, ii.  402  ;  Wui'zbach  ;  HansUck,  Con- 
certweseu  in  Wien,  ii.  2G7. 

RfiMUZAT,  JEAN,  born  at  Bordeaux 
(Gironde),  May  11,  1815,  died  in  Shanghai, 
Sept.  1,  1880.  Virtuoso  on  the  flute,  jDupil 
of  Tulou  at  the  Conservatoire,  Paris,  where 
he  won  the  first  i^rize  iu  1832  ;  appeared 
successfully  in  many  concerts,  then  settled 
in  London,  where  he  became  first  flutist  at 
the  Queen's  Theatre  ;  in  1853  he  returned  to 
Paris,  and  was  engaged  in  the  same  capa- 
city at  the  Theatre  Lyrique.  He  composed 
concertinos,  fautaisies,  airs  varic's,  and  mor- 
ceaux  de  salon  for  his  instrument. — Fetis. 

RENAUD,  tragedie-lyrique  in  three  acts, 
text  by  Lebceuf,  music  by  Sacchini,  first 
represented  at  the  Academie  Royale  de  Mu- 
sique,  Paris,  Feb.  28,  1783.  This  opera 
was  a  re-arrangement  of  Sacchini's  Armida 
e  Rinaldo,  first  given  in  Milan  iu  1722. 
The  French  version  was  given  in  Paris, 


SCO 


RENAUD 


through  the  influence  of  Marie  Antoinette, 
with  Mme  Saint-Huberty  as  Ai-mide.     It  is 


Antoinette  C^cile  Saint-Huberty. 

one  of  the  best  of  the  many  settings  of  the 
subject.  See  also  Armidc  et  Kenaud. — Cle- 
ment et  Larousse,  570  ;  Lajarte,  i.  333. 

EENAUD  D'AST,  comeilie  in  two  acts, 
in  prose,  text  by  Radet  and  Barre,  music 
by  Dalayrac,  first  re2:)reseuted  at  the  Italions, 
Paris,  July  19,  1787.  The  libretto  is  an 
imitation  of  La  Fontaine's  "L'oraison  de 
Saint-Julien,"  taken  originally  from  Boccac- 
cio. The  music  was  popular,  and  the  airs 
were  long  sung  in  the  Paris  vaudevilles. 
Same  title,  French  ojiera  in  two  acts,  text 
by  Lemonnier,  music  by  Trial  and  Vachon, 
previously  given  in  Paris,  Oct.  22,  1765. 
Italian  comic  oj)eras  on  this  subject  :  Eiu- 
aldo  d'  Asti,  by  Marcos  Portugal,  Venice, 
1793  ;  by  Niccolo  Isouard,  Malta,  1796  ;  by 
Francesco  Morlacchi,  Parma,  1809  ;  and  by 
Carlo  Coccia,  Rome,  1816. 

RENDEZ-VOUS  BOURGEOIS,  LES, 
opera-bouifou  in  one  act,  text  by  Hoffman, 
music  by  Niccolo  Isouard,  first  represented 
at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris,  May  9,  1807. 
The  libretto  is  the  most  amusing  of  Hoff- 
man's works  for  the  stage,  and  the  music 
is  gay  and  thoroughly  French  in  chai'acter. 
It  was  given  in  Berlin  as  Das  SteUdicheiu, 


Oder  Alle  fiirchten  sich,  in  1831 ;  in  Vi- 
enna, Aug.  18,  1826.— Clement  et  Larousse, 
571. 

R£  PASTORE,  IL  (The  Shepherd  King), 
dramatic  cantata  in  two  acts,  text  by  Metas- 
tasio,  music  by  Mozart,  first  represented  at 
Salzburg,  April  23,  1775.  The  libretto  was 
written  in  1751,  set  to  music  by  Bono,  and 
given  in  Vienna  in  that  year.  Mozart  was 
ordered  to  compose  music  to  this  text  in 
March,  1775,  for  the  entertainment  of  the 
Archduke  Maximilian,  son  of  the  Empress 
Maria  Theresa,  who  was  expected  to  visit 
Salzburg  the  following  month.  The  so- 
prano Cousoli,  from  Munich,  sang  the  prin- 
cipal 2:)art,  and  Mozart  composed  a  new  bra- 
vura air  for  her.  Characters  represented  : 
Alessandro,  King  of  Macedonia  ;  Amiuta, 
shepherd  descendant  of  the  Kings  of  Sidon, 
and  lover  of  Elisa  ;  Elisa,  shepherdess  ;  Ta- 
miri,  fugitive  princess,  daughter  of  the  tyrant 
Stratone,  loved  by  Agenor ;  and  Agenor, 
noble  of  Sidon,  lover  of  Tamiri,  and  friend 
of  Alessandro.  Alessandro,  having  taken 
Sidon,  puts  to  death  the  tyrant  and  usurper 
Stratone,  and  places  on  the  throne  the 
rightful  king,  Aminta,  who  has  been  liv- 
ing as  a  shepherd.  Alessandro  wishes  to 
marry  him  to  Tamiri,  daughter  of  Stratone, 
who  loves  Agenor,  and  Aminta,  rather  than 
give  up  the  love  of  Elisa,  a  shepherdess,  re- 
turns the  crown  to  Alessandro.  The  latter 
is  so  delighted  with  his  fidelity  that  he 
unites  him  with  Elisa,  and  establishes  them 
upon  the  throne.  He  also  gives  Tamiri  to 
Agenor,  and  promises  him  the  next  king- 
dom he  may  conquer.  Amiuta's  aria,  "  Aer 
tranquiUo,"  was  sung  by  Mile  Weber  in 
Mannheim  in  1778.  Another  aria  of  Amin- 
ta's,  "  L'  amero,"  was  a  favourite  with  Jenny 
Lind.  The  original  autograph,  in  the 
KOnigliche  Bibliothek,  Berlin,  was  {jub- 
lished  by  Breitkopf  &  Hilrtel,  Mozart 
Werke,  Serie  v..  No.  10. — KOchel,  Verzeich- 
niss.  No.  208  ;  Andre,  do.,  No.  37  ;  Jahn, 
Mozart,  i.  399  ;  Gehriug,  Mozart,  54. 

Rfe  PASTORE,  IL,  Italian  opera  in  three 
acts,  text  by  Metastasio,  music  by  Giuseppe 


201 


EEQUIEM 


Sarti,  first  represented  in  Venice  in  1753. 
This  opera  bad  an  immense  success,  and 
quickly  sjiread  the  fame  of  its  composer. 
Other  Italian  operas  on  Metastasio's  text,  by 
Giuseppe  Bono,  SchOnbrunn,  near  Vienna, 
1751  ;  by  Johaun  Agricola,  Berlin,  1752  ; 
by  Johann  Adam  Hasse,  Hubertusberg, 
near  Dresden,  Oct.  7,  1755  ;  by  Nicolo 
Jommclli,  Stuttgart,  1757  ;  by  Zonca,  Mu- 
nich, 17(50  ;  by  Piccinni,  Naples,  17C0  ;  by  Jo- 
hann Christian  Richter,  Dresden,  1762  ;  by 
Pietro  Guglielmi,  Naples,  17G7  ;  by  Fran- 
cesco Uttiui,  Venice,  about  1773  ;  by  Matteo 
Rauzzini,  Dublin,  1784  ;  by  Parenti,  Naples, 
1788 ;  and  by  Luciano  Xavier  dos  Santos, 
Lisbon,  1793  ;  and  a  French  opera  on  the 
same  subject,  Le  jardinier  de  Sidon,  in  two 
acts,  text  by  Renard  de  Pleinchene,  music 
by  Philidor,  first  given  at  the  Italiens,  Paris, 
July  18,  17G8. 

RE(iUIE:M,  by  Berlioz.  See  J/esse  des 
Morts. 

REQUIEM,  in  C  minor,  by  Chcrubini, 
written  for  the  anniversary  of  the  execution 
of  Louis  XVI.  (Jan.  21,  1793),  and  first  per- 
formed at  the  Abbey  Church  of  Saint- 
Denis,  Pai-is,  Jan.  21,  1817.  Berlioz  con- 
sidered this  the  greatest  work  of  its  com- 
poser, and  especially  admired  the  Agnus  Dei. 
It  is  one  of  the  gi-eatest  musical  expressions 
of  Itahan  Catholicism,  and  its  general  tone 
is  that  of  deep  religious  feeling  and  mourn- 
fulness.  The  Credo  for  eight  voice.s,  a 
cappella,  is  a  striking  example  of  Cherubini's 
mastery  of  counterpoint.  The  Requiem  was 
sung  in  the  same  church  at  the  funeral  ser- 
vice of  the  due  de  Berri,  Feb.  14,  1820. 
It  was  first  performed  by  the  Sacred  Har- 
monic Society  of  London,  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Sir  Michael  Costa,  March  23,  1881. 
Full  score  published  by  Frey  (Paris),  and 
by  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel  (Leipsic).  Cherubini 
■wrote  also  another  Requiem,  in  D  minor,  for 
three  male  voices  (two  tenors,  and  a  bass), 
first  performed  at  a  concert  of  the  Conser- 
vatoire, Paris,  March  25,  1838,  the  Dies 
irffi  having  been  previously  given  at  the 
same  place,  March  19,  1837.     This,  Cheru- 


bini's last  masterpiece,  was  written  in  his 
seventy-seventh  year,  and  it  was  sung  at  his 
own  obsequies  at  Saint-Roch  in  1842.  It  is 
a  more  dramatic  work  than  the  one  in  C 
minor,  and  in  some  respects  it  is  greater. 
It  was  first  sung  in  London  as  a  funeral 
service  in  the  Roman  Catholic  chapel  in 
Farm  Street.  Published  by  Frey  (Paris). 
— Bellasis,  Cherubini,  230,  334  ;  337-347  ; 
Grove,  iii.  Ill  ;  Monthly  Musical  Record 
(1872),  ii.  71 ;  AthenfBum  (1881),  i.  468. 

REQUIEM,  by  Gossec.  See  Messe  des 
Morts. 

REQUIEM,  for  chorus,  soli,  and  orches- 
tra, by  Mozart,  written  in  1791,  and  first  per- 
formed in  Jahn's  Hall,  Vienna,  1796.  This, 
the  composer's  last  work,  was  undertaken  in 
consequence  of  a  visit  in  July,  1791,  from  a 
mysterious  stranger,  who  brought  Mozart  a 
commission  to  write  a  Requiem  mass.  The 
\'isitor  was  Herr  Leutzeb,  the  steward  of 
the  Count  Franz  von  "Walsegg,  who,  having 
lost  his  wife,  wished  to  honor  her  memory 
by  a  funeral  mass,  which  he  proposed  to 
have  performed  as  his  own  composition. 
Owing  to  the  weakness  of  impaired  health, 
and  worn  with  overwork,  Mozart  soon  be- 
lieved that  this  strange  visitor  was  a  mes- 
senger from  the  other  world,  and  that  the 
mass  was  for  his  own  funeral.  This  ner- 
vousness probably  hastened  his  death  (Dec. 
5,  1791),  which  occurred  before  the  MS. 
was  finished.  His  widow,  fearing  that  she 
might  be  forced  to  refund  the  payment 
already  received  for  the  Requiem,  gave  the 
copy  to  the  Hof-Kapellmeister,  Joseph  von 
Eybler,  to  complete  ;  but,  after  filling  in 
the  instrumentation  as  far  as  the  Confutatis, 
and  wi'iting  two  measures  in  continuation  of 
the  Lacrymosa,  he  abandoned  the  task  in 
despair.  The  MS.  was  then  given  to  Franz 
Xaver  Siissmayer,  an  accomplished  musi- 
cian, intimate  with  Mozart's  methods  of 
working.  Mozart  had  completed  the  first 
two  movements,  the  Requiem  and  Kyrie,  in 
full  score,  and  the  Dies  irse,  excepting  the 
last  verse,  was  sketched  out  ;  the  voice 
parts    were    comj)letely  wi'itten   with    the 


S02 


EEQITIEM 


basso-continuo  ;  and  the  instrumental  jjarts 
where  the  accompaniment  is  independent. 
The  movements  of  the  Offertorium,  the 
Domine  Jesii  Christe,  and  the  Hostias  were 
also  partially  written.  Siissmayer's  task 
was  to  fill  in  the  necessary  instrumentation 
and  to  compose  the  Sanctiis,  Agnus  Dei, 
Benedictus,  and  the  concluding  part  of  the 
Lacrymosa.  He  made  a  skilful  transcript 
of  the  entire  Eequiem,  and  his  handwriting 
resembled  Mozart's  so  closely  that  Count 
von  Walsegg  accepted  the  MS.  with  the  be- 
lief that  it  was  in  the  autograph  of  the  great 
composer.  A  copy  of  the  MS.  was  in  the 
possession  of  Mozart's  widow,  who  sold  it 
to  Breitkopf  &  Hilrtel,  and  it  was  printed 
by  them  for  the  first  time  in  full  score 
(Leipsic,  1800).  Its  authenticity  was 
doubted  immediately.  Siissmayer  claimed 
to  have  completed  the  instrumentation  of 
the  Eequiem,  Kyrie,  Dies  irae,  and  Domine, 
and  to  have  composed  the  Sanctus,  Bene- 
dictus, and  Agnus  Dei.  In  182.5  Gottfried 
Weber  published  an  attack  on  the  Requiem, 
which  he  considered  unworthy  of  Mozart, 
and  attributed  the  whole  to  Siissmayer. 
Mml  von  Nissen  (Frau  Mozart)  afterward 
aided  Joliann  Andre  in  publishing  a  new 
edition  of  the  score  marked,  on  the  author- 
ity of  the  Abbe  Stadler,  M.  and  S.  to  distin- 
guish the  parts  written  by  Mozart  from 
those  by  Siissmayer  (Offenbach,  182G). 
Andre  published  also  Mozart's  original 
sketches  of  the  Dies  ivce,  Tuba  Mirum,  and 
Hostias  (ib.,  1829).  The  motif  of  the  first 
number  of  the  Requiem  is  the  same  as  that 
chosen  by  Handel  for  his  Queen  Caroline's 
Te  Deum,  which  has  the  old  choral,  "Herr 
Jesvi  Christ,  du  wahrer  Gott,"  or  "  Weuu 
mein  Stiindlein  vorhanden  ist,"  for  its  cantus 
firmus.  The  motif  of  the  Kyrie  is  the  same 
as  the  subject  of  the  chorus,  "Hallelujah 
we  will  rejoice  in  Thy  salvation,"  in  Han- 
del's Joseph,  and  the  chief  subject  of  the 
Kyrie  eleison  is  the  same  as  the  fugue 
"And  with  His  stripes"  in  the  Messiah. 
Haydn  said  :  "If  Mozart  bad  written  noth- 
ing   except    his  violin    quintets    and   his 


Requiem,  he  would  have  rendered  his  name 
immortal."  This  work  was  first  performed 
by  the  Siugakademie,  Berlin,  in  memory  of 
its  founder  Fasch,  Oct.  8,  1800  ;  in  memory 
of  the  Queen  of  Prussia  in  1805  ;  of  the 
Akademie  director  Frisch  in  1815  ;  of  Prince 
Radziwill  in  1833  ;  of  Count Briihl  in  1837  ; 
of  Friedrich  Wilhelm  III.  in  1840  ;  and  of 
Friedrich  Wilhelm  IV.  in  18G1  ;  and  in 
Paris  under  Cherubini  in  1801.  It  was 
given  also  in  Berlin  in  memory  of  Andreas 
Romberg  in  1821 ;  of  Bernard  Klein  in 
1823  ;  of  Ludwig  Berger  in  1839  ;  in  Leip- 
sic in  memory  of  Schicht  in  1821  ;  in  Lem- 
berg,  under  the  direction  of  Mozart's  son, 
on  the  anniversary  of  the  composer's  death, 
Jan.  5,  1827  ;  and  in  Vienna  on  the  anni- 
versary of  Weber's  death,  Sept.  5,  1826  ; 
and  of  Beethoven's,  April  3,  1827.  A  lover 
of  music  in  Venice  left  a  legacy  for  the  an- 
nual performance  of  three  Requiems,  in- 
cluding Mozart's  ;  and  a  society  was  founded 
in  1857  in  Senftenberg,  Bohemia,  to  per- 
form this  Requiem  annually  on  June  18th. 
It  was  given  in  Rio  Janeiro  in  1819  ;  by  the 
Handel  and  Haydn  Society,  Boston,  Jan. 
18,  1857,  and  by  the  Oratorio  Society  of 
New  York,  Dec.  1,  1887.  The  original 
score  was  obtained  gradually  by  the  Im- 
perial Library  of  Vienna.  In  1831:  the 
Abbe  Stadler  bequeathed  to  it  the  auto- 
graph of  the  Dies  irse,  with  the  excej)tion 
of  the  last  movement ;  von  Eybler  sent 
soon  afterward  the  MSS.  of  the  Lacrymosa, 
Domine  Jesu,  and  the  Hostias  ;  and  in  1838 
the  Library  purchased  the  entire  MS.  sold 
to  Count  Walsegg.  From  these  "  Ur- 
schriften,"  or  sketches,  it  is  proven  that  all 
of  Mozart's  work  is  extant,  and  that  these 
sketches  were  filled  in  by  Siissmayer,  who 
did  not  write  the  Eequiem  and  the  Kyrie 
as  he  claims  to  have  done.  An  edition  for 
the  pianoforte  without  words  was  published 
by  Hasliuger  (Vienna,  1828).  Other  edi- 
tions, by  Schlesinger  (Paris)  ;  by  Novello  & 
Co.  (London)  ;  and  by  Breitkopf  &  Hilrtel, 
Mozart  Werke,  Serie  xxiv.  No.  1.  Tran- 
scriptions of  the  Confutatis  and  Lacrymosa, 


KEQUIEM 


were  made  by  Liszt  for  the  pianoforte. 
— Kochel,  Verzeichniss,  No.  C2G  ;  Jahn, 
Mozart,  iv.  679-739,  775  ;  do.  (Townsend), 
iii.  352-392  ;  Nissen,  Mozart,  563,  573  (An- 
hang,  168)  ;  Oulibicheflf,  Mozart,  iii.  419 ; 
Fetia,  vi.  339  ;  Mosel,  Ueber  die  Origiual- 
Partitur  des  Kequicm  von  W.  A.  Mozart 
(Vienna,  1839)  ;  Habu,  Mozarts  Requiem 
(Bielefeld,  1867) ;  Rocblitz,  Fiu-  Freunde 
der  Tonkuust,  i.  159  ;  Lobe,  Comj)ositions- 
lehre,  iii.  195  ;  Sievers,  Mozart  und  Siiss- 
maier,  8  ;  Pobl,  The  Story  of  Mozart's  Re- 
quiem (London) ;  Erdmann,  Ergcbnisse  der 
bisberigen  Forscbungen  iiber  die  Ecbtbeit 
'des  Mozart'scben  Requiem  (2  vols.,  Sebott, 
Mainz,  1826-28) ;  Stadler,  M.,  Vertbeidigung 
der  Ecbtbeit  des  Mozart-Requiem  ;  Cilcilia, 
iii.  205-230  ;  iv.  120,  257-352  ;  v.  237  ;  vi. 
133,  193-230  ;  xiv.  147  ;  sx.  279  ;  Allgem. 
mus.  Zeitg.,  i.  147,  178  ;  iv.  2,  23  ;  sxv. 
685  ;  xxviii.  105,  729  ;  xxix.  519  ;  xxx.  209  ; 
xli.  81,  317  ;  xlii.  54  ;  Berliner  mus.  Zeitg. 
(1825),  370,  378,  389  ;  Neue  Zeits.,  x.  10  ; 
Grove,  iii.  110  ;  Upton,  Standard  Oratorios, 
230. 

REQUIEM,  Missa  pro  Defunctis,  by  Pa- 
lestriiia.  Tins  work,  wbicb  is  very  beauti- 
ful, was  left  incomplete  by  tbe  composer. 
It  consists  of  tbe  Kyric,  in  wbicb  tbe  Plain 
Cbaiint  of  tbe  Credo  is  so  plaintive  and  ten- 
der tbat  it  almost  conceals  tbe  enormous 
skill  displayed  in  tbe  contrapuntal  treat- 
ment ;  tbe  Oflfurtoriura  ;  Sanctus  ;  Benedic- 
tus  ;  and  tbe  Agnus  Dei.  Tbe  otber  num- 
bers are  supposed  to  bave  been  sung  in 
unison  Plain  Cbaunt,  still  tbe  custom  at 
Roman  funerals,  but  Palestriua  bas  left  two 
settings  of  tbe  Libera  me,  in  wbicb  tbe 
Gregorian  melody  is  exquisitely  treated. 
One  of  tbese  MSS.  is  in  tbe  Archives  of  tbe 
Pontifical  Cbapel,  Rome ;  tbe  otber  in  tbe 
Lateran  Basilica.  Tbis  work  was  first  pub- 
lished as  a  supplement  to  the  third  edition 
of  Palestrina's  "  First  Book  of  Masses " 
(Rome,  1591).  It  was  reprinted  by  Alfieri 
in  bis  "  Raccolta  di  Musica  Sacra,"  vob  I. 
(1841) ;  by  Latage,  "  Cinq  Messes  de  Pales- 
trina,"  pubUshed  by  Launer  &  Cie.  (Paris), 


and  by  Sebott  &  Co.  (London) ;  by  the 
Prince  de  la  Moskowa  (Josejjb  Napoleon 
Ney)  in  Vol.  IX.  of  bis  "  Recueil  des  mor- 
ceaux  de  musique  ancienue,"  etc.  ;  and  by 
Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Palestriua  Werke. 
—Grove,  iii.  109. 

REQUIEM  (The  Manzoui),  by  Verdi,  first 
performed  in  tbe  Church  of  San  Marco,  Mi- 
lan, May  22,  1874,  ou  tbe  anniversary  of 
Alessandro  Mauzoni's  death.  The  solos 
were  sung  by  Teresa  Stoltz,  soprano ;  Maria 
Waldinan,  alto  ;  Giuseppe  Capponi,  tenor ; 
and  Orniondo  Maini,  bass.  Soon  after 
Rossini's  death  (Nov.  13,  1868),  Verdi  con- 
ceived the  idea  that  tbe  Italian  composers 
should  unite  in  writing  a  Requiem  to  his 
memory,  to  be  performed  in  tbe  cathedral 
of  Bologna  every  centenary  of  Rossini's 
death,  and  at  no  other  place  and  on  no 
other  occasion.  The  numbers  were  as- 
signed as  follows :  I.  Requiem  aiternam, 
in  G  minor,  Buzzola ;  11.  Dies  irre,  in  C 
minor,  Bazziui  ;  m.  Tuba  mirum,  in  E-flat 
minor,  Pedrotti ;  IV.  Quid  sum  miser,  in 
A-flat,  Cagnoni ;  V.  Recordare,  in  F,  Ricci ; 
VI.  Ingeraisco,  in  A  minor.  Mini ;  VII.  Con- 
futatis,  in  D,  Bouchenon  ;  VIII.  Lacrymosa, 
in  G  and  C  minor,  Coccia  ;  IX.  Domino 
Jesu,  in  C,  Gaspari  ;  X.  Sanctus,  in  D-flat, 
Platania  ;  XI.  Agnus  Dei,  in  F,  Pctrella  ; 
XII.  Lux  iuterna,  in  A-flat,  Mabollini ;  and 
XTTT.  Libera  me,  in  C  minor,  Verdi. 
When  put  together  the  numbers  were  found 
to  be  so  different  in  treatment  and  style, 
tbat  tbe  work  was  condemned  as  incohe- 
rent and  so  wanting  in  unity  tbat  the  MSS. 
were  returned  to  tbe  various  composers. 
Signor  Mazzucato,  who  examined  the 
Requiem,  was  so  imjiressed  with  Verdi's 
contribution  that  be  entreated  him  to  com- 
pose an  entu-e  Requiem,  and  on  the  death 
of  bis  fi'iend,  the  poet  Manzoni,  in  1873, 
Verdi  wrote  this  work,  to  which  he  trans- 
ferred tbe  Libera  me  originally  intended 
for  the  Requiem  of  Rossini.  It  has  been 
enthusiastically  praised  by  Verdi's  admir- 
ers and  enthusiastically  denounced  by  the 
German  critics.     Hans  von  Biilow  calls  it 


S04 


EEQUIEM 


an  "  opera  in  ecclesiastical  costume."  I. 
Requiem  and  Kyrie  (quartet  and  chorus)  ; 
II.  Dies  Ir«!  (chorus),  Tuba  IVIirum  (chorus), 
Liber  scriptus  (chorus  and  fugue).  Quid 
sum  miser  (trio  for  soprano,  alto,  and 
tenor),  Rex  tremendse  (quartet  and  cho- 
rus), Recordare  (duo  for  soprano  and 
alto  with  chorus),  Ingemisco  (tenor  solo), 
Coufutatis  (bass  solo),  Lacrymosa  (quartet 
and  chorus) ;  III.  Domiue  Jesu  (quartet)  ; 
IV.  Sanctus  (fugued  double  chorus)  ;  V. 
Agnus  Dei  (duo  for  soprano  and  alto  with 
chorus) ;  VI.  Lux  roterna  (trio  for  alto,  tenor, 
and  bass) ;  VII.  Libera  me  (solo  for  so- 
prano, chorus,  and  final  fugue).  This  work 
was  given  in  Paris  under  Verdi's  direction, 
June  4,  1874  ;  in  London  at  the  Roj'al  Al- 
bert Hall,  under  Verdi's  direction.  May  15, 
1875.— Grove,  iv.  252  ;  Upton,  Standard  Ora- 
torios, 303  ;  Athenaeum  (1875),  i.  604, 
COG. 

REQUIEM  for  six  voices,  comjjosed  by 
Vittoria,  for  the  funeral  of  the  Empress 
Maria,  the  widow  of  Maximilian  IE.,  in  1G03. 
This  is  the  composer's  last  work  of  impor- 
tance, and  it  is  considered  the  "  greatest 
triumph  of  his  genius."  The  full  title  is 
"  Officium  Defunctorum  sex  vocibus,  in 
obitu  et  obsequiis  Sacrso  Imj)eratricis,"  and 
it  consists  of  a  G-part  Missa  pro  defunctis  ; 
a  G-part  Versa  est  in  luctum  ;  a  G-part  Re- 
spousorium,  Libera  ;  and  a  4-part  Lectio, 
Tajdet  anima.  The  movements  are  based 
on  the  Cautus  firmus,  but  the  music  is  sur- 
prisingly modern  on  account  of  its  j^ower- 
ful  harmony.  The  score,  dedicated  to  the 
Princess  Margaret,  daughter  of  the  Em- 
press, was  published  in  Madrid  in  1603. 
The  Lectio  was  reprinted  by  Joseph  Schrems 
in  continuation  of  Proske's  "Musica  divina" 
(Ratisbon,  1869).— Grove,  iii.  139  ;  iv.  316. 

REQUIEM  FUR  mGNON,  for  soH,  cho- 
rus, and  orchestra,  text  from  Goethe's 
"  Wilhehn  Meister,"  music  by  Schumann, 
op.  98  B,  composed  in  1849,  and  first  per- 
formed at  Diisseldorf,  Nov.  21,  1850.  It 
was  first  given  in  America  by  the  Arion 
Club,  Providence,  Dec.   2,    1885.     This  is 


one  of  Schumann's  most  delicate  and  sym- 
pathetic compositions.  First  published  by 
Breitkopf  &  Hilrtel  (Leipsic).  Breitkopf  & 
Hiirtel,  Schumann  Werke,  Serie  ix.,  No.  6. 
— Reissmann,  Schumann,  180  ;  Neue 
Zeitschr.,  xxxv.  219. 

RESTA,  O  CARA,  aria  for  soprano  with 
orchestra,  in  C,  by  Mozart,  composed  for 
Mme  Duschek  in  Prague,  Nov.  3,  1787. 
Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel,  Mozart  Werke,  Serie 
vi.,  No.  37. — Kuchel,  Verzeichniss,  528  ; 
Jahn,  Mozart,  iv.  304. 

RESURRECTION,  THE,  oratorio  in  two 
parts,  text  by  Dr.  E.  G.  Monk,  music  by  Sir 
George  Alexander  Macfarren,  first  per- 
formed at  the  Birmingham  (England)  Festi- 
val in  August,  1876.  It  was  sung  by  Mr. 
Santley,  Mr.  Lloyd,  Mme  Lemmens,  and 
Mme  Patey,  and  conducted  by  Walter  Mac- 
farren, brother  of  the  composer.  Other 
oratorios  on  this  subject:  in  German  by 
Eberlin,  Salzburg,  about  1756 ;  in  English 
by  Samuel  Arnold,  London,  1777. — Athen- 
Kum  (1876),  ii.  314. 

RESURREZIONE,  LA,  (The  Resurrec- 
tion), Italian  oratorio  in  two  parts,  text 
founded  on  Scriptural  narrative,  music  by 
Handel.  The  author  of  the  simple  and  dra- 
matic libretto  is  unknown.  This,  Handel's 
first  oratorio,  differs  but  slightly  from  the 
ordinaiy  operas  of  that  period.  It  is  dated 
"  Roma  la  Festa  di  Pasque  dal  Marche,  e 
Ruspoli  (11  d'  Aprile)  1768."  It  was  written 
in  the  palace  of  the  Marchese  di  Ruspoli,  and 
is  supposed  to  have  been  first  performed  in 
the  jjalace  of  Cardinal  Pietro  Ottoboni. 
The  first  violin  part,  which  is  of  special 
prominence,  is  said  to  have  been  played 
by  Coi-eUi.  The  string  orchestra  is  some- 
times divided  into  six  j)arts,  the  first  and 
second  violins  being  subdivided.  Charac- 
ters represented  :  Angelo  (S.)  ;  Maddalena 
(S.) ;  Cleofe  (A.) ;  San  Giovanni  (T.)  ;  Luci- 
fero  (B.);  and  Voce  (S.).  The  original 
score,  in  Buckingham  Palace,  was  first  pub- 
lished by  Ai-nold  (London,  1797) ;  Chry- 
sander's  edition  for  the  German  Hiindel- 
geseUschaft,  Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel   (Leipsic, 


ao6 


RE   TEODORO 


1878).— Chrysander,  Handel,  i.  2U  ;  Rock- 
stro,  52  ;  Schcelcber,  19. 

E£  TEODORO  m  \^NEZL\,  IL  (King 
Theodore  in  Venice),  Italian  opera  bufl'a, 
text  by  Casti,  music  by  Paisiello,  first  rej)- 
resented  in  Vienna,  Aug.  23,  1784.  This 
opera,  which  contains  some  of  the  com- 
poser's best  music,  was  written  for  the  Em- 
peror of  Austria,  Joseph  11.  The  septet 
became  very  popular.  The  work  was  given 
at  the  Theatre  Feydeau,  Paris,  Feb.  21, 
1789.  The  hero  is  Theodorich,  King  of 
the  Goths,  called  by  the  German  Minne- 
singer, Dietrich  von  Bern.  Other  Italian 
operas  on  this  subject :  Teodorico,  by  Gio- 
vanni Porta,  text  by  Salvi,  Venice,  1720  ; 
by  Giuseppe  Maria  Buiui,  Bologna,  1729  ;  II 
Teodoro,  by  Stefano  Pavesi,  test  by  Rossi, 
Venice,  1813  ;  and  II  re  Teodoro  in  Venezia, 
by  Luigi  Finali,  Parma,  December,  182G. 

RETURN,  OH  GOD  OF  HOSTS,  alto 
aria  of  Micah,  in  E-flat  major,  with  accom- 
paniment of  two  violins  and  bass,  in  Han- 
del's Samson,  Act  H.,  Scene  1.  Published 
also  separately,  with  the  accompaniment 
filled  out  by  Otto  Dresel  (Leij)sic,  Breit- 
kopf  &  Hiirtel). 

REUBKE,  JULIUS,  born  at  Hausnein- 
dorf,  near  Quedliuburg,  IMarch  23,  183G, 
died  at  Pillnitz,  Saxony,  June  3,  1858. 
Pianist,  pupil  of  Kullak,  and  in  composi- 
tion of  Marx  in  Berlin,  then  studied  under 
Liszt  at  Weimar,  and  became  one  of  his 
favourite  puijils.  Works  :  Grand  sonata  for 
pianoforte  (dedicated  to  Liszt) ;  Psalm  xciv. ; 
Sonata  for  organ,  etc.  His  brother  Otto 
(born  Nov.  2, 1842),  is  virtuoso  on  the  organ 
and  pianoforte,  pupil  of  Bulow  and  Mai-x, 
and  lives  at  Halle  as  conductor  of  a  musical 
society. 

REULING,  WILHELM,  born  at  Darm- 
stadt, Dec.  22,  1802,  died  at  Munich,  April 
27,  1877.  Dramatic  composer,  pupil  of 
Rinck,  then  in  Vienna  of  Seyfried  and  of 
Emanuel  Fijrster.  The  gi-eat  success  of 
some  compositions  for  the  Josej^hstadt 
Theater  led  to  his  appointment  in  1829 
as    its   Kapellmeister.      He   occupied   the 


same  position  at  the  Kiirnthnerthor  Theater 
in  1830-54,  and  retired  to  his  native  city, 
devoting  himself  exclusively  to  composition. 
Works — Operas  :  Ulysses  ;  Die  Riiuber- 
hOhle ;  Der  blinde  Harfuer,  Die  Feuer- 
braut,  given  at  Trieste,  1829  ;  Alfred  der 
Grosse,  Vienna,  1840  ;  Der  letzte  Graf  von 
Anxor.  Ballets,  1830-3G  :  Die  Vestalin ; 
Clorinde  ;  Oberon  ;  Der  Kobold  ;  Soj)hie, 
Grossfiirstin  von  Moskau ;  Der  Rekrut ; 
Die  Heimkehr  ;  etc.  Many  operettas,  pan- 
tomimes, and  Singspiele  ;  Fest-Ouvertiire  ; 
Couzert-Ouvertiire  ;  Adagio  et  Rondo  con- 
certant,  for  flute,  oboe,  clarinet,  horn,  and 
bassoon,  with  orchestra ;  Octet  for  piano- 
forte, strings,  flute,  clarinet,  and  horn  ;  3 
quartets  for  pianoforte  and  strings  ;  3  trios 
for  do.  ;  Other  chamber  music ;  Cantatas, 
and  choruses  for  male  and  mixed  voices. 
— Wurzbach. 

REUTER,  ROMANUS,  born  at  Kallmiinz, 
near  Ratisbon,  in  1755,  died  in  the  Abbey 
of  Priifening  in  1800.  Benedictine  monk  ; 
at  fii'st  a  choir  boy  in  the  Abbey  of  Priife- 
ning, then  pupil  of  Schuhbauer  in  the  semi- 
nary at  Neuburg  on  the  Danube.  Having 
studied  philosophy  at  Ambei"g,  he  entered 
the  Abbey  of  his  order,  and  greatly  im^ 
proved  the  standard  of  the  much  neglected 
choir.  Works :  Naboth's  Weinberg,  melo- 
drama ;  Masses,  motets,  sonatas  for  harjisi- 
chord. — Fetis  ;  Mendel. 

REUTTER,  GEORG,  the  elder,  born  in 
Vienna  in  1G56,  died  there,  Aug.  29,  1738. 
Organist  and  theorbist,  became  organist  of 
St.  Stephen's  in  1G8G  ;  played  the  theorbo 
in  the  court  chapel  in  1G97-1703  ;  was 
made  court  and  chamber  organist  in  1700  ; 
succeeded  Fux  as  Kajjellmeister  at  the 
Gnadenbild  of  St.  Stephen's  in  1712,  and 
three  years  later  was  ajjpointed  Kapell- 
meister of  the  Cathedral  itself.  In  1095 
he  was  made  a  knight  in  Rome  by  Count 
Francesco  Sforza.  Woi-ks  :  Miserere  a  due 
cori  air  uso  romano ;  Organ  toccatas  and 
fugues  in  manuscript ;  Requiem  and  mass 
in  Berlin  Library. — !Mendel  ;  Wurzbach  ; 
Riemann  ;  Gerbcr  ;  Schilling. 


S06 


REUTTER 


REUTTER,    GEORG  (KARL),  the— Clement  et  Larousse,   810;  Atlienffium 
younger,  born    in  Vienna,  Ajoril   6,    1708,    (1870),  i.  31. 

died  there,  March  12,  1772.  Sou  and  pupil  REVENGE,  THE,  ballad  for  chorus  and 
of  Georg  Reutter,  was  appointed  in  1731  orchestra,  test  from  Tennyson,  music  by 
court  composer.     In  1738  he  succeeded  his   Charles  Villiers   Stanford,  first   performed 


father  as  Kapellmeister  of  St.  Stephen's,  in 
17i6  became  second  court  Kaj)ellmeister, 


at  Leeds,  England,   Oct.    14,   188G.     Pub- 
lished   by   NoYello    (London). — Athenseum 


acted  from  1751  as  chief  court  Kaj)ellmeis-   (1886),  ii.  541. 

ter,  and  received  the  title  in  1769  on  the  \  REVENGE,  TIMOTHEUS  CRIES,  bass 
death  of  Predieri.  It  was  during  his  time  aria  in  D  major,  with  accompaniment  of 
that  the  court  chapel  of  Vienna  sank  to  its  trumpet,  2  oboes,  and  strings  complete,  in 
lowest  ebb  of  efficiency,  partly  in  con-  Handel's  Alexander's  Feast,  Part  II.,  No. 
sequence    of   administrative   changes.     He  \  12.     The  second  j)art  of   this   air,  Behold 


engaged  the  boy  Haydn  for  the  choir  of 
St.  Stei^hen's,  and  treated  him  very  badly. 
In  1731  he  married  the  singer,  Theresia 
Holzliauser,  and  in  1740  he  was  ennobled. 
His  compositions  were  more  showy  than 
substantial,  and  are  now  almost  forgotten. 
Works :  La  forza  dell'  amicizia,  opera  (with 
Caldara),  Vienna,  1728  ;  La  pazienza  di 
Socrate  con  due  mogli,  a  dramatic  diver- 
tissement (do.),  1731  ;  Le  C'inesi,  operetta 
in  one  act,  text  by  Metastasio,  Vienna, 
1735  ;  La  gara,  operetta  in  one  act,  text 
by  Metastasio,  Vienna,  1755  ;  La  divina 
Providenza  in  Ismael,  oratorio  ;  R  ritorno 
di  Tobia,  do.;  Belulia  liberata,  do.,  1734; 
Masses  ;  Augurio  di  felicita,  cantata  for  three 


a  ghastly  band,  in  G  minor  (marked  No. 
18,  as  a  separate  air,  in  Mozart's  score),  is 
accompanied  by  two  violas,  violoncelU  ri- 
pieni,  three  bassoons,  and  bass. 

REY,  JEAN    BAPTISTE,   born  at  Lau- 
zerte  (Tarn-et-Garonne),  Dec.  18, 1784,  died 
in  Paris,  July    15,    1810.     Dramatic   com- 
poser,   educated    at  the   Abbey   of   Saint- 
Sernin,  where   he   was   a   choir   boy.     At 
the   age    of   seventeen   he   became   maitre 
de  chapelle  of  the  cathedral  at  Auch,  and 
in   1754  chef  d'orehestre  at  the  opera  in 
Toulouse.     Ha^ang  filled  similar  positions 
at  Montpellier,   Marseilles,  Bordeaux,  and 
Nantes  until   1776,   he  was  summoned  to 
Paris,  where  he  conducted  the  Opura  orches- 
tra  for   thirty  years,  at  first  assisting 
Francceur,  and  from  1781  as  his  suc- 
cessor.      In    1781-85    he    conducted 

^^C'T^'li^'r^f*^^  ^^®°   ^^®   Concerts    Spirituels,  and  in 
^  •       1770    was    annointed    director    of    the 


l^c^^l^^ 


voices,  text  by  Metastasio,  Schonbrunn, 
1749  ;  Other  cantatas  for  different  occasions  ; 
Motets,  and  other  music. — Wurzbach  ;  Men- 
del ;  Schilling  ;  Rieraanu  ;  Futis  ;  Burney, 
Present  State  of  Music  in  Germany,  i.  356. 

RfiVE  D'AMOUR  (A  Dream  of  Love), 
opera-comique  in  three  acts,  text  by  Den- 
nery  and  Cormon,  music  by  Auber,  first 
represented  at  the  Opera  Comique,  Paris, 
Dec.  20,  1869.  This  is  Auber's  last  opera. 
Capoul,  Gailhard,  Sainte-Foy,  Prilleux, 
Mile  Priola,  Mile  Girard,  and  JRle  Nau 
appeared  in  the  original  cast.  The  opera 
was  given  in  London  in  December,  1869. 


1779  was  appointed  director  of  the 
chamber  music  by  Louis  XVI.  He  lost 
his  post  through  the  Revolution,  but  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  administrative 
committee  of  the  Opera  in  1792,  and  ap- 
pointed professor  at  the  Conservatoire  in 
1794.  As  an  adherent  of  Rameau's  and  an 
opponent  of  Catel's  system,  he  was  pensioned 
at  the  reduction  of  the  faculty  in  1802,  but 
in  1804  was  appointed  maitre  de  chapelle 
by  Napoleon.  Works  :  Apollon  et  Coronis, 
Paris,  1781  ;  Diane  et  Endymion,  ib.,  1791 ; 
3d  act  to  Sacchini's  Arvire  ed  Evelina  ;  Bal- 
let music  in  Salieri's  Tarare  ;  do.  in  Sac- 
chini's (Edipe  a  Colone ;  Masses  with  or- 


807 


RET 


chestra,  motets,  etc.  His  brother,  Louis 
Charles  Joseph  (1738-1811),  was  for  forty 
years  violoucellist  at  the  Opera  in  Paris, 
and  published  trios  and  duos  for  violin  and 
violoncello. — Fetis  ;  Mendel  ;  Eiemann. 

EEY,  JEAN  £TIENNE,  born  at  Tou- 
louse, Aug.  3,  1832,  still  living,  1890.  Dra- 
matic composer,  pupil  at  the  Conservatoii-e, 
Paris,  of  Carafa  in  composition,  and  of 
Rovial  in  singing  ;  obtained  an  accessit  de 
chant  in  1854,  and  in  1855  mamed  Mile 
Balla,  the  singer,  who  had  won  in  1854  the 
second  prize.  In  the  following  year  she 
was  awarded  the  first  prize  in  singing  in 
opera  and  opora-comique,  and  received  a 
promising  engagement  to  travel.  Her  hus- 
band thenceforth  gave  up  his  own  profes- 
sional career  as  a  singer,  and  while  travelling 
with  her  thi'ough  Italy,  Belgium,  Spain, 
and  Portugal,  gave  much  time  to  composi- 
tion, some  of  his  best  works  being  brought 
out  in  the  principal  cities  of  those  countries. 
After  her  death  he  remained  in  Paris,  de- 
voting himself  to  composition  in  various 
branches.  Works — Operas  :  La  gitana, 
Bordeaux,  1864  ;  J'ai  coupe  le  roi ;  L'a- 
mour  villageois  ;  Stribor  ;  Le  taUsman  des 
sultanes,  opera-bouffe  ;  Balthazar ;  Irene. 
Le  mai'tyre  de  Saint-Saturniu,  oratorio,  Tou- 
louse, 1856  ;  Choruses  for  4  male  voices  ; 
12  sacred  melodies  for  one  voice  ;  Sacred 
choruses  for  4  male  voices ;  and  other  vocal 
music  in  every  style  ;  Eequiem  mass  for  4 
male  voices,  and  other  church  music  ;  7 
symphonies  for  orchestra  ;  Many  pieces  for 
pianoforte,  violin,  and  other  instruments. 
He  has  published  also  a  Methode  de  chant, 
and  easy  sonatas  for  the  pianoforte,  and 
violin,  for  beginners,  etc. — Fetis,  SuppU'- 
ment,  ii.  406  ;  Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  385. 

REYER,  LOUIS  fiTIENNE  ERNEST 
(Rey,  called),  bom  at  Marseilles,  Dec.  1, 
1823,  still  living,  1890.  Dramatic  composer, 
and  writer  on  music,  pupU  at  Barsotti's 
music  school  in  Marseilles ;  entered  the 
government  service  in  Algiers  and  did  not 
take  up  music  as  a  profession  until  1848, 
when  he  went  to  Paris,  and  became  a  pupil 


of  Mme  Farrene,  his  aunt.  He  is  deemed, 
by  his  countrymen,  one  of  the  most  prom- 
inent representa- 
tives of  the  modern 
French  romantic 
school.  As  a  writer 
he  has  won  reputation 
as  a  worthy  successor 
of  Berlioz,  whom  he 
replaced  as  librarian 
of  the  Grand  Opera. 
He  is  also  musical  edi- 
tor of  the  Journal  des 
Debats,  where  he  succeeded  d'Ortigue,  who 
followed  Berlioz  in  that  position.  His  prin- 
cipal articles  have  been  published  under 
the  title  "  Notes  de  musique  "  (Paris,  1875). 
Member  of  the  Academy,  1876  ;  Legion  of 
Honour,  1862,  Officer,  1886.  Works— Ope- 
ras :  Maitre  Wolfram,  Theatre  Lyrique, 
1854,  Opera  Comique,  1873  ;  La  statue,  ib., 
1861,  Opera  Comique,  1878  ;  Sacountala, 
ballet,  1858,  EroMrate,  Baden-Baden,  1862, 
Paris,  1871  ;  Sigurd,  Theatre  de  la  Monnaie, 
Bi-ussels,  1884,  Opera,  Paris,  1885  ;  Sa- 
lammbo,  founded  on  Flaubert's  romance, 
Theatre  de  la  Monnaie,  Brussels,  Feb.  1, 
1890.  Vicloire,  cantata,  Paris,  1859 ;  Le 
Selam,  ode-symphony,  1850  ;  L'union  des 
arts,  hymn  ;  Salve  Regiua  ;  Ave  Maria  ;  O 
salutaris,  etc.  —  Fetis  ;  Supplement,  ii.  ? 
Mendel,  Ergiinz.,  313  ;  Riemann. 

RHAPSODIE  D'AU\T:RGNE,  for  piano- 
forte and  orchestra,  in  C,  by  Saiut-Saens,  op. 
73.  The  score,  dedicated  to  Louis  Diemer, 
is  pubUshed  by  Durand,  Schcenewerk  &  Cie 
(Paris). 

RHAPSODIES  HONGROISES  (Hun- 
garian Rhapsodies),  fifteen  works  for  the 
pianoforte  by  Franz  Liszt.  I.  in  E-flat, 
dedicated  to  E.  Zerdaheli  ;  H.  in  C-sharp 
!  minor  and  F-sharp,  dedicated  to  Count  La- 
dislas  Teleki,  also  for  four  hands,  and  an 
easy  edition  for  two  hands  ;  HI.  in  B-flat, 
dedicated  to  Count  Leo  Festetics  ;  IV.  in 
E-flat,  dedicated  to  Count  Casimir  Eszter- 
hiizy  ;  V.  Huroide  elogiaque  in  E  minor, 
dedicated  to  the  Countess  Sidonie  Reviczky ; 


EHAW 


VI.  in  D-flat,  deflicfited  to  Count  Antoine 
d'Appouyi  ;  VII.  in  D  minor,  dedicated  to 
Baron  Fery  Orczy  ;  VIII.  in  F-sharp  minor, 
dedicated  to  M.  A.  d'Augusz  ;  IX.  in  E-flat, 
Le  carnaval  de  Pe.sth,  dedicated  to  H.  W. 
Ernst ;  X.  Preludio  in  E,  dedicated  to 
Egre.s.sy  B6ny ;  XI.  in  A  minor,  dedicated 
to  Baron  Fery  Orczy  ;  XII.  in  C-sLarp  minor, 
dedicated  to  Josef  Joachim  ;  XTTT.  in  A 
minor,  dedicated  to  Count  Leo  Festetics ; 

XIV.  in  F  minor,  dedicated  to  Hans  von 
Billow ;  XV.  in  A  minor,  Rakoczy-Marscli. 
Nos.  I.  and  11.  published  by  B.  Seufif  (Leip- 
sic) ;  No.  n.  arranged  for  orchestra  by  K. 
Miiller-Berghaus  (ib.) ;  Nos.  IE.,  IV.,  V.,  VI., 
and  VII.  published  by  C.  Haslinger  (Vienna), 
and  by  Schlesiuger  (Berlin)  ;  Nos.  VIII.,  IX., 
and  X.  by  Schott  (Mainz) ;  and  Nos.  XL,  XII., 
Xni.,  XIV.,  and  XV.  by  Schlesinger  (Ber- 
lin). Nos.  XI.,  Xn.,  Xin.,  XIV.,  and  XV.  are 
arranged  for  the  pianoforte  for  four  hands 
by  F.  G.  Jansen  (Schlesinger,  Berlin) ;  No. 

XV.  for  eight  hands  by  August  Horn  (ib.)  ; 
and  No.  XH.  for  violin  and  pianoforte  by 
J.  Joachim  (Sehuberth,  Leipsic).  Nos.  II., 
v.,  VI.,  IX.,  XII.,  and  XIV.  were  arranged  for 
full  orchestra  by  Franz  Liszt  and  F.  Dop- 
pler ;  I.  (No.  XIV.),  in  F  minor,  dedicated  to 
Hans  von  Billow  ;  H.  (No.  XII.),  transposed 
to  D  minor,  dedicated  to  J.  Joachim  ;  HI. 
(No.  VI.),  transposed  to  D,  dedicated  to 
Count  Antoine  d'Apponyi ;  IV.  (No.  II.), 
transposed  to  D  minor  and  G,  dedicated  to 
Count  Ladislas  Teleki ;  V.  (No.  V.),  in  E 
minor,  dedicated  to  Sidonie  Eeviczky  ;  and 
VI.  (No.  IX.),  transposed  to  D,  dedicated  to 
H.  W.  Ernst,  Pester  Carnaval.  Published 
by  Sehuberth  (Leipsic).  Arrangement  for 
the  pianoforte  for  four  hands  by  Liszt  (ib.) ; 
for  eight  hands  by  August  Horn. — Neue 
Zeitschr.,  xli.  2G9  ;  Weitzmann,  Geschichte 
des  Clavierspiels,  IGl. 

RHAW  (Rhau),  GEOEG,  born  at  Eisfeld, 
Franconia,  in  1488,  died  in  Wittenberg, 
Aug.  6,  15-48.  Church  composer,  cantor 
until  1520  at  the  Thomasschule  in  Leipsic, 
where  a  mass  for  twelve  voices  and  a  Te 
Deum  of  his  composition  were  executed  on 


the  occasion  of  Luther  and  Eck's  disputa- 
tion. In  1524  he  established  a  printing 
press  at  Wittenberg,  principally  for  bring- 
ing out  the  works  of  Protestant  composers. 
He  also  published  a  theoretical  work,  En- 
chiridion musices  (1518-20). — Futis  ;  Men- 
del ;  Riemann. 

RHEIN,  CHARLES  LAURENT,  born  at 
Toulouse,  Feb.  24,  1798,  died  in  Paris,  Oc- 
tober, 1864.  Pianist,  nej)hew  of  the  flutist 
Friedrich  Rhein  (1771-98)  ;  first  instructed 
by  his  father,  a  pianist  and  oboe  player, 
then  pupil  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire  of 
Pradher  on  the  pianoforte,  of  Dourlen  in 
harmony,  and  of  Eeicha  in  composition. 
In  1817  he  won  the  second  prize  for  piano- 
forte, in  1818  the  first,  and  then  taught  un- 
til 1832  in  Paris.  After  a  concert  tour 
through  the  south  of  France,  he  settled  in 
1836  at  Bordeaux,  then  lived  at  Lyons,  and 
afterwards  returned  to  Paris.  Works  :  So- 
natas for  pianoforte  and  violin  ;  Roudoletto 
for  do. ;  Duos  for  do.  ;  Sonatas  for  piano- 
forte and  flute  ;  Duos  for  harp  and  piano- 
foi-te  ;  Duos,  fantaisies,  rondeaux,  etudes, 
etc.,  for  pianoforte. — Ft'tis. 

RHEINBERGER,  JOSEPH  (GABRIEL), 
born  at  Vaduz,  in  the 
principality  of  Liech- 
tenstein, March  17, 
1839,  still  living, 
1890.  The  sou  of 
the  receiver  of  rev- 
enues for  the  princi- 
pality, he  began  to 
play  the  pianoforte  at 
the  age  of  five,  and  at 
seven  played  the  organ  quite  well,  and  had 
already  tried  his  hand  at  composition.  He 
studied  first  under  PiJhly,  then  at  the  Royal 
Music  School  in  Munich,  in  1851-58,  under 
Herzog,  Leonhard,  and  J.  J.  Maier.  After 
graduation  he  became  teacher  of  pianoforte 
at  the  Music  School,  and  in  1859  teacher  of 
theory.  Shortly  before  this  he  was  ap- 
pointed organist  at  the  Hofkirche  of  St. 
Michael,  and  director  of  the  Oratorienverein. 
From  1865  to  1867  he  was  repetitor  at  the 


S09 


EHEINEK 


Court  Opera,  and,  on  relinquisliing  this 
post,  was  made  professor  and  inspector  at 
the  Music  School,  and  Hof-Kapellmeister, 
conducting  the  choir  of  the  royal  chapel, 
but  not  the  opera.  He  has  for  years  taught 
composition  and  advanced  organ  playing 
at  the  Music  School,  and 
counts  many  of  the  young- 
er generation  of  German 
and  American  composers 
among  his  pupils,  notably 
George  W.  Chadwick  and 
Horatio  W.  Parker.  Eheiuberger  has  long 
stood  in  the  front  rank  of  contemporary 
German  composers ;  although  his  talent 
is  not  marked  by  especial  originality, 
and  one  finds  a  certain  dryness  of  inspira- 
tion in  much  that  he  has  written,  his  un- 
usually solid  musical  education,  and  his 
rare  mastery  over  the  technique  of  com- 
position, have  gone  far  to  compensate  his 
natural  shortcomings.  His  writing,  too, 
is  marked  by  great  refinement,  and  sound 
musicianly  feeling.  He  has  not  been  a 
very  voluminous  composer,  his  most  note- 
worthy works  being :  Ghristoforus,  or- 
atorio, op.  120  ;  Toggenhiirg,  cantata,  o\). 
76  ;  Waldmorgen,  do.  ;  Klilrchen  auf  Eber- 
stein,  do.,  op.  97 ;  Konig  Erich,  ballad, 
for  chorus  with  pianoforte,  op.  71  ;  Witie- 
kind,  do.,  op.  102  ;  Das  Tlial  des  Espingo, 
do.  ;  Requiem  for  those  who  fell  in  the 
Franco-Prussian  "War,  op.  GO  ;  2  Stabat 
Mater  ;  Mass  for  double  chorus,  dedicated 
to  Leo  XHL,  oji.  100  ;  Die  sieben  Eaben, 
romantic  opera,  op.  20,  Munich,  May  23, 
1869  ;  Music  to  Calderon's  Magico  prodi- 
gioso,  op.  30  ;  do.  to  Eaimund's  Die  unheil- 
briugende  Krone  ;  Thiirmer's  TOchterlein, 
comic  opera,  op.  70,  Munich,  April  23,  1873 ; 
Wallendein,  symphonisches  Tongemillde,  op. 
10  ;  Florenlinische  Sinfonie  ;  Fantasia  for 
orchestra,  op.  70  ;  Concerto  for  pianoforte 
and  orchestra  in  A-flat,  op.  94  ;  do.  for  or- 
gan, strings,  and  3  horns ;  Overture  to 
Der  Widerspenstigen  Ziihmung  (Taming 
of  the  Shrew),  op.  17  ;  Do.  to  Dcmrtrius, 
op.   110  ;    ?Hwwip/i-Ouverture  ;    Nonet   for 


flute,  oboe,  clarinet,  bassoon,  horn,  and 
strings,  op.  139  ;  Theme  with  50  variations 
for  string  quartet,  op.  Gl  ;  Quartet  in  E- 
flat,  for  pianoforte,  violin,  viola,  and  violon- 
cello, op.  38  ;  Symphonische  Senate  for  pi- 
anoforte, op.  47  ;  9  Organ  sonatas  ;  Much 


pianoforte  music,  songs,  and  part-songs. 
— Kiemann  ;  Fctis,  Supplement ;  Grove. 

EHEINEK,  CHEISTOPH,  born  at  Mem- 
mingen,  Nov.  1,  1748,  died  there  in  1796. 
Dramatic  composer,  entered  upon  a  com- 
mercial careei",  lived  for  some  time  at  Lyons 
and  in  Paris,  then  returned  to  his  native 
place  to  keep  an  inn  left  him  by  his  father. 
Works  :  Le  nouveau  Pygmalion,  opera-co- 
mique,  Lyons  ;  Le  fils  reconnaissant,  do.,  ib. ; 
Einaldo,  grand  opera  (German),  Memmin- 
gen,  1779  ;  Der  Todesgang  Jesu,  oratorio, 
1778  ;  Mass  ;  6  concertos  for  pianoforte  ;  4 
collections  of  songs,  etc. — Fotis  ;  Mendel. 

EHEINGOLD,  DAS  (The  Ehine-Gold), 
music  drama  in  four  scenes,  by  Eichard 
Wagner,  first  represented  (without  the  au- 
thor's authorization)  at  the  Hofoper  in  Mu- 
nich, Sept.  22,  18G9  ;  the  first  regular  per- 
formance was  at  Bayreuth,  Aug.  13,  1876. 
The  first  drama  (Vorabend)  in  Der  Ring  des 
Nibelungen.  The  original  Munich  cast  was 
as  follows : 

Wotan August  Kindermann. 

Donner. Herr  Heinrich. 

Froh Franz  Nachbaur. 

Loge Heinrich  Vogl. 

Alberich Emil  Fischer. 

Mime Carl  Schlosser. 

Fasolt Herr  Polzer. 

Fafner Herr  Bausewein. 

Fricka Fri.  Stehle. 

Freia Frl.  Miiller. 

Erda Frl.  Seehofer. 

WogUnde 


RHEINGOLD 


Wellgunde Fran  Vogel. 

Flosshilde Frl.  Eitter. 

The  original  Bayreuth  cast  was  : 

Wotan Franz  Betz. 

Donner Eugen  Gura. 

Frob Georg  Uuger. 

Loge Heinrich  Vogl. 

Alberich Carl  Hill. 

Mime Carl  Schlosser. 

Fasolt Albert  Filers. 

Fafner Franz  von  Reichenberg. 

Fricka Friedericke  Griin. 

Freia Marie  Haupt. 

Erda Luise  Jaide. 

Wogliude Lilli  Lebmann. 

Wellgunde Marie  Lebmann. 

Flossbilde Minna  Lammert. 

In  tbe  deptbs  of  tbe  Ebine  lies  a  nugget  of 
gold,  jealously  guarded  by  tbe  three  Ebine- 
daugbters,  Wogliude,  Wellgunde,  and  Floss- 
bilde. Whoever  shall  gain  possession  of  this 
gold,  and  fashion  it  into  a  ring,  shall  hav